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INDEX OF SPECIES Acouchies, 204 Acryllium vulturinum, 123 Agelastes niger, 122 Agouti, 4, 199-205 Agouti paca, 263 Agouti taczanowskii, 263 Agriocharis ocellata, 164 Alectoris species, 171 Alopochen aegyptiacus, 107 American swan goose, 104 Anas platyrhynchos, 91 Anser anser, 102 Anser cygnoides, 102 Anser indicus, 107 Anser species, 101 Anseranas semipalmata, 107 Antelope, 4, 8, 285, 337-341 Anthophora, 370 Apis cerana, 364 Apis mellifera, 364 Araucanian chicken, 88 Argali, 58 Bali cattle, 29 Bamboo rat, 282 Bandicoot rat, 194 Banteng, 24, 28 Bar-headed goose, 107 Barbary duck, 125 Barking deer, 299 Barn owl, 172 Bees, 5, 10, 361, 363-370 Bezoar, 38 Black guinea fowl, 122 Black iguana, 355-359 Black-bellied whistling duck, 98 Bombus, 370 Bonsai brahman, 22 Bos indicus, 17 Bos taurus, 17 Brahman cattle, 22 Branta canadensis, 104 Branta sandvicensis, 107 Brocket, 317 Bush fowl, 174 Cairina moschata, 125 Cairina species, 98 Callosciurus, 281 Canada goose, 104 Canard de Barbarie, 128 Cape porcupine, 279 Capra aegagrus, 38 Capra falconeri, 43 Capra hircus, 33 Capra ibex, 42 Capromyidae family, 251 Capromys pilorides, 252 Capybara, 4, 8, 9, 194, 207-214 Carrier pigeon, 142 Cattle, 9, 10, 17-31 Cavia porcellus, 241 Cephalophus species, 327 Chachalaca, 168 Chevrotain, 291 Chicken, 8, 9, 73, 75, 79-89 Chicken/quail hybrid, 154 Chinchilla, 277 Chinchilla brevicaudata, 277 Chinchilla lanigera, 277 Chukar, 171 Churro sheep, 50 Cloud rat, 194, 281 Coendou prehensilis, 279 Columba livia, 137 Columba oenas, 145 Conejo pintado, 263 Coscoroba coscoroba, 104 Coturnix coturnix, 147, 175 Coturnix japonica, 147 Coypu, 4, 7, 217-223 Crateromys schadenbergi, 282 Crax rubra, 169 Crested guinea hen, 123 Cricetomys emini, 225 Cricetomys gambianus, 225 Criollo duck, 125 Criollo turkey, 157, 161 Ctenosaura species, 355 Cuban hutia, 252 Cuniculus, 263 Curassow, 166, 169 437

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438 Cuy, 195 Cyclura cornuta, 358 Dasyprocta species, 199 Deer, 4, 8, 11, 285 Dendrocygna species, 98 Dikdik, 286, 337 Dinomys branickii, 277 Dolichotis patagonum, 257 Dolichotis salinicola, 279 Domestic rabbit, 183-191 Dormice, 194 Duck, 91-99 Duiker, 4, 327-334 Easter-egg chicken, 88 Egyptian goose, 107 Entok, 128 Fat dormice, 194 Forest rabbit, 180 Four-horned antelope, 337 Francolin, 171 Francolinus species, 173 Funambulus, 281 Gallina de Guinea, 120 Gallus domesticus, 79 Gallus gallus, 79 Gallus inauris, 88 Gallus lafayettei, 87 Gallus sonnerati, 87 Gallus varius, 87 Geese, 101-113 Geocapromys brownii, 252 Giant New Guinea rat, 279 Giant rat, 4, 194, 225-230 Giant squirrel, 281 Goat, 9, 10, 33-45 Grasscutter, 4, 8, 194, 233-239 Gray junglefowl, 87 Gray-breasted guinea fowl, 122 Green iguana, 343, 347-353 Green junglefowl, 87 Greylag goose, 102 Guagua, 263 Guajolote, 157 Guan, 169 Guemal, 318 Guinea fowl, 3, 9, 115-123 Guinea pig, 4, 8, 194, 241-249 Guttera species, 123 Hare, 180 Hartlaub's duck, 98 Hippocamelus, 318 Hispaniolan hutia, 254 Honey bee, 363 Huemul, 318 Hutia, 4, 194, 251-255 Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, 207 Hydropotes inermis, 321 Hyemoschus aquaticus, 291 MICROLIVESTOCK Hystrix africaeaustralis, 279 Hystrix indica, 279 Ibex, 42 Iguana, 5, 11, 343 Iguana delicatissima, 358 Iguana iguana, 347 Indian porcupine, 279 Jamaican hutia, 251, 252 Junglefowl 86, 174 Kerodon rupestris, 278 Kiore, 281 Klipspringer, 286, 337 La Fayette's junglefowl, 87 Laba, 263 Lagomorpha, 180 Lagostomus maximus, 271 Lapa, 263 Lepus europusis, 180 Lizards, 343 Magpie goose, 107 Mallard, 9 Mallomys rothschildi, 279 Mara, 4, 194, 257-261 Markhor, 43 Mazama species, 317 Megachilae, 370 Megapodes, 170 Megapodiidae family, 170 Meleagris gallopavo, 157 Melipona, 370 Microantelope, 285 Microbreeds, 1, 15 Microcattle, 17-31 Microdeer, 285, 315 Microgoats, 33-45 Micropigs, 63-71 Microsheep, 47-61 Mini-brahman, 3, 22 Mitred guinea fowl, 122 Mitu mitu, 169 Moschus species, 307 Mouflon, 58 Mountain pace, 263 Mouse deer, 4, 291-295 Mulard, 127 Mule duck, 127, 132 Muntiacus species, 299 Muntjac, 299-305 Muscovy, 3, 98, 104, 125-135 Musk deer, 4, 7, 307-313 Myocastor coypus, 217 Myoprocta species, 204 Navajo sheep, 50 Nene, 107 New poultry, 167-177 Nomia, 370 Northern spur-winged goose, 107 Numida meleagris, 115

