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Appendix A Regulations Relevant to Self-Escape T he text in this appendix is excerpted from the Code of Federal Regu- lations on mine emergencies and training. It is taken from two major sections of Part 30: • 30 CFR § 75 sets forth safety standards compliance with which is mandatory in each underground coal mine subject to the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977. Some standards also are ap- plicable to surface operations. Regulations and criteria supplemen- tary to these standards also are set forth in this part. • 30 CFR § 48 sets forth training and retraining of miners which includes new miner training; experienced miner training; annual refresher training; task training; and hazard training. Mine safety training in the United States is regulated by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). Regulations mandate which min- ers must be trained; how much training is required; who may pro- vide the training; and the subject areas that need to be covered by the training. They also require certification that training has been completed as well as impose record keeping requirements. 129

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130 IMPROVING SELF-ESCAPE FROM UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Topics covered in the following pages include • escapeway requirements—number, location, size, conditions (p. 130) • lifeline requirements (p. 131) • primary escapeway conditions (p. 132) • alternate escapeway (p. 133) • mechanical escape facilities (p. 134) • responsible person duties during emergency evacuations (p. 136) • emergency preparedness program (p. 137) • quarterly evacuation drills (p. 139) • escapeway maps (p. 142) • refuge alternatives (p. 142) • communications (p. 148) • training of new miners (p. 149) • experienced miner training (p. 152) • annual refresher training (p. 154) [ESCAPEWAY REQUIREMENTS—NUMBER, LOCATION, SIZE, CONDITIONS] § 75.380 Escapeways; bituminous and lignite mines. (61 FR 9829, Mar. 11, 1996; 61 FR 20877, May 8, 1996, as amended at 61 FR 55527, Oct. 25, 1996; 69 FR 17530, Apr. 2, 2004; 71 FR 12269, Mar. 9, 2006; 71 FR 71452, Dec. 8, 2006; 73 FR 80613, Dec. 31, 2008) (a) Except in situations addressed in § 75.381, § 75.385 and § 75.386, at least two separate and distinct travelable passageways shall be designated as escapeways and shall meet the requirements of this section. (b) (1) Escapeways shall be provided from each working section, and each area where mechanized mining equipment is being installed or removed, continuous to the surface escape drift opening or continuous to the escape shaft or slope facilities to the surface. (2) During equipment installation, these escapeways shall begin at the projected location for the section loading point. During equipment removal, they shall begin at the location of the last loading point. (c) The two separate and distinct escapeways required by this section shall not end at a common shaft, slope, or drift opening, except that multiple compartment shafts or slopes separated by walls constructed of noncom- bustible material may be used as separate and distinct passageways. (d) Each escapeway shall be—

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APPENDIX A 131 (1) Maintained in a safe condition to always assure passage of anyone, including disabled persons; (2) Clearly marked to show the route and direction of travel to the surface; (3) Maintained to at least a height of 5 feet from the mine floor to the mine roof, excluding the thickness of any roof support, except that the escapeways shall be maintained to at least the height of the coalbed, excluding the thickness of any roof support, where the coalbed is less than 5 feet. . . . When there is a need to determine whether sufficient height is provided, MSHA may require a stretcher test where 4 persons carry a miner through the area in question on a stretcher; (4) Maintained at least 6 feet wide [with some exceptions where no less than 4 feet wide is allowed]; (5) Located to follow the most direct, safe and practical route to the nearest mine opening suitable for the safe evacuation of miners; and (6) Provided with ladders, stairways, ramps, or similar facilities where the escapeways cross over obstructions. [LIFELINE REQUIREMENTS] (7) Provided with a continuous, durable directional lifeline or equivalent device that shall be— (i) Installed and maintained throughout the entire length of each es- capeway as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section; (ii) Flame-resistant in accordance with the requirements of part 18 of this chapter upon replacement of existing lifelines; but in no case later than June 15, 2009; (iii) Marked with a reflective material every 25 feet; (iv) Located in such a manner for miners to use effectively to escape; (v) Equipped with one directional indicator cone securely attached to the lifeline, signifying the route of escape, placed at intervals not exceeding 100 feet. Cones shall be installed so that the tapered section points inby; (vi) Equipped with one sphere securely attached to the lifeline at each intersection where personnel doors are installed in adjacent crosscuts; and (vii) Equipped with two securely attached cones, installed consecutively with the tapered section pointing inby, to signify an attached branch line is immediately ahead.

