3 Ad Hoc Study Committees: Activities and Membership

When a sponsor requests that the National Research Council (NRC) conduct a study, an ad hoc committee is established for that purpose. The committee terminates when the study is completed. These study committees are subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Section 15, because they provide advice and recommendations to the federal government. The Space Studies Board (SSB) and/or one of its standing committees provide oversight for ad hoc study committee activities. Eight ad hoc study committees were active during 2012; their activities and membership are summarized below. SSB collaborated on one study each with the Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA) and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB).

During 2012, two short, derivative booklets were printed that highlight some of the topic areas in the two decadal surveys printed in 2011: The Role of Life and Physical Sciences for the report Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era and Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science 2013-2022 for the report Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022.

ASSESSMENT OF NASA’S EARTH SCIENCE PROGRAM

The ad hoc Committee on the Assessment of NASA’s Earth Science Program was formed to review the alignment of the NASA Earth Science Division’s program with previous NRC advice, primarily the 2007 NRC decadal survey report, Earth Science and Applications from Space. In carrying out this study, the committee was directed to neither revisit nor alter the scientific priorities or mission recommendations provided in the decadal survey and related NRC reports; however, the committee could provide guidance about implementing the recommended mission portfolio in preparation for the next decadal survey.

The committee met numerous times in 2011 and completed a draft report in 2012. An NRC-approved pre-publication version of the committee’s report, Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Midterm Assessment of NASA’s Implementation of the Decadal Survey, was released to the public on May 2, 2012, and published in August 2012. The Summary of the report is reprinted in Chapter 5.

Membership*

Dennis L. Hartmann, University of Washington (chair)

Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University

Richard A. Anthes, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

Philip E. Ardanuy, Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems

_______________

* All terms expired on April 30, 2012.



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3 Ad Hoc Study Committees: Activities and Membership When a sponsor requests that the National Research Council (NRC) conduct a study, an ad hoc committee is established for that purpose. The committee terminates when the study is completed. These study committees are subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Section 15, because they provide advice and recommendations to the federal government. The Space Studies Board (SSB) and/or one of its standing committees provide oversight for ad hoc study committee activities. Eight ad hoc study committees were active during 2012; their activities and membership are summarized below. SSB collaborated on one study each with the Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA) and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB). During 2012, two short, derivative booklets were printed that highlight some of the topic areas in the two decadal surveys printed in 2011: The Role of Life and Physical Sciences for the report Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era and Vision and Voyages for Planetary ­Science 2013-2022 for the report Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022. ASSESSMENT OF NASA’S EARTH SCIENCE PROGRAM The ad hoc Committee on the Assessment of NASA’s Earth Science Program was formed to review the align- ment of the NASA Earth Science Division’s program with previous NRC advice, primarily the 2007 NRC decadal survey report, Earth Science and Applications from Space. In carrying out this study, the committee was directed to neither revisit nor alter the scientific priorities or mission recommendations provided in the decadal survey and related NRC reports; however, the committee could provide guidance about implementing the recommended mis- sion portfolio in preparation for the next decadal survey. The committee met numerous times in 2011 and completed a draft report in 2012. An NRC-approved pre­ publication version of the committee’s report, Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Midterm Assessment of NASA’s Implementation of the Decadal Survey, was released to the public on May 2, 2012, and published in August 2012. The Summary of the report is reprinted in Chapter 5. Membership* Dennis L. Hartmann, University of Washington (chair) Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University Richard A. Anthes, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Philip E. Ardanuy, Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems * All terms expired on April 30, 2012. 23