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INDEX OF SPECIES Numida meleagris galeata, 122 Numida meleagris meleagris, 122 Numida meleagris mitrata, 122 Ocellated turkey, 164 Ortalis vetula, 168 Oryctolagus cuniculus, 183, 190 Osmia, 370 Ovis ammon, 58 Ovis aries, 47 Ovis orientalis, 58 Ovis vignei, 58 Paca, 4, 194, 196, 263-269 Pacarana, 277 Palm squirrel, 281 Partridge, 171 Pato perulero, 128 Pauxi pauxi, 169 Pavo cristatus, 174 Peacock, 174 Pedetes cafer, 278 Pedetes capensis, 278 Penelope species, 169 Perdix perdix, 171 Phasianidae family, 174 Phasianus colchicus, 174 Phasidus niger, 122 Pheasant, 174 Phloeomys species, 281 Pig, 8 Pigeon, 3, 9, 10, 137-145 Pigmy hog, 69 Pigs, 10, 63-71 Pintada, 120 Pintade, 120 Pipil, 157 Plagiodontia aedium, 254 Plectropterus gambensis gambensis, 107 Porcupine, 279 Potential new poultry, 167-177 Poultry, 3, 73 Praomys, 281 Prehensile-tailed porcupine, 279 Proechimys guyannensis, 282 Psophia species, 176 Pterocles species, 176 Pudu, 315 Pudu mephistophiles, 315 Pudupudu, 315 Pygmy antelope, 337 Quail, 3, 174, 147-155 Quail/chicken hybrid, 154 Quayaiz, 128 Rabbit, 3, 7, 8, 179-181, 183-191 Rattus exulans, 281 Ratufa bicolor, 281 Red junglefowl, 86 Rhinoceros iguana, 358 439 Rhyzomys spp., 282 Rice rats, 194 Rock cavy, 278 Rock iguana, 358 Rodents, 4, 11, 193 Royal antelope, 337 Salt-desert cavy, 279 Sand grouse, 176 Semipalmated goose, 107 Sheep 10, 47-61 Soay 59, 60 Soft-furred rat, 281 Solomon Islands rodents, 279 Solomys porculus, 279 Solomys sapientis, 279 Sonnerat's junglefowl, 87 Spiny rat, 282 Springhare, 194, 278 Squab, 3, 137 Squirrels, 194, 281 Stictomys, 263 Stingless bees, 368 Stock dove, 145 Suni, 286, 337 Sus salvanius, 69 Sus scrofa, 63 Swan goose, 102 Swine, 63 Sylvicapra species, 327 Sylvilagus brasiliensis, 180 Tapeti, 180 Tegu, 344 Thinking rat, 279 Thryonomys gregorianus, 233 Thryonomys swinderianus, 233 Tinamou, 175 Tinamus major, 175 Tragulus species, 291 Trigona, 370 Trumpeters, 176 Tsaiya duck, 92, 133 Tufted guinea fowl, 122 Tupinambis rufescens, 344 Tupinambis teguixin, 344 Turkey, 3, 9, 157-165 Tyto alba, 172 Urial, 58 Uromys spp., 279 Vizcacha, 4, 194, 271-275 Vulturine guinea fowl, 123 Water deer, 321-325 Whistling ducks, 98 Wild quail, 174 Wood duck, 98 Xylocopa, 370 Ya-ez, 42 Yumyuh, 154