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132 IMPROVING SELF-ESCAPE FROM UNDERGROUND COAL MINES (A) A branch line leading from the lifeline to an SCSR [self-contained self-rescuer] cache will be marked with four cones with the base sec- tions in contact to form two diamond shapes. The cones must be placed within reach of the lifeline. (B) A branch line leading from the lifeline to a refuge alternative will be marked with a rigid spiraled coil at least eight inches in length. The spiraled coil must be placed within reach of the lifeline. (e) Surface openings shall be adequately protected to prevent surface fires, fumes, smoke, and flood water from entering the mine. [PRIMARY ESCAPEWAY CONDITIONS] (f) Primary escapeway. (1) One escapeway that is ventilated with intake air shall be designated as the primary escapeway. The primary escapeway shall have a higher ventilation pressure than the belt entry unless the mine operator sub- mits an alternative in the mine ventilation plan to protect the integrity of the primary escapeway, based on mine specific conditions, which is approved by the district manager. (2) Paragraphs (f)(3) through (f)(7) of this section apply as follows— (i) To all areas of a primary escapeway developed on or after November 16, 1992; (ii) Effective as of June 10, 1997, to all areas of a primary escapeway developed between March 30, 1970, and November 16, 1992; and (iii) Effective as of June 10, 1997, to all areas of the primary escape- way developed prior to March 30, 1970, where separation of the belt and trolley haulage entries from the primary escapeway existed prior to November 16, 1992. (3) The following equipment is not permitted in the primary escapeway— (i) Mobile equipment hauling coal except for hauling coal incidental to cleanup or maintenance of the primary escapeway. (ii) Compressors [with exceptions]. (iii) Underground transformer stations, battery charging stations, substations, and rectifiers [with exceptions]. (iv) Water pumps [with exceptions]. (4) Mobile equipment operated in the primary escapeway, except for continuous miners and as provided in paragraphs (f)(5), (f)(6), and (f)

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APPENDIX A 133 (7) of this section, shall be equipped with a fire suppression system installed according to §§ 75.1107-3 through 75.1107-16 that is— (i) Manually operated and attended continuously by a person trained in the systems function and use, or (ii) A multipurpose dry chemical type capable of both automatic and manual activation. (5) Personnel carriers and small mobile equipment designed and used only for carrying people and small hand tools may be operated in primary escapeways if— (i) The equipment is provided with a multipurpose dry chemical type fire suppression system capable of both automatic and manual activa- tion, and the suppression system is suitable for the intended application and is listed or approved by a nationally recognized independent testing laboratory, or (ii) Battery powered and provided with two 10 pound multipurpose dry chemical portable fire extinguishers. (6) Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph (f)(3)(i), mobile equipment not provided with a fire suppression system may operate in the primary escapeway if no one is inby except those persons directly engaged in using or moving the equipment. (7) Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph (f)(3)(i), mobile equipment designated and used only as emergency vehicles or ambu- lances, may be operated in the primary escapeway without fire sup- pression systems. (g) Except where separation of belt and trolley haulage entries from desig- nated escapeways did not exist before November 15, 1992, and except as provided in § 75.350(c), the primary escapeway must be separated from belt and trolley haulage entries for its entire length, to and including the first connecting crosscut outby each loading point except when a greater or lesser distance for this separation is specified and approved in the mine ventilation plan and does not pose a hazard to miners. [ALTERNATE ESCAPEWAY] (h) Alternate escapeway. One escapeway shall be designated as the alternate escapeway. The alternate escapeway shall be separated from the primary es- capeway for its entire length, except that the alternate and primary escape- ways may be ventilated from a common intake air shaft or slope opening.

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134 IMPROVING SELF-ESCAPE FROM UNDERGROUND COAL MINES [MECHANICAL ESCAPE FACILITIES] (i) Mechanical escape facilities shall be provided and maintained for— (1) Each shaft that is part of a designated escapeway and is greater than 50 feet in depth; and (2) Each slope from the coal seam to the surface that is part of a designated escapeway and is inclined more than 9 degrees from the horizontal. (j) Within 30 minutes after mine personnel on the surface have been notified of an emergency requiring evacuation, mechanical escape facilities provided under paragraph (i) of this section shall be operational at the bottom of shaft and slope openings that are part of escapeways. (k) Except where automatically activated hoisting equipment is used, the bottom of each shaft or slope opening that is part of a designated escape- way shall be equipped with a means of signaling a surface location where a person is always on duty when anyone is underground. When the signal is activated or the evacuation of persons underground is necessary, the person shall assure that mechanical escape facilities are operational as required by paragraph (j) of this section. (l) (1) Stairways or mechanical escape facilities shall be installed in shafts that are part of the designated escapeways and that are 50 feet or less in depth, except ladders may be used in shafts that are part of the des- ignated escapeways and that are 5 feet or less in depth. (2) Stairways shall be constructed of concrete or metal, set on an angle not to exceed 45 degrees from the horizontal, and equipped on the open side with handrails. In addition, landing platforms that are at least 2 feet by 4 feet shall be installed at intervals not to exceed 20 vertical feet on the stairways and equipped on the open side with handrails. (3) Ladders shall be constructed of metal, anchored securely, and set on an angle not to exceed 60 degrees from the horizontal. (m) A travelway designed to prevent slippage shall be provided in slope and drift openings that are part of designated escapeways, unless mechanical escape facilities are installed. § 75.381 Escapeways; anthracite mines. (61 FR 9829, Mar. 11, 1996, as amended at 71 FR 12269, Mar. 9, 2006; 71 FR 71452, Dec. 8, 2006; 73 FR 80614, Dec. 31, 2008)