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24 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2012 Stacey Boland, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Antonio J. Busalacchi, Jr., University of Maryland Anny Cazenave, Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, France Ruth S. DeFries, Columbia University Lee-Lueng Fu, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Bradford H. Hager, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Allen Huang, University of Wisconsin, Madison Anthony C. Janetos, University of Maryland and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Dennis P. Lettenmaier, University of Washington Jennifer A. Logan, Harvard University Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future Anne W. Nolin, Oregon State University Joyce E. Penner, University of Michigan Michael J. Prather, University of California, Irvine David S. Schimel, National Ecological Observatory Network, Inc. William F. Townsend, Independent Consultant, Annapolis, Maryland Thomas H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State University Staff Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, SSB (study director) Lewis Groswald, Research Associate, SSB Linda M. Walker, Senior Program Assistant, SSB Danielle Piskorz, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern ASSESSMENT OF A PLAN FOR U.S. PARTICIPATION IN EUCLID The ad hoc Committee on the Assessment of a Plan for U.S. Participation in Euclid, formed under the auspices of BPA in collaboration with SSB, was organized to determine whether a proposed NASA plan for a U.S. hardware contribution to the European Space Agency’s Euclid mission, in exchange for U.S. membership on the Euclid Sci- ence Team and science data access, is a viable part of an overall strategy to pursue the science goals (dark energy measurements, exoplanet detection, and infrared survey science) of the Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope—the top-ranked, large-scale, space-based priority of the astronomy and astrophysics decadal survey report New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics. The committee met only once, on January 18-20, 2012, Washington, D.C. The report of the panel, Assessment of a Plan for U.S. Participation in Euclid, was released publicly in final form on February 3. The Summary of the report is reprinted in Chapter 5. Membership* David N. Spergel, Princeton University (chair) Charles Alcock, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Rachel Bean, Cornell University Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Romeel Davé, University of Arizona Alan Dressler, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science Debra M. Elmegreen, Vassar College Joshua A. Frieman, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Thomas A. Prince, California Institute of Technology Marcia J. Rieke, University of Arizona * All terms ended on April 30, 2012.

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Ad Hoc Study Committees 25 Staff David B. Lang, Program Officer, BPA (co-study director) Caryn J. Knutsen, Associate Program Officer, BPA (co-study director) Lewis Groswald, Research Associate, SSB Amanda R. Thibault, Research Associate, ASEB Dionna Williams, Program Associate, SSB DECADAL STRATEGY FOR SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS (HELIOPHYSICS) The Decadal Strategy for Solar and Space Physics (Heliophysics) was formed to conduct a broadly based assess­ ent decadal survey of the scientific priorities of the U.S. solar and space physics research enterprise for the m period 2013-2022. The survey was composed of a steering committee supported by three discipline-oriented study panels. In addition, five “national capabilities working groups,” made up of survey member and other scientists from the space physics community, assisted in gathering information and providing context to the survey’s work in the following focus areas: Theory and Modeling and Data Exploitation; Explorers, Suborbital, and Other Plat- forms; Innovations: Technology, Instruments, Data Systems; Research to Operations/Operations to Research; and Workforce and Education. The steering committee also created several splinter study groups to address particular subjects of interest. In response to a request from NASA, the survey also broadened its work plan to include explicit consideration of “decision rules” relevant to the Solar Probe Plus mission, which was planned for a 2018 launch. As was done for the recent planetary exploration and astronomy and astrophysics decadal surveys, the NRC contracted with the Aerospace Corporation to perform cost and technical analysis (CATE) of selected survey-developed con- cepts. Assisted by representatives of the panels and the steering committee, Aerospace completed the first phase of this analysis (a “pre-CATE” of 12 reference mission concepts) during the first quarter of 2012; the second and final phase was completed in the second quarter. The survey report, Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society, report outlines programs, initiatives, and investments in the field that will promote fundamental advances in scientific knowledge of the space environment—from the interior of the Sun, to the atmosphere of Earth, to “space weather.” Considering scientific value, urgency, cost, risk, and technical readiness, the report identifies the highest priority targets for 2013-2022. A prepublication version of the report was released on August 15, 2012, at a press event that was also recorded by NASA TV (http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sunearth/news/decadal-2012.html); the Summary of this publica- tion is reprinted in Chapter 5. The report has been briefed to senior officials at NASA Headquarters, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the National Science Foundation, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory; and staff of the Office of Management and Budget, the Office of Science and Technol- ogy Policy (OSTP), the Senate Commerce Committee, the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies, and the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies. A town hall event to discuss the survey was held on November 16 in Boulder, Colorado. In addition, the s ­ urvey chair, Daniel N. Baker, testified on November 28 at a House Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics hear- ing, “­ ational Priorities for Solar and Space Physics Research and Applications for Space Weather Prediction.” N Dr. Baker also presented the findings of the survey at several events, including a town hall meeting that occurred during the American Geophysical Union Fall meeting on December 3-7 in San Francisco, California. NASA’s initial response to the survey was also presented at this meeting (go to http:// heliophysics.nasa.gov/AGU2012_Townhall. pdf and http:// heliophysics.nasa.gov/HPRoadmapAGU_TownHall2012.pdf). An edited and final version of the r ­ eport is expected to be available in late March or early April of this year. This report will be dedicated to Dr. Robert P. Lin, who passed away suddenly on November 17, 2012. Steering Committee Membership Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado, Boulder (chair) Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan (vice chair) Brian J. Anderson, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory