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440 Board on Science and Technology for International Development A~ExANDER SHAKOW, Director, Strategic Planning and Review, The World Bank, Washington, D.C., Chairman Members PATRICIA BARNEs-McCoNNE~, Director, Bean/Cowpea CRSP, East Lansing, Michigan JORDAN J. BARUCH, President, Jordan Baruch Associates, Washington, D.C. PETER D. BELL, President, The Edna McConnell Clark Foundation, New York, New York BARRY Broom, Professor, Department of Microbiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, The Bronx, New York JANE BoRTN~cK, Assistant Chief, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. GEORGE T. CuR~N, The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, The National Institutes of Health Bethesda, Maryland DIRK FRANKENBERG, Director, Marine Sciences Program, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina RALPH HARDY, Boyce-Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York FREDER~cK HORNE, Dean, College of Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon ELLEN MESSER, Allan Shaw Feinstein World Hunger Program, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island CHAR~Es C. MuscoP~AT, Executive Vice President, Molecular Genetics, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota JAMES Quinn, Amos Tuck School of Business, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire VERNON RUTTAN, Regents Professor, Department of Agriculture and Applied Economics, Saint Paul, Minnesota ANTHONY SAN PIETRO, Professor of Plant Biochemistry, Department of Biology, Bloomington, Indiana ERNEST SMERDON, College of Engineering and Mines, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona GERALD P. DINEEN, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. ex officio JAMES B. WYNGAARDEN, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Washington, D.C officio , ex

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441 Board on Science and Technology for International Development Publications and Information Services (HA-476E) Office of International Affairs National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 USA How to Order BOSTID Reports BOSTID manages programs with developing countries on behalf of the U.S. National Research Council. Reports published by BOSTID are sponsored in most instances by the U.S. Agency for International Development. They are intended for distribution to readers in devel- oping countries who are affiliated with governmental, educational, or research institutions, and who have professional interest in the subject areas treated by the reports. BOSTID books are available from selected international distributors. For more efficient and expedient service, please place your order with your local distributor. (See list on back page.J Requestors from areas not yet represented by a distributor should send their orders directly to BOSTID at the above address. Energy 33. Alcohol Fuels: Options for Developing Countries. 1983, 128pp. Examines the potential for the production and utilization of alcohol fuels in developing countries. Includes information on various tropical crops and their conversion to alcohols through both traditional and novel processes. ISBN 0-309-04160-0. 36. Producer Gas: Another Fuel for Motor Transport. 1983, 112pp. During World War II Europe and Asia used wood, charcoal, and coal to fuel over a million gasoline and diesel vehicles. However the technology has since been virtually forgotten. This report reviews producer gas and its modern potential. ISBN 0-309-04161-9.

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442 56. The Diffusion of Biomass Energy Technologies in Developing Coun- tries. 1984, 120pp. Examines economic, cultural, and political factors that affect the introduction of biomass-based energy technologies in developing countries. It includes information on the opportunities for these technologies as well as conclusions and recommendations for their application. ISBN 0-309-04253-4. Technology Options 14. More Water for Arid Lands: Promising Technologies and Research Opportunities. 1974, 153pp. Outlines little-known but promising tech- nologies to supply and conserve water in arid areas. ISBN 0-309-04151-1. 21. Making Aquatic Weeds Useful: Some Perspectives for Developing Countries. 1976, 175pp. Describes ways to exploit aquatic weeds for grazing, and by harvesting and processing for use as compost, animal feed, pulp, paper, and fuel. Also describes utilization for sewage and industrial wastewater. ISBN 0-309-04153-X. 34. Priorities in Biotechnology Research for International Development: Proceedings of a Workshop. 1982, 261pp. Report of a workshop organized to examine opportunities for biotechnology research in six areas: 1) vaccines, 2) animal production, 3) monoclonal antibodies, 4) energy, 5) biological nitrogen fixation, and 6) plant sell and tissue culture. ISBN 0-309-04256-9. 61. Fisheries Technologies for Developing Countries. 1987, 167pp. Identifies newer technologies in boat building, fishing gear and methods, coastal mariculture, artificial reefs and fish aggregating devices, and processing and preservation of the catch. The emphasis is on practices suitable for artisanal fisheries. ISBN 0-309-04260-7. Plants 25. Tropical Legumes: Resources for the Future. 1979, 331pp. Describes plants of the family Leguminosae, including root crops, pulses, fruits, forages, timber and wood products, ornamentals, and others. ISBN 0-309-04154-6.