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APPENDIX A 135 (a) Except as provided in §§ 75.385 and 75.386, at least two separate and distinct travelable passageways shall be designated as escapeways and shall meet the requirements of this section. (b) Escapeways shall be provided from each working section continuous to the surface. (c) Each escapeway shall be— (1) Maintained in a safe condition to always assure passage of anyone, including disabled persons; (2) Clearly marked to show the route of travel to the surface; (3) Provided with ladders, stairways, ramps, or similar facilities where the escapeways cross over obstructions; (4) Maintained at least 4 feet wide by 5 feet high. If the pitch or thick- ness of the coal seam does not permit these dimensions to be main- tained other dimensions may be approved in the ventilation plan; and (5) Provided with a continuous, durable directional lifeline or equiva- lent device that shall be. (d) Surface openings shall be adequately protected to prevent surface fires, fumes, smoke, and flood water from entering the mine. (e) Primary escapeway. One escapeway that shall be ventilated with intake air shall be designated as the primary escapeway. The primary escapeway shall have a higher ventilation pressure than the belt entry unless the mine operator submits an alternative in the mine ventilation plan to protect the integrity of the primary escapeway, based on mine specific conditions, which is approved by the district manager. (f) Alternate escapeway. One escapeway that shall be designated as the alternate escapeway shall be separated from the primary escapeway for its entire length. (g) Mechanical escape facilities shall be provided— (1) For each shaft or slope opening that is part of a primary escapeway; and (2) For slopes that are part of escapeways, unless ladders are installed. (h) Within 30 minutes after mine personnel on the surface have been noti- fied of an emergency requiring evacuation, mechanical escape facilities shall be operational at the bottom of each shaft and slope opening that is part of an escapeway. (i) Except where automatically activated hoisting equipment is used, the bottom of each shaft or slope opening that is part of a primary escapeway shall be equipped with a means of signaling a surface location where a person is always on duty when anyone is underground. When the signal is

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136 IMPROVING SELF-ESCAPE FROM UNDERGROUND COAL MINES activated or the evacuation of personnel is necessary, the person on duty shall assure that mechanical escape facilities are operational as required by paragraph (h) of this section. [RESPONSIBLE PERSON DUTIES DURING EMERGENCY EVACUATIONS] § 75.1501 Emergency evacuations. (68 FR 53049, Sept. 9, 2003, as amended at 73 FR 7655, Feb. 8, 2008; 73 FR 80697, Dec. 31, 2008) (a) For each shift that miners work underground, there shall be in at- tendance a responsible person designated by the mine operator to take charge during mine emergencies involving a fire, explosion, or gas or water inundation. (1) The responsible person shall have current knowledge of the as- signed location and expected movements of miners underground, the operation of the mine ventilation system, the locations of the mine escapeways and refuge alternatives, the mine communications system, any mine monitoring system if used, locations of firefighting equipment, the mine’s Emergency Response Plan, the Mine Rescue Notification Plan, and the Mine Emergency Evacuation and Firefighting Program of Instruction. (2) The responsible person shall be trained annually in a course of in- struction in mine emergency response, as prescribed by MSHA’s Office of Educational Policy and Development. The course will include topics such as the following— (i) Organizing a command center; (ii) Coordinating firefighting personnel; (iii) Deploying firefighting equipment; (iv) Coordinating mine rescue personnel; (v) Establishing fresh air base; (vi) Deploying mine rescue teams; (vii) Providing for mine gas sampling and analysis; (viii) Establishing security; (ix) Initiating an emergency mine evacuation; (x) Contacting emergency personnel; and (xi) Communicating appropriate information related to the emergency.

