a member of the Physics Education Research Group, and the coordinator of the Science Teaching Center at the University of Maryland. Dr. Hammer received his B.A. in physics from Princeton University, an M.A. in physics and a Ph.D. in science and mathematics education from the University of California, Berkeley. His principal focus is studying how science, mainly physics, is learned and taught across ages from young children through adults.

CHARLES HENDERSON is an associate professor at Western Michigan University (WMU), with a joint appointment between the Physics Department and the WMU Mallinson Institute for Science Education. His research within the field of physics education focuses on scaling and sustaining the use of teaching and learning ideas developed by the physics education research (PER) community. This work has involved both assessments of the current use of PER ideas by traditional physics faculty as well as the development and testing of strategies for increasing this use. Dr. Henderson is the physics education research editor for the American Journal of Physics. He has held several leadership positions within the PER community including chair of the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) Committee on Research in Physics Education, president of the Michigan Section of AAPT, editor of the Proceedings of the Physics Education Research Conference, and member of Physics Education Research Leadership and Organizing Council. In spring 2010, he was a Fulbright Scholar working with the Finnish Institute for Educational Research at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland.

PAULA HERON is a professor of physics at the University of Washington. She received a B.Sc. and M.Sc. in physics from the University of Ottawa and a Ph.D. in theoretical condensed matter physics from the University of Western Ontario. She has broad expertise in physics education research, undergraduate education, teaching assistant preparation, and K-12 teacher education. Dr. Heron has given invited talks at conferences and in university physics departments in the United States, Canada, and Europe. She is frequently consulted by national organizations devoted to improving teacher education, such as the Physics Teacher Education Coalition and the National Task Force on Physics Teacher Education. She has served on numerous NSF review committees and on advisory boards to NSF-funded projects. She has been elected to the executive committee of the Forum on Education of the APS and has served as chair of the Committee on Research in Physics Education of AAPT. Dr. Heron is the co-founder and co-chair of the biannual conference series “Foundations and Frontiers in Physics Education Research,” which began in 2005 and has become the leading conference devoted to PER in North America. She was editor of the proceedings of the annual 2-day Physics Education Research Conference in 2005 and conference co-chair in 2010. In 2007 Dr. Heron was elected fellow of the APS. In 2008 she shared the APS Physics Education Award



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