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443 47. Amaranth: Modern Prospects for an Ancient Crop. 1983, 81pp. Before the time of Cortez, grain amaranths were staple foods of the Aztec and Inca. Today this nutritious food has a bright future. The report discusses vegetable amaranths also. ISBN 0-309-04171-6. 53. ,Iojoba: New Crop for Arid Lands. 1985, 102pp. In the last 10 years, the domestication of jojoba, a little-known North American desert shrub, has been all but completed. This report describes the plant and its promise to provide a unique vegetable oil and many likely industrial uses. ISBN 0-309-04251-8. 63. Quality-Protein Maize. 1988, 130pp. Identifies the promise of a nutritious new form of the planet's third largest food crop. Includes chapters on the importance of maize, malnutrition and protein quality, experiences with quality-protein maize (QPM), QPM's potential uses in feed and food, nutritional qualities, genetics, research needs, and limitations. ISBN 0-309-04262-3. 64. Triticale: A Promising Addition to the World's Cereal Grains. 1988, 105pp. Outlines the recent transformation of triticale, a hybrid between wheat and rye, into a food crop with much potential for many marginal lands. Includes chapters on triticale's history, nutritional quality, breeding, agronomy, food and feed uses, research needs, and limita- tions. ISBN 0-309-04263-1. 67. Lost Crops of the Incas. 1989. 415pp. The Andes is one of the seven major centers of plant domestication but the world is largely unfamiliar with its native food crops. When the conquistadores brought the potato to Europe, they ignored the other domesticated Andean crops fruits, legumes, tubers, and grains that had been cultivated for centuries by the Incas. This book focuses on 30 of the `'forgotten'' Incan crops that show promise not only for the Andes but for warm- temperate, subtropical, and upland tropical regions in many parts of the world. ISBN 0-309-04264-X. 70. Saline Agriculture: Salt-Tolerant Plants for Developing Countries. 1989, approx 150pp. The purpose of this report is to create greater awareness of salt-tolerant plants and the special needs they may fill in developing countries. Examples of the production of food, fodder, fuel, and other products are included. Salt-tolerant plants can use land and water unsuitable for conventional crops and can harness saline resources that are generally neglected or considered as impediments to rather than opportunities for development. ISBN 0-309-04266-6.

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444 Innovations in Tropical Forestay 35. Sowing Forests from the Air. 1981, 64pp. Describes experiences with establishing forests by sowing tree seed from aircraft. Suggests testing and development of the techniques for possible use where forest destruction now outpaces reforestation. ISBN 0-309-04257-7. 40. Firewood Crops: Shrub and Tree Species for Energy Production. Volume II, 1983, 92pp. Examines the selection of species of woody plants that seem suitable candidates for fuelwood plantations in developing countries. ISBN 0-309-04164-3. 41. Mangium and Other Fast-Growing Acacias for the Humid Tropics. 1983, 63pp. Highlights 10 acacia species that are native to the tropical rain forest of Australasia. That they could become valuable forestry resources elsewhere is suggested by the exceptional performance of Acacia mangium in Malaysia. ISBN 0-309-04165-1. 42. Calliandra: A Versatile Small Tree for the Humid Tropics. 1983, 56pp. This Latin American shrub is being widely planted by the villagers and government agencies in Indonesia to provide firewood, prevent erosion, provide honey, and feed livestock. ISBN 0-309-04166-X. 43. Casuarinas: Nitrogen-Fixing Trees for Adverse Sites. 1983, 118pp. These robust, nitrogen-fixing, Australasian trees could become valuable resources for planting on harsh eroding land to provide fuel and other products. Eighteen species for tropical lowlands and highlands, tem- perate zones, and semiarid regions are highlighted. ISBN 0-309-04167-8. 52. Leucaena: Promising Forage and Tree Crop for the Tropics. 1984, 2nd edition, lOOpp. Describes a multi-purpose tree crop of potential value for much of the humid lowland tropics. Leucaena is one of the fastest growing and most useful trees for the tropics. ISBN 0-309-04250-X. Managing Tropical Animal Resources 32. The Water Buffalo: New Prospects for an Underutilized Animal. 1981, 188pp. The water buffalo is performing notably well in recent trials in such unexpected places as the United States, Australia, and