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APPENDIX A 137 (3) The operator shall certify by signature and date after each respon- sible person has completed the training and keep the certification at the mine for 1 year. (b) The responsible person shall initiate and conduct an immediate mine evacuation when there is a mine emergency which presents an imminent danger to miners due to fire or explosion or gas or water inundation. Only properly trained and equipped persons essential to respond to the mine emergency may remain underground. (c) The mine operator shall instruct all miners of the identity of the respon- sible person designated by the operator for their workshift. The mine op- erator shall instruct miners of any change in the identity of the responsible person before the start of their workshift. (d) Nothing in this section shall be construed to restrict the ability of other persons in the mine to warn of an imminent danger which warrants evacuation. [EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PROGRAM] § 75.1502 Mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program of instruction. (71 FR 71452, Dec. 8, 2006, as amended at 73 FR 80697, Dec. 31, 2008) Each operator of an underground coal mine shall adopt and follow a mine emergency evacuation and firefighting program that instructs all miners in the proper procedures they must follow if a mine emergency occurs. (a) Program approval. The operator shall submit this program of instruc- tion, and any revisions, for approval to the District Manager of the Coal Mine Safety and Health district in which the mine is located. Within 30 days of approval, the operator shall conduct training in accordance with the revised program. (b) New or revised provisions. Before implementing any new or revised ap- proved provision in the program of instruction, the operator shall instruct miners in the change. (c) Instruction plan. The approved program shall include a specific plan designed to instruct miners on all shifts on the following— (1) Procedures for— (i) Evacuating the mine for mine emergencies that present an im- minent danger to miners due to fire, explosion, or gas or water inundation;

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138 IMPROVING SELF-ESCAPE FROM UNDERGROUND COAL MINES (ii) Evacuating all miners not required for a mine emergency re- sponse; and (iii) The rapid assembly and transportation of necessary miners, fire suppression equipment, and rescue apparatus to the scene of the mine emergency. (2) The use, care, and maintenance of self-rescue devices, including hands-on training in the complete donning and transferring of all types of self-rescue devices used at the mine. (3) The deployment, use, and maintenance of refuge alternatives. (4) Scenarios requiring a discussion of options and a decision as to the best option for evacuation under each of the various mine emergencies (fires, explosions, or gas or water inundations). These options shall include— (i) Encountering conditions in the mine or circumstances that require immediate donning of self-rescue devices; (ii) Using continuous directional lifelines or equivalent devices, teth- ers, and doors; (iii) Traversing undercasts or overcasts; (iv) Switching escapeways, as applicable; (v) Negotiating any other unique escapeway conditions; and (vi) Using refuge alternatives. (5) Location and use of the fire suppression and firefighting equipment and materials available in the mine. (6) Location of the escapeways, exits, routes of travel to the surface, including the location of continuous directional lifelines or equivalent devices. (7) Location, quantity, types, and use of stored SCSRs, as applicable. (8) A review of the mine map; the escapeway system; the escape, fire- fighting, and emergency evacuation plan in effect at the mine; and the locations of refuge alternatives and abandoned areas. (9) A description of how miners will receive annual expectations train- ing that includes practical experience in donning and transferring SCSRs in smoke, simulated smoke, or an equivalent environment and breathing through a realistic SCSR training unit or device that provides the sensation of SCSR airflow resistance and heat. (10) A summary of the procedures related to deploying refuge alternatives. (11) A summary of the construction methods for 15 psi stoppings con- structed prior to an event. (12) A summary of the procedures related to refuge alternative use.

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APPENDIX A 139 (d) Instructors. (1) The mine operator shall designate a person who has the ability, training, knowledge, or experience to conduct the mine emergency evacuation instruction and drills in his or her area of expertise. (2) Persons conducting SCSR donning and transferring training shall be able to effectively train and evaluate whether miners can successfully don the SCSR and transfer to additional SCSR devices. § 75.1503 Use of fire suppression equipment. (71 FR 71452, Dec. 8, 2006) In addition to the approved program of instruction required by 30 CFR 75.1502, each operator of an underground coal mine shall ensure the following— (a) Working section. At least two miners in each working section on each production shift shall be proficient in the use of all fire suppression equip- ment available on such working section, and know the location of such fire suppression equipment. (b) Attended equipment. Each operator of attended equipment specified in 30 CFR 75.1107-1(c)(1), and each miner assigned to perform job duties at the job site in the direct line of sight of attended equipment as described in 30 CFR 75.1107-1(c)(2), shall be proficient in the use of fire suppression devices installed on such attended equipment. (c) Maintenance shift. The shift foreman and at least one miner for every five miners working underground on a maintenance shift shall be proficient in the use of fire suppression equipment available in the mine, and know the location of such fire suppression equipment. [QUARTERLY EVACUATION DRILLS] § 75.1504 Mine emergency evacuation training and drills. (71 FR 71452, Dec. 8, 2006, as amended at 73 FR 80698, Dec. 31, 2008) Each operator of an underground coal mine shall conduct mine emergency evacuation training and drills and require all miners to participate. (a) Schedule of training and drills. Each miner shall participate in a mine emergency evacuation training and drill once each quarter. Quarters shall be based on a calendar year (Jan-Mar, Apr-Jun, Jul-Sep, Oct-Dec). In addition—