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26 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2012 Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering James F. Drake, Jr., University of Maryland, College Park Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan Marvin A. Geller, Stony Brook University Sarah Gibson, National Center for Atmospheric Research Michael Hesse, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center J. Todd Hoeksema, Stanford University Mary K. Hudson, Dartmouth College David L. Hysell, Cornell University Thomas Immel, University of California, Berkeley Justin Kasper, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Judith L. Lean, Naval Research Laboratory Ramon E. Lopez, University of Texas, Arlington Howard J. Singer, NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center Harlan E. Spence, University of New Hampshire Edward C. Stone, California Institute of Technology Staff Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, SSB (study director) Abigail Sheffer, Associate Program Officer, SSB Maureen Mellody, Program Officer, ASEB Lewis Groswald, Research Associate, SSB Terri Baker, Senior Program Assistant, SSB (until April) Linda M. Walker, Senior Program Assistant, SSB Danielle Piskorz, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern Bruno Sánchez-Andrade Nuño, National Academies Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow Heather D. Smith, National Academies Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow Panel on Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Interactions Membership Jeffrey M. Forbes, University of Colorado, Boulder (chair) James H. Clemmons, The Aerospace Corporation (vice chair) Odile de la Beaujardiere, Air Force Research Laboratory John V. Evans, COMSAT Corporation (retired) Roderick A. Heelis, University of Texas, Dallas Thomas Immel, University of California, Berkeley Janet U. Kozyra, University of Michigan William Lotko, Dartmouth College Gang Lu, High Altitude Observatory Kristina A. Lynch, Dartmouth College Jens Oberheide, Clemson University Larry J. Paxton, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Robert F. Pfaff, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Joshua Semeter, Boston University Jeffrey P. Thayer, University of Colorado, Boulder Panel on Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Interactions Membership Michelle F. Thomsen, Los Alamos National Laboratory (chair) Michael Wiltberger, National Center for Atmospheric Research (vice chair) Joseph Borovsky, Los Alamos National Laboratory

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Ad Hoc Study Committees 27 Joseph F. Fennell, The Aerospace Corporation Jerry Goldstein, Southwest Research Institute Janet C. Green, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Donald A. Gurnett, University of Iowa Lynn M. Kistler, University of New Hampshire Michael W. Liemohn, University of Michigan Robyn Millan, Dartmouth College Donald G. Mitchell, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Tai D. Phan, University of California, Berkeley Michael Shay, University of Delaware Harlan E. Spence, University of New Hampshire Richard M. Thorne, University of California, Los Angeles Panel on Solar and Heliospheric Physics Membership Richard A. Mewaldt, California Institute of Technology (chair) Spiro K. Antiochos, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (vice chair) Timothy S. Bastian, National Radio Astronomy Observatory Joe Giacalone, University of Arizona George Gloeckler, University of Maryland, College Park (emeritus professor) John W. Harvey, National Solar Observatory Russell A. Howard, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory Justin Kasper, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Robert P. Lin,* University of California, Berkeley Glenn M. Mason, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Eberhard Moebius, University of New Hampshire Merav Opher, Boston University Jesper Schou, Stanford University Nathan A. Schwadron, Boston University Amy Winebarger, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Daniel Winterhalter, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Thomas N. Woods, University of Colorado, Boulder EVALUATION OF SPACE RADIATION CANCER RISK MODEL The Committee for Evaluation of Space Radiation Cancer Risk Model was formed to provide a review of NASA’s risk model for radiation-induced cancer in astronauts. The committee met and completed a draft report in 2011. Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation was publicly released and briefed to NASA on January 27, 2012. The report briefing to NASA emphasized the committee’s methodological approaches, with questions focusing on the supporting details of the individual terms analyses and on recommendations for steps NASA should take prior to adoption of the proposed model. Final editing of the report followed its release and the final publication occurred in mid-April of 2012. The published report provides a narrowly focused but highly in-depth technical analysis of the various components of NASA’s proposed risk model and the research on which they are based. The Summary of the report is reprinted in Chapter 5. Membership† R. Julian Preston, Environmental Protection Agency (chair) Joel S. Bedford, Colorado State University Amy Berrington de Gonzalez, National Cancer Institute * Dr. Lin passed away on November 17, 2012. † All terms expired on March 31, 2012.