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445 Brazil. Report discusses the animals's promise, particularly emphasiz- ing its potential for use outside Asia. ISBN 0-309-04159-7. 44. Butterfly Farming in Papua New Guinea. 1983, 36pp. Indigenous butterflies are being reared in Papua New Guinea villages in a formal government program that both provides a cash income in remote rural areas and contributes to the conservation of wildlife and tropical forests. ISBN 0-309-04168-6 45. Crocodiles as a Resource for the Tropics. 1983, 60pp. In most parts of the tropics, crocodilian populations are being decimated but pro- grams in Papua New Guinea and a few other countries demonstrate that, with care, the animals can be raised for profit while protecting the wild populations. ISBN 0-309-04169-4. 46. Little-Known Asian Animals with a Promising Economic Future. 1983, 133pp. Describes banteng, madura, mithan, yak, kouprey, ba- birusa, javan warty pig, and other obscure but possibly globally useful wild and domesticated animals that are indigenous to Asia. ISBN 0-309-04170-8. 68. Microlivestock: Little-Known Small Animals with a Promising Economic Future. 1990, 460pp. Discusses the promise of small breeds and species of livestock for Third World villages. Identifies more than 40 species, including miniature breeds of cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs; eight types of poultry; rabbits; guinea pigs and other rodents; dwarf deer and antelope; iguanas; and bees. ISBN 0-309-04265-8. Health 49. Opportunities for the Control of Dracunculiasis. 1983, 65pp. Dra- cunculiasis is a parasitic disease that temporarily disables many people in remote, rural areas in Africa, India, and the Middle East. Contains the findings and recommendations of distinguished scientists who were brought together to discuss dracunculiasis as an international health problem. ISBN 0-309-04172-4. 55. Manpower Needs and Career Opportunities in the Field Aspects of Vector Biology. 1983, 53pp. Recommends ways to develop and train the manpower necessary to ensure that experts will be available in the future to understand the complex ecological relationships of vectors with human hosts and pathogens that cause such diseases as malaria, dengue fever, filariasis, and schistosomiasis. ISBN 0-309-04252-6.

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446 60. U.S. Capacity to Address Tropical Infectious Diseases. 1987, 225pp. Addresses U.S. manpower and institutional capabilities in both the public and private sectors to address tropical infectious disease prob- lems. ISBN 0-309-04259-3. Resource Management 50. Environmental Change in the West African Sahel. 1984, 96pp. Identifies measures to help restore critical ecological processes and thereby increase sustainable production in dryland farming, irrigated agriculture, forestry and fuelwood, and animal husbandry. Provides baseline information for the formulation of environmentally sound projects. ISBN 0-309-04173-2. 51. Agroforestry in the West African Sahel. 1984, 86pp. Provides development planners with information regarding traditional agrofo- restry systems-their relevance to the modern Sahel, their design, social and institutional considerations, problems encountered in the practice of agroforestry, and criteria for the selection of appropriate plant species to be used. ISBN 0-309-04174-0. 69. The Improvement of Tropical and Subtropical Rangelands. 1989. This report characterizes tropical and subtropical rangelands, describes social adaptation to these rangelands, discusses the impact of socio- economic and political change upon the management of range re- sources, and explores culturally and ecologically sound approaches to rangeland rehabilitation. Selected case studies are included. ISBN 0-309-04261-5. General 65. Science and Technology for Development: Prospects Entering the Twenty-First Century. 1988. 79 pp. This report commemorates the twenty-fifth anniversary of the U.S. Agency for International Devel- opment. The symposium on which this report is based provided an excellent opportunity to describe and assess the contribution of science and technology to the development of Third World countries and to focus attention on what science and technology are likely to accomplish in the decade to come.

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447 Forthcoming Books from BOSTID Applications of Biotechnology to Tradtional Fermented Foods (1991) Neem (1991) Vetiver: The Hedge Against Erosion (1991) Forestry Research in the Tropics (1991)

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