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146 IMPROVING SELF-ESCAPE FROM UNDERGROUND COAL MINES (5) The methods for providing ready backup oxygen controls and regulators. (6) The methods for providing an airlock and for providing breath- able air in the airlock, except where adequate positive pressure is maintained. (7) The methods for providing sanitation facilities. (8) The methods for harmful gas removal, if necessary. (9) The methods for monitoring gas concentrations, including charging and calibration of equipment. (10) The method for providing lighting sufficient for persons to per- form tasks. (11) Suitable locations for the refuge alternatives and an affirmative statement that the locations are— (i) Not within direct line of sight of the working face; and (ii) Where feasible, not placed in areas directly across from, nor closer than 500 feet radially from, belt drives, take-ups, transfer points, air compressors, explosive magazines, seals, entrances to abandoned areas, and fuel, oil, or other flammable or combustible material storage. However, the operator may request and the District Manager may approve an alternative location in the ERP if mining involves two-entry systems or yield pillars in a longwall that would prohibit locating the refuge alternative out of direct line of sight of the working face. (12) The maximum mine air temperature at each of the locations where refuge alternatives are to be placed. (b) For a refuge alternative consisting of 15 psi stoppings constructed prior to an event in a secure space and an isolated atmosphere, the ERP shall specify that— (1) The breathable air components shall be approved by MSHA; and (2) The refuge alternative can withstand exposure to a flash fire of 300 degrees Fahrenheit (°F) for 3 seconds and a pressure wave of 15 pounds per square inch (psi) overpressure for 0.2 seconds. (c) If the refuge alternative sustains persons for only 48 hours, the ERP shall detail advanced arrangements that have been made to assure that persons who cannot be rescued within 48 hours will receive additional supplies to sustain them until rescue. Advance arrangements shall include the following—

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APPENDIX A 147 (1) Pre-surveyed areas for refuge alternatives with closure errors of less than 20,000:1. (2) An analysis to demonstrate that the surface terrain, the strata, the capabilities of the drill rig, and all other factors that could affect drilling are such that a hole sufficient to provide required supplies and materials reliably can be promptly drilled within 48 hours of an ac- cident at a mine. (3) Permissions to cross properties, build roads, and construct drill sites. (4) Arrangement with a drilling contractor or other supplier of drill- ing services to provide a suitable drilling rig, personnel and support so that a hole can be completed to the refuge alternative within 48 hours. (5) Capability to promptly transport a drill rig to a pre-surveyed loca- tion such that a drilled hole would be completed and located near a refuge alternative structure within 48 hours of an accident at a mine. (6) The specifications of pipes, air lines, and approved fans or approved compressors that will be used. (7) A method for assuring that within 48 hours, breathable air shall be provided. (8) A method for assuring the immediate availability of a backup source for supplying breathable air and a backup power source for surface installations. (d) The ERP shall specify that the refuge alternative is stocked with the following— (1) A minimum of 2,000 calories of food and 2.25 quarts of potable water per person per day in approved containers sufficient to sustain the maximum number of persons reasonably expected to use the refuge alternative for at least 96 hours, or for 48 hours if advance arrange- ments are made under paragraph (c) of this section; (2) A manual that contains sufficient detail for each refuge alternative or component addressing in-mine transportation, operation, and main- tenance of the unit; (3) Sufficient quantities of materials and tools to repair components; and (4) First aid supplies. § 75.1508 Training and records for examination, maintenance, and repair of refuge alternatives and components. (73 FR 80699, Dec. 31, 2008)

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148 IMPROVING SELF-ESCAPE FROM UNDERGROUND COAL MINES (a) Persons examining, maintaining, or repairing refuge alternatives and components shall be instructed in how to perform this work. (1) The operator shall assure that all persons assigned to examine, maintain, and repair refuge alternatives and components are trained. (2) The mine operator shall certify, by signature and date, the training of persons who examine, maintain, and repair refuge alternatives and components. (b) At the completion of each repair, the person conducting the maintenance or repair shall make a record of all corrective action taken. (c) Training certifications and repair records shall be kept at the mine for one year. [COMMUNICATIONS] Subpart Q § 75.1600 Communications. (Statutory Provisions) Telephone service or equivalent two-way communication facilities, ap- proved by the Secretary or his authorized representative, shall be provided between the surface and each landing of main shafts and slopes and be- tween the surface and each working section of any coal mine that is more than 100 feet from a portal. § 75.1600-1 Communication facilities; main portals; installation requirements. (38 FR 29999, Oct. 31, 1973) A telephone or equivalent two-way communication facility shall be located on the surface within 500 feet of all main portals, and shall be installed ei- ther in a building or in a box-like structure designed to protect the facilities from damage by inclement weather. At least one of these communication facilities shall be at a location where a responsible person who is always on duty when men are underground can hear the facility and respond im- mediately in the event of an emergency. § 75.1600-2 Communication facilities; working sections; installation and maintenance requirements; audible or visual alarms. (38 FR 29999, Oct. 31, 1973)