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28 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2012 B. John Garrick, Garrick Consulting Dudley T. Goodhead, Medical Research Council, United Kingdom (emeritus) Bernard A. Harris, Jr., Vesalius Ventures, Inc. Kathryn D. Held, Massachusetts General Hospital David G. Hoel, Medical University of South Carolina Jack R. Jokipii, University of Arizona, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory Insoo Jun, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Charles E. Land, National Cancer Institute (retired) Hans-Georg Menzel, CERN (retired) Peter O’Neill, University of Oxford Staff Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer, SSB (study director) Amanda R. Thibault, Research Associate, ASEB Rodney Howard, Senior Program Assistant, SSB HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT Under the auspices of the ASEB and SSB and the Committee on National Statistics of the Division of ­Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, the ad hoc Committee on Human Spaceflight was formed to review the long- term goals, core capabilities, and direction of the U.S. human spaceflight program and make recommendations to enable a sustainable U.S. human spaceflight program. Preliminary planning was carried out for this congressionally requested study during the second quarter, with planning funds provided by NASA. Much of this work focused on assembling research materials; the identification of skill sets, knowledge, and perspectives critical to the study; and the broad solicitation of names as well as the review of qualifications for an extensive set of committee candidates. Outreach activities conducted in this period included a discussion session held during the Global Space Exploration Conference in Washington, D.C., where representatives from several space agencies were invited to discuss the per- spectives of their citizens and governments on the value, rationale, and future direction of human space exploration. Coordination activities between groups supporting the study continued to develop during the second quarter as well. Following the transfer of funds from NASA to the NRC, the study commenced on August 1, and the recruit- ment process was underway and nearing completion in the third quarter of 2012, including the appointment of the co-chairs. A wide spectrum of cultural, political, economic and technical issues, critical to the charge envisioned by NASA and Congress, were weighed during the recruitment process. Work also continued in this period on assem- bling and organizing an extensive reference collection for the study, and outreach and coordination are continuing with stakeholder groups and individuals in the U.S. and international communities. Internal planning and coordina- tion work was also conducted during this period across the NRC boards and divisions conducting the study. The committee appointments and the Technical Panel appointments were completed in the fourth quarter. At the committee’s first meeting on December 19, 2012, in Washington, D.C., the committee discussed the study charge and key issues with congressional staff; the NASA Administrator, Deputy Administrator, and senior ­ fficials o from the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate and Science Mission Directorate; and indi­ viduals from the private sector with expertise regarding human spaceflight history, impacts, challenges, and oppor- tunities. The participants in this first meeting also included about 85 members of the general public, both in person and remotely, and the agenda provided time for members of the public to address the study committee with their concerns or issues. Committee Membership Jonathan Lunine, Cornell University (co-chair) William J. Perry, Stanford University (co-chair)* * Resigned from the committee as of February 15, 2013.