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APPENDIX A 149 (a) Telephones or equivalent two-way communication facilities provided at each working section shall be located not more than 500 feet outby the last open crosscut and not more than 800 feet from the farthest point of penetration of the working places on such section. (b) The incoming communication signal shall activate an audible alarm, distinguishable from the surrounding noise level, or a visual alarm that can be seen by a miner regularly employed on the working section. (c) If a communication system other than telephones is used and its opera- tion depends entirely upon power from the mine electric system, means shall be provided to permit continued communication in the event the mine electric power fails or is cut off; provided, however, that where trolley phones and telephones are both used, an alternate source of power for the trolley phone system is not required. (d) Trolley phones connected to the trolley wire shall be grounded in ac- cordance with Subpart H of this part. (e) Telephones or equivalent two-way communication facilities shall be maintained in good operating condition at all times. In the event of any failure in the system that results in loss of communication, repairs shall be started immediately, and the system restored to operating condition as soon as possible. § 75.1600-3 Communications facilities; refuge alternatives. (73 FR 80700, Dec. 31, 2008) (a) Refuge alternatives shall be provided with a communications system that consists of— (1) A two-way communication facility that is a part of the mine com- munication system, which can be used from inside the refuge alterna- tive; and (2) An additional communication system and other requirements as defined in the communications portion of the operator’s approved ERP. [TRAINING OF NEW MINERS] 30 CFR § 48.5 Training of new miners; minimum courses of instruction; hours of instruction (a) Each new miner shall receive no less than 40 hours of training as pre- scribed in this section before such miner is assigned to work duties. Such training shall be conducted in conditions which as closely as practicable

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150 IMPROVING SELF-ESCAPE FROM UNDERGROUND COAL MINES duplicate actual underground conditions, and approximately 8 hours of training shall be given at the minesite. (b) The training program for new miners shall include the following courses— (1) Instruction in the statutory rights of miners and their representa- tives under the Act; authority and responsibility of supervisors. The course shall include instruction in the statutory rights of miners and their representatives under the Act, including a discussion of section 2 of the Act; a review and description of the line of authority of supervi- sors and miners’ representatives and the responsibilities of such supervi- sors and miners’ representatives; and an introduction to the operator’s rules and the procedures for reporting hazards. (2) Self-rescue and respiratory devices. The course shall be given before a new miner goes underground and shall include— (i) Instruction and demonstration in the use, care, and maintenance of self-rescue and respiratory devices used at the mine; (ii) Hands-on training in the complete donning of all types of self contained self-rescue devices used at the mine, which includes as- suming a donning position, opening the device, activating the device, inserting the mouthpiece, and putting on the nose clip; and (iii) Hands-on training in transferring between all applicable self- rescue devices. (3) Entering and leaving the mine; transportation; communications. The course shall include instruction on the procedures in effect for entering and leaving the mine; the check-in and checkout system in ef- fect at the mine; the procedures for riding on and in mine conveyances; the controls in effect for the transportation of miners and materials; and the use of the mine communication systems, warning signals, and directional signs. (4) Introduction to the work environment. The course shall include a visit and tour of the mine, or portions of the mine, which are represen- tative of the entire mine. A method of mining utilized at the mine shall be observed and explained. (5) Mine map; escapeways; emergency evacuation; barricading. The program of instruction for mine emergency evacuation and firefighting approved by the District Manager under 30 CFR 75.1502 or the escape and evacuation plan under 30 CFR 57.11053, as applicable, shall be used for this course. The course shall include—

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APPENDIX A 151 (i) A review of the mine map; the escapeway system; the escape, firefighting, and emergency evacuation plans in effect at the mine; and the location of abandoned areas; and (ii) An introduction to the methods of barricading and the locations of the barricading materials, where applicable. (6) Roof or ground control and ventilation plans. The course shall in- clude an introduction to and instruction on the roof or ground control plan in effect at the mine and procedures for roof and rib or ground control; and an introduction to and instruction on the ventilation plan in effect at the mine and the procedures for maintaining and control- ling ventilation. (7) Health. The course shall include instruction on the purpose of tak- ing dust, noise, and other health measurements, and any health control plan in effect at the mine shall be explained. The health provisions of the act and warning labels shall also be explained. (8) Cleanup; rock dusting. The course shall include instruction on the purpose of rock dusting and the cleanup and rock dusting program in effect at the mine, where applicable. (9) Hazard recognition. The course shall include the recognition and avoidance of hazards present in the mine, particularly any hazards related to explosives where explosives are used or stored at the mine. (10) Electrical hazards. The course shall include recognition and avoid- ance of electrical hazards. (11) First aid. The course shall include instruction in first aid methods acceptable to MSHA. (12) Mine gases. The course shall include instruction in the detection and avoidance of hazards associated with mine gases. (13) Health and safety aspects of the tasks to which the new miner will be assigned. The course shall include instruction in the health and safety aspects of the tasks to be assigned, including the safe work procedures of such tasks, the mandatory health and safety standards pertinent to such tasks, information about the physical and health hazards of chemicals in the miner’s work area, the protective measures a miner can take against these hazards, and the contents of the mine’s HazCom program. (14) Such other courses as may be required by the District Manager based on circumstances and conditions at the mine. (c) Methods, including oral, written, or practical demonstration, to deter- mine successful completion of the training shall be included in the training plan. The methods for determining such completion shall be administered to the miner before he is assigned work duties.

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152 IMPROVING SELF-ESCAPE FROM UNDERGROUND COAL MINES (d) A newly employed miner who has less than 12 months of mining expe- rience and has received the courses and hours of instruction in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, within 36 months preceding employment at a mine, does not have to repeat this training. Before the miner starts work, the operator must provide the miner with the experienced miner training in § 48.6(b) of this part and, if applicable, the new task training in § 48.7 of this part. The operator must also provide the miner with annual refresher training and additional new task training, as applicable. [EXPERIENCED MINER TRAINING] 30 CFR § 48.6 Experienced miner training. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e), this section applies to experienced miners who are— (1) Newly employed by the operator; (2) Transferred to the mine; (3) Experienced underground miners transferred from surface to un- derground; or (4) Returning to the mine after an absence of more than 12 months. (b) Experienced miners must complete the training prescribed in this section before beginning work duties. Each experienced miner returning to mining following an absence of 5 years or more, must receive at least 8 hours of training. The training must include the following instruction— (1) Introduction to work environment. The course shall include a visit and tour of the mine. The methods of mining utilized at the mine shall be observed and explained. (2) Mandatory health and safety standards. The course shall include the mandatory health and safety standards pertinent to the tasks to be assigned. (3) Authority and responsibility of supervisors and miners’ represen- tatives. The course shall include a review and description of the line of authority of supervisors and miners’ representatives and the re- sponsibilities of such supervisors and miners’ representatives; and an introduction to the operator’s rules and the procedures for reporting hazards. (4) Entering and leaving the mine; transportation; communications. The course shall include instruction in the procedures in effect for en- tering and leaving the mine; the check-in and checkout system in effect at the mine; the procedures for riding on and in mine conveyances;

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APPENDIX A 153 the controls in effect for the transportation of miners and materials; and the use of the mine communication systems, warning signals, and directional signs. (5) Mine map; escapeways; emergency evacuation; barricading. The program of instruction for mine emergency evacuation and firefighting approved by the District Manager under 30 CFR 75.1502 or the escape and evacuation plan under 30 CFR 57.11053, as applicable, shall be used for this course. The course shall include— (i) A review of the mine map; the escapeway system; the escape, firefighting, and emergency evacuation plans in effect at the mine; and the location of abandoned areas; and (ii) Methods of barricading and the locations of barricading materi- als, where applicable. (6) Roof or ground control and ventilation plans. The course shall in- clude an introduction to and instruction on the roof or ground control plan in effect at the mine and procedures for roof and rib or ground control; and an introduction to and instruction on the ventilation plan in effect at the mine and the procedures for maintaining and control- ling ventilation. (7) Hazard recognition. The course must include the recognition and avoidance of hazards present in the mine. (8) Prevention of accidents. The course must include a review of the general causes of accidents applicable to the mine environment, causes of specific accidents at the mine, and instruction in accident prevention in the work environment. (9) Emergency medical procedures. The course must include instruction on the mine’s emergency medical arrangements and the location of the mine’s first aid equipment and supplies. (10) Health. The course must include instruction on the purpose of taking dust, noise, and other health measurements, where applicable; must review the health provisions of the Act; and must explain warning labels and any health control plan in effect at the mine. (11) Health and safety aspects of the tasks to which the experienced miner is assigned. The course must include instruction in the health and safety aspects of the tasks assigned, including the safe work procedures of such tasks, information about the physical and health hazards of chemicals in the miner’s work area, the protective measures a miner can take against these hazards, and the contents of the mine’s HazCom program. Experienced miners who must complete new task training under § 48.7 do not need to take training under this paragraph.