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Ad Hoc Study Committees 29 Mitchell E. Daniels, Jr., Purdue University (co-chair)* Bernard F. Burke, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mary Lynne Dittmar, Dittmar Associates, Inc. Pascale Ehrenfreund, George Washington University James S. Jackson, University of Michigan Frank Klotz,† Council on Foreign Relations Franklin D. Martin, Martin Consulting, Inc. David C. Mowery, University of California, Berkeley (emeritus) Bryan D. O’Connor, Independent Aerospace Consultant Stanley Presser, University of Maryland Helen R. Quinn, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (emeritus) Asif A. Siddiqi, Fordham University John C. Sommerer, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Roger Tourangeau, Westat, Inc. Ariel Waldman, Spacehack.org Cliff Zukin,‡ Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Staff Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer, SSB (study director) Krisztina Marton, Senior Program Officer, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Alan Angleman, Senior Program Officer, ASEB Abigail A. Sheffer, Program Officer, SSB Amanda R. Thibault, Research Associate, ASEB Dionna Williams, Program Associate, SSB Technical Panel John C. Sommerer, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (chair) Douglas M. Allen, Independent Consultant Raymond E. Arvidson, Washington University in St. Louis Richard C. Atkinson, University of California, San Diego (emeritus) Robert D. Braun, Georgia Institute of Technology Elizabeth R. Cantwell, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Douglas R. Cooke,§ Cooke Concepts and Solutions David E. Crow, University of Connecticut Ravi B. Deo, EMBR Robert S. Dickman, Independent Consultant, RD Space, LLC Joseph W. Hamaker, The Millennium Group International Dava J. Newman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology John Rogacki, Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (Ocala) Guillermo Trotti, Trotti and Associates, Inc. IMPLEMENTATION OF A SUSTAINED LAND IMAGING PROGRAM The ad hoc Committee for the Implementation of a Sustained Land Imaging Program was formed to assess the needs and opportunities to develop a space-based operational land imaging capability. In particular, the committee will examine the elements of a sustained space-based Land Imaging Program with a focus on the Department of Interior’s U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) role in such a program. * Joined the committee on February 15, 2013. † Term began in January 2013. ‡ Term began in January 2013. § Resigned on January 15, 2013, due to unexpected changes in consulting work.

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30 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2012 The committee held its first meeting on February 1-3 in Washington, D.C., where it heard briefings from the USGS, NASA, NOAA, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture regarding their use of land imaging data. The com- mittee also heard from a panel of commercial data services providers and discussed administration perspectives with OSTP representatives. During its second meeting on April 25-27 in Washington, D.C., the committee heard an update from the USGS, discussed the use of Landsat Data by the Forest Service, and discussed public-private partnerships and land imaging data buys. The committee also heard from Western States Water Council and an expert on thermal band imaging. The committee held two writing meetings—one on June 4 in Irvine, California, and the final one on October 23-24 in Santa Barbara, California. The prepublication report is expected to be delivered in early 2013. Membership Jeff Dozier, University of California, Santa Barbara (chair) Carlos E. Del Castillo, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Jack D. Fellows, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (retired) Kathleen O. Green, Kass Green and Associates John R. Jensen, University of South Carolina Dennis P. Lettenmaier, University of Washington Berrien Moore III, University of Oklahoma, The National Weather Center Diane E. Pataki, University of Utah David S. Schimel, National Ecological Observatory Network, Inc. Walter S. Scott, Digital Globe, Inc. William F. Townsend, Independent Aerospace Consultant, Annapolis, Md. Howard A. Zebker, Stanford University Mary Lou Zoback, Stanford University Staff Abigail A. Sheffer, Associate Program Officer, SSB (study director) Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, SSB Lewis Groswald, Research Associate, SSB Linda M. Walker, Senior Program Assistant, SSB NASA’S STRATEGIC DIRECTION Congress directed NASA to conduct a study of NASA’s strategic direction. The parent division of SSB and ASEB, the Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences (DEPS), was asked by NASA to conduct a comprehen- sive, agency-wide assessment of NASA’s strategic direction. ASEB and SSB staff helped to manage the study on NASA’s Strategic Direction for DEPS. The committee held meetings on May 1-2, June 25-27, and July 26-27 (all in Washington, D.C) and on August 6-7 (Irvine, California). Committee members also visited all of the NASA field centers and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, learning about the work they perform and their perspectives on the future of the agency. The committee held its fifth and final meeting on September 20-21 in El Segundo, California, and drafted its report during the third quarter. The committee delivered its final report, NASA’s Strategic Direction and the Need for a National Consensus, to NASA and Congress in early December. Committee Chair Albert Carnesale and Vice Chair Ron Sega, along with NRC staff, briefed Congressman Frank Wolf and his staff; NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden and Deputy Administrator Lori Garver; John P. Holdren, Director of the Office of Science and Technology and Assistant to the President for Science and Technology; and staff of the Senate Appropriations and Authorizations Committees. Dr. Carnesale and NRC staff also briefed staff of the House Appropriations Committee and the House Science, Space, and Technology Committee as well as other congressional staff. On December 12, Maj. Gen. Sega testified about the report before the House Science, Space, and Technology Committee. The committee’s final report was printed in early January 2013. The Summary is reprinted in Chapter 5.