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154 IMPROVING SELF-ESCAPE FROM UNDERGROUND COAL MINES (12) Self-rescue and respiratory devices. The course shall be given before the miner goes underground and shall include— (i) Instruction and demonstration in the use, care, and maintenance of self-rescue and respiratory devices used at the mine; (ii) Hands-on training in the complete donning of all types of self- contained self-rescue devices used at the mine, which includes as- suming a donning position, opening the device, activating the device, inserting the mouthpiece, and putting on the nose clip; and (iii) Hands-on training in transferring between all applicable self- rescue devices. (13) Such other courses as may be required by the District Manager based on circumstances and conditions at the mine. (c) The operator may include instruction on additional safety and health subjects based on circumstances and conditions at the mine. (d) The training time spent on individual subjects must vary depending upon the training needs of the miners. (e) Any miner returning to the same mine, following an absence of 12 months or less, must receive training on any major changes to the mine environment that have occurred during the miner’s absence and that could adversely affect the miner’s health or safety. (1) A person designated by the operator who is knowledgeable of these changes must conduct the training in this paragraph. An MSHA ap- proved instructor is not required to conduct the training outlined in this paragraph. (2) No record of this training is required. (3) The miner must also complete annual refresher training as required in § 48.8, if the miner missed taking that training during the absence. (f) Coal miners receiving training under this section shall participate in the next drill as required in § 75.383(b) or 75.1502(c) of this chapter, as applicable. For more information: See MSHA’s Program Policy Manual. [ANNUAL REFRESHER TRAINING] 30 CFR § 48.8 Annual refresher training of miners; minimum courses of instruction; hours of instruction.

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APPENDIX A 155 (a) Each miner shall receive a minimum of 8 hours of annual refresher train- ing as prescribed in this section. (b) The annual refresher training program for all miners shall include the following courses of instruction— (1) Mandatory health and safety standards. The course shall include mandatory health and safety standard requirements which are related to the miner’s tasks. (2) Transportation controls and communication systems. The course shall include instruction on the procedures for riding on and in mine conveyances; the controls in effect for the transportation of miners and materials; and the use of the mine communication systems, warning signals, and directional signs. (3) Barricading. The course shall include a review of the methods of barricading and locations of barricading materials, where applicable. (4) Roof or ground control; ventilation; emergency evacuation; and firefighting plans. The course shall include a review of roof or ground control plans in effect at the mine and the procedures for maintaining and controlling ventilation. In addition, for underground coal mines, except for miners who receive this training under 30 CFR 75.1504, the course shall include a review of the emergency evacuation and firefight- ing program of instruction in effect at the mine. (5) First aid. The course shall include a review of first aid methods ac- ceptable to MSHA. (6) Electrical hazards. The course shall include recognition and avoid- ance of electrical hazards. (7) Prevention of accidents. The course shall include a review of ac- cidents and causes of accidents, and instruction in accident prevention in the work environment. (8) Self-rescue and respiratory devices. The course shall include instruc- tion and demonstration in the use, care, and maintenance of self-rescue and respiratory devices used at the mine. In addition, except for miners who receive this training under 30 CFR 75.1504, the training for self- contained self-rescue (SCSR) devices shall include— (i) Hands-on training in the complete donning of all types of self- contained self-rescue devices used at the mine, which includes as- suming a donning position, opening the device, activating the device, inserting the mouthpiece, and putting on the nose clip; and (ii) Hands-on training in transferring between all applicable self- rescue devices.

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156 IMPROVING SELF-ESCAPE FROM UNDERGROUND COAL MINES (9) Explosives. The course shall include a review and instruction on the hazards related to explosives. The only exception to this course component is when there are no explosives used or stored on the mine property. (10) Mine gases. The course shall include instruction in the detection and avoidance of hazards associated with mine gases. (11) Health. The course shall include instruction on the purpose of tak- ing dust, noise, and other health measurements and any health control plan in effect at the mine shall be explained. The health provisions of the Act and warning labels shall also be explained. (12) Such other courses as may be required by the District Manager based on circumstances and conditions at the mine. (c) Refresher training may include other health and safety subjects that are relevant to mining operations at the mine. Recommended subjects include, but are not limited to, information about the physical and health hazards of chemicals in the miner’s work area, the protective measures a miner can take against these hazards, and the contents of the mine’s HazCom program. (d) All persons employed as shaft or slope construction workers on June 28, 2006, must receive annual refresher training within 12 months of June 2006. (e) Where annual refresher training is conducted periodically, such sessions shall not be less than 30 minutes of actual instruction time and the miners shall be notified that the session is part of annual refresher training.