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Ad Hoc Study Committees 31 Membership Albert Carnesale, University of California, Los Angeles (chair) Ronald M. Sega, Colorado State University Research Foundation (vice chair) Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University Jacques E. Blamont, Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES) John C. Brock, Northrup Gruman Space Technology (retired) Robert L. Crippen, Thiokol Propulsion Group (retired) Joseph S. Hezir, EOP Group, Inc. Ann R. Karagozian, University of California, Los Angeles Mark J. Lewis, IDA Marcia S. Smith, Space and Technology Policy Group, LLC Michael S. Turner, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics Warren M. Washington, National Center for Atmospheric Research Staff Dwayne A. Day, Senior Program Officer, ASEB (study director) Michael H. Moloney, Director, ASEB and SSB Alan Angleman, Senior Program Officer, ASEB David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, SSB Amanda R. Thibault, Research Associate, ASEB Linda M. Walker, Senior Program Assistant, SSB PLANETARY PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR ICY BODIES IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM The ad hoc Committee on Planetary Protection Standards for Icy Bodies in the Solar System was established to develop and recommend planetary protection policies for future spacecraft missions, including orbiters, landers, and subsurface probes, to the icy bodies in the outer solar system (asteroids, satellites, Kuiper belt objects, and comets) in light of current scientific understanding and ongoing improvements in mission-enabling capabilities and technologies. The committee met in and complete a draft report in 2011. Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Spacecraft Missions to Icy Solar System Bodies, was released to the public on April 16, 2012. The final, printed report was published in early July. The Summary of the report is reprinted in Chapter 5. Since the report’s delivery to NASA, its conclusions and recommendations have been presented to various groups, including NASA Headquarters staff, NASA’s Planetary Protection Subcommittee, the staff of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, and participants in the COSPAR Planetary Protection Colloquium (Alpbach, Austria) and in the 39th COSPAR Scientific Assembly (Mysore, India). In early June, Catharine Conley, NASA’s Planetary Protection Officer, requested that the SSB conduct additional dissemination of the report’s con- clusions and recommendations. In response, the SSB convened a community briefing at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., on July 9-10. During the course of that day and a half event, an invited group of former committee members and outside experts conducted in-depth discussions of report’s ramifications and, in particular, the relationship between the reports principal recommendations and current COSPAR policies for icy solar system bodies. Membership* Mitchell L. Sogin, Marine Biological Laboratory (chair) Geoffrey Collins, Wheaton College (vice chair) Amy Baker, Technical Administrative Services * All terms ended in March 31, 2012.

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32 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2012 John A. Baross, University of Washington Amy C. Barr, Brown University William V. Boynton, University of Arizona Charles S. Cockell, University of Edinburgh Michael J. Daly, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Joseph R. Fragola, Valador, Inc. Rosaly M.C. Lopes, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Kenneth H. Nealson, University of Southern California Douglas S. Stetson, Space Science and Exploration Consulting Group Mark H. Thiemens, University of California, San Diego Staff David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, SSB (study director) Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, SSB Heather D. Smith, National Academies Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow Anna B. Williams, National Academies Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow Katie Daud, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern Danielle Piskorz, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern