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2 Board and Standing Committees: Activities and Membership The Board and its standing committees provide strategic direction and oversee activities of ad hoc study com- mittees (see Chapter 3), interact with sponsors, and serve as a communications conduit between the government and the scientific community. They do not provide formal advice and recommendations, and therefore are not subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Section 15. During 2012, the Space Studies Board (SSB) had four standing committees representing various disciplines: Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Science (CAPS), the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics (CAA; jointly with the Board on Physics and Astronomy, BPA), the Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (CESAS), the and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP). SPACE STUDIES BOARD HIGHLIGHTS OF SPACE STUDIES BOARD ACTIVITIES The Space Studies Board did not meet in person during the first quarter of 2012. The SSB spring meeting was held in the second quarter, April 4-5, in Washington, D.C. The first day of the meeting was a joint session with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board where the boards heard from Gale Allen from NASA’s Office of the Chief Scientist, Mason Peck, NASA’s Chief Technologist, and Bill Gerstenmaier, Associate Administrator for N ­ ASA’s Human Explora­ion and Operations Mission Directorate, as well as NASA’s Associate Administrator t Robert ­ ightfoot. The boards also received updates from the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the L Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and staffers from the U.S. Senate and U.S. House of Representatives. On April 5 the boards met individually. SSB had discussions with NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Deputy Asso­ciate Administrator Chuck Gay, and SMD Division directors (or their representatives) and also received updates from Mary Kicza, Assistant Administrator for Satellite and Information Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and Tim Killeen, Assistant Director for Geosciences, National Science Foundation (NSF). The Board did not meet in person during the third quarter; however, the Executive Committee of the Board (XCOM) met on August 8-9 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, for its annual planning ­session. In addition to other strategic planning discussions, the XCOM met with former chairs and vice chairs of the SSB, current chairs of the SSB standing committees, staff from OSTP, the U.S. Senate, and NASA SMD for a discus- sion on the impact and roles of the SSB and future challenges for the space science community. The XCOM also received a briefing from Doug McCuistion (NASA) and Jim Green (NASA) on the status of the Curiosity/Mars Science Laboratory, which had just landed on August 5, 2012. 8

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Board and Standing Committees 9 The Board met on November 14 at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, following the November 12-13 Workshop on Lessons Learned in Decadal Planning in Space Science. The morning session focused on a discussion of the Board’s impressions from the workshop and how the information that was gathered could be used in a potential follow-on study with recommendations for future decadal surveys and midterm assess- ments. The afternoon session was a discussion with the leadership of SSB’s four standing committees on topics and issues that are of concern in their respective communities. SPACE STUDIES BOARD MEMBERSHIP July 1, 2011–June 30, 2012 July 1, 2012–June 30, 2013 Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Diego Diego (chair) (chair) John M. Klineberg, Space Systems/Loral (retired) John M. Klineberg, Space Systems/Loral (retired) (vice chair) (vice chair) Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering James Anderson, Harvard University Yvonne C. Brill, Aerospace Consultant James Bagian, University of Michigan Elizabeth R. Cantwell, Lawrence Livermore National Yvonne C. Brill, Aerospace Consultant Laboratory Elizabeth R. Cantwell, Lawrence Livermore National Andrew B. Christensen, Dixie State College of Utah Laboratory Alan Dressler, Observatories of the Carnegie Andrew B. Christensen, Dixie State College of Utah Institution Alan Dressler, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution Jack D. Fellows, University Corporation for Thomas R. Gavin, California Institute of Technology Atmospheric Research Heidi B. Hammel, AURA Heidi B. Hammel, AURA Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology Joseph S. Hezir, EOP Group, Inc. Anthony C. Janetos, University of Maryland Anthony C. Janetos, University of Maryland Joan Johnson-Freese, Naval War College Joan Johnson-Freese, Naval War College Robert P. Lin, University of California, Berkeley* Robert P. Lin, University of California, Berkeley* Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future John F. Mustard, Brown University John F. Mustard, Brown University Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology California Institute of Technology James Pawelczyk, Pennsylvania State University Marcia J. Rieke, University of Arizona Marcia J. Rieke, University of Arizona David N. Spergel, Princeton University David N. Spergel, Princeton University Meenakshi Wadhwa, Arizona State University Warren M. Washington, National Center for Clifford M. Will, University of Florida Atmospheric Research Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan Clifford M. Will, Washington University Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan Ex Officio and Liaison Participants Lester Lyles, The Lyles Group (ex-officio, chair, NRC Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board) Jean-Pierre Swings, Université de Liège (liaison, chair of the European Space Science Committee) * Dr. Lin, also the U.S. Representative to COSPAR, passed away on November 17, 2012.

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10 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2012 Membership of the SSB Executive Committee July 1, 2011–June 30, 2012 July 1, 2012–June 30, 2013 Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Diego Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Diego (chair) (chair) John M. Klineberg, Space Systems/Loral (retired) John M. Klineberg, Space Systems/Loral (retired) (vice chair) (vice chair) Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University Elizabeth R. Cantwell, Lawrence Livermore National Elizabeth R. Cantwell, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Laboratory Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Robert T. Pappalardo, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology California Institute of Technology Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan Staff in 2012 Michael H. Moloney, Director Joseph K. Alexander, Senior Program Officer Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer Ian W. Pryke, Senior Program Officer David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer Dwayne A. Day,* Senior Program Officer, ASEB David Lang,* Program Officer, BPA Abigail A. Sheffer, Associate Program Officer Lewis Groswald, Research Associate Amanda Thibault,* Research Associate, ASEB (to January 2013) Danielle Piskorz, Research Assistant (from May 2012 to December 2012) Celeste A. Naylor, Information Management Associate Tanja E. Pilzak, Manager, Program Operations Christina O. Shipman, Financial Officer Sandra Wilson, Senior Financial Assistant Catherine A. Gruber, Editor Carmela J. Chamberlain, Administrative Coordinator Andrea Rebholz,* Program Associate, ASEB Dionna Williams, Program Associate Terri Baker, Senior Program Assistant (until April) Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant Linda M. Walker, Senior Program Assistant Space Policy Interns Michael W. Barton, 2012 Summer Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern Miles Lifson, 2012 Summer Space Policy Intern Joseph G. O’Rourke, 2012 Summer Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern Danielle Piskorz, 2011 Fall Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern Christine Mirzayan Fellows Chase Estrin,* Winter 2011 Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow, ASEB Cheryl Moy,* Fall 2012 Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow, ASEB * Staff from other NRC Boards who are shared with the SSB.

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Board and Standing Committees 11 U.S. NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR COSPAR The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) held its annual business meetings in Paris, France, on March 12-15. These meetings included the initial discussions of the agenda for the first COSPAR Symposium—to focus on the themes of the planets of the solar system and extrasolar planetary systems and the future of space a ­ stronomy—and the final deliberations of the Science Program Committee for the Mysore Scientific Assembly. Addi­ ional meetings included the COSPAR Scientific Advisory Committee (CSAC) and the Bureau. A major topic t of discussion during the meetings of the Bureau was a series of proposed revisions to COSPAR bylaws. The revi- sions included proposals to elect the COSPAR president via a postal ballot, enhancing the status and responsibilities of the chairs of COSPAR’s scientific commissions, recognizing the important role played by CSAC, and the removal of gender-specific and other outmoded language. The revisions were accepted by the Bureau and remanded to the Council for final approval. The 39th COSPAR Scientific Assembly was held in at the Narayana Murthy Center of Excellence on the Infosys campus in Mysore, India, on July 14-22, 2012. A total of 3,504 abstracts were received, and 2,838 delegates from 73 countries attended the assembly. As per its usual custom, the Council met twice during the assembly. Topics addressed during the Council meetings included the adoption of the proposed bylaw changes and the selection of the site for the 2016 Scientific Assembly. Italy’s Instituto Nazionale di Astrofisica proposed Rome as the site for the 2016 assembly. The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey issued a invitation on behalf of Istanbul. Following presentations and discussions, the Turkish bid was accepted by a vote of 30 to 13. The year 2012 ended on a sad note with the sudden death of Robert P. Lin, the U.S. representative to and vice president of COSPAR. Lennard Fisk was appointed as the U.S. representative to COSPAR in February 2013. The vice presidency will likely remain vacant until the COSPAR elections in 2014. COSPAR events scheduled to occur in 2013 include the annual round of business meetings in Paris, France, on March 18-21, and the inaugural COSPAR Symposium, to be held in Bangkok, Thailand, on November 11-15. COSPAR’s 40th Scientific Assembly will be held at the Lomonosov Moscow State University in Moscow, Russia, on August 2-10, 2014. U.S. Representative to COSPAR Robert P. Lin, University of California, Berkeley* Staff David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, SSB (executive secretary for COSPAR) Carmela J. Chamberlain, Administrative Coordinator, SSB STANDING COMMITTEES COMMITTEE ON ASTROBIOLOGY AND PLANETARY SCIENCE The Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Science is a new activity combining the responsibilities formerly exercised by the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX) and the Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life (COEL). The committee’s co-chairs and 17 members were appointed during the first quarter of 2012. The committee’s first meeting, at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., on May 23-25 was devoted to familiarizing the committee with NASA’s current programs in the areas of planetary science and astrobiology. Particular attention was paid to the administration’s proposed fiscal year 2013 budget for NASA’s Plan- etary Science Division and its implications for the implementation of the scientific and programmatic recommen- dations contained in the planetary science decadal survey Vision and Voyages for ­ lanetary Science in the Decade P 2013-2022. In addition, the committee heard presentations on re-planning activities in NASA’s post-MAVEN Mars ­ exploration activities and the restructuring of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter mission into flyby and orbital elements. * Dr. Lin, also an SSB member, passed away on November 17, 2012.

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12 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2012 The committee’s second meeting, at the National Academies’ Beckman Center in Irvine, California, on Sep- tember 24-25, was devoted primarily to briefings and discussions concerning the current status of NASA’s Mars exploration plans for the post-2016 period and the most recent results from the Europa flagship mission rescoping activities. Among the other agenda topics were briefings on the initial results from the Mars Science Laboratory and planning for the European Space Agency’s Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter mission. CAPS did not meet during the fourth quarter of 2012 but, rather, held the first of a planned series of bimonthly conference calls. The first such call took place on November 26 where three topics were discussed: (1) a status report by Co-Chair Philip Christensen on the CAPS presentations at the meetings of the SSB and the Planetary Science Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council; (2) a brief report by James Green on recent activities of NASA’s Planetary Science Division; and (3) possible topics for joint sessions with CAA during NRC Space Science Week. With respect to the third topic, CAPS is coordinating with CAA to schedule a joint session on the topic of exoplanets. The next conference call was scheduled to take place on 23 January, 2013. The next meeting of CAPS will take place at the National Academy of Sciences building in Washington, D.C., on March 6-8, 2013, during the SSB’s Space Science Week. A historical summary of NRC-SSB advice on astrobiology and planetary protection is presented in Figure 2.1. A historical summary of NRC-SSB advice on solar system exploration is presented in Figure 2.2. Membership Philip R. Christensen, Arizona State University (co-chair) J. Gregory Ferry, Pennsylvania State University (co-chair) Sushil K. Atreya, University of Michigan Amy C. Barr, Brown University Richard P. Binzel, Massachusetts Institute of Technology John Clarke, Boston University Geoffrey Collins, Wheaton College Pascale Ehrenfreund, George Washington University Linda T. Elkins-Tanton, Carnegie Institution for Science G. Scott Hubbard, Stanford University Laurie A. Leshin, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Stephen Mackwell, Lunar and Planetary Institute Michael Russell, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Gary Ruvkun, Massachusetts General Hospital Gerald Schubert, University of California, Los Angeles Barbara Sherwood Lollar, University of Toronto Norman H. Sleep, Stanford University Cristina Takacs-Vesbach, University of New Mexico Roger V. Yelle, University of Arizona Staff David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, SSB Amanda Thibault, Research Associate, ASEB Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, SSB

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Board and Standing Committees 13 Conference on Hazard of Planetary Contamination Due to Microbiological Contamination in the Interior of Spacecraft Components (1965) Biology and the Exploration of Mars (1965) “Study on the Biological Quarantine of Venus ” (1967) Extraterrestrial Life—An “Review of the Anthology and Bibliography, Sterilization Supplementary to Biology and the “Review of Planetary Parameter Probability Exploration of Mars (1966) Quarantine Policy” of Growth (Pg)” (1972) (1970) “On Contamination of the Life Sciences in Space (1970) Outer Planets by Earth Organisms” (1976) Post-Viking Biological Investigations of Mars (1977) “Recommendation on Quarantine Policy for Uranus, Neptune, and Titan” (1976) Origin and Evolution of Life—Implications Recommendations on Quarantine Policy for Mars, Jupiter, for the Planets: A Scientific Strategy for Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Titan (1978) the 1980s (1981) “On Categorization of the “On NASA Policy for Planetary The Search for Life’s Strategy for the Mars Orbiter Mission” (1985) Protection” (1985) Origins: Progress and Detection and Study of Future Directions in Other Planetary Planetary Biology and Systems and Extrasolar “On Categorization “Recommendation on Chemical Evolution (1990) Planetary Materials: of the Comet Planetary Protection 1990-2000 (1990) Rendezvous– Categorization of the Comet Biological Contamination of Asteroid Flyby Rendezvous-Asteroid Flyby Mars: Issues and Mission” (1986) Mission and the Titan- Recommendations (1992) Cassini Mission” (1988) An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Sciences: 1995-2010 (1994) Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations Evaluating the Biological Potential in Samples Returned (1997) from Planetary Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies: Framework for Decision Making (1998) Size Limits of Very Small Microorganisms: Proceedings of a Workshop (1999) “On Scientific Assessment Preventing the of Options for the Forward Disposition of the Galileo Contamination of The Quarantine and Certification Spacecraft” (2000) Europa (2000) of Martian Samples (2002) Signs of Life: A Report Based on the April 2000 Workshop on Life Detection Techniques (2002) Life in the Universe: An Assessment of U.S. and International Programs in Astrobiology (2003) Preventing the Forward “Assessment of Planetary Contamination of Mars (2006) Protection Requirements for The Astrophysical Context of Life (2005) Venus Missions” (2006) An Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System (2007) Exploration of Mars (2007) The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems (2007) Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Assessment of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (2007) Spacecraft Missions to Icy Solar System Bodies (2012) (2009) Mars related FIGURE 2.1  NRC-SSB advice on astrobiology and planetary protection (1965-2012).

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14 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2012 INNER PLANETS OUTER PLANETS PRIMITIVE BODIES Lunar Exploration— Strategy for The Outer Solar System: A Research: 1969-1975 (1969) Program for Exploration (1969) Venus: Strategy for Outer Planets Exploration: Exploration (1970) 1972-1985 (1971) “Report of the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration,” Section II of Report on Space Science—1975 (1976) Strategy for the Exploration of Strategy for Exploration of the A Strategy for Exploration Primitive Solar-System Inner Planets: 1977-1987 (1978) of the Outer Planets: Bodies—Asteroids, Comets, 1986-1996 (1986) and Meteoroids: 1980-1990 (1980) Update to Strategy for Exploration of the Inner Planets (1990) An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Sciences: 1995-2010 (1994) Assessment of Mars A Science Strategy for the Exploring the Trans- Science and Mission Exploration of Europa (1999) Neptunian Solar Priorities (2001) System (1998) The Exploration of Near-Earth Objects (1998) New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy (2002) Priorities in Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion (2005) Assessment of NASA's Mars Architecture 2007-2016 (2006) The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (2007) Grading NASA’s Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Review (2008) Opening New Frontiers in Space: Choices for the Next New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity (2008) Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA's Constellation System: Interim Report (2008) Launching Science: Science Opportunities Provided by NASA’s Constellation System (2009) Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration (2009) Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022 (2011) FIGURE 2.2  NRC-SSB advice on solar system exploration (1969-2012). Origins of life topics are covered in Figure 2.1.

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Board and Standing Committees 15 COMMITTEE ON ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS The Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics, which operates under the joint auspices of the SSB and the BPA, was on hiatus during the decadal survey but was reconstituted in the first quarter of 2012. The committee’s first meeting of the year was on June 4-6 at the Keck Center of the National Academies in Washington, D.C. At the meeting, the committee heard presentations from the NASA Astrophysics Division and NASA SMD, the Depart- ment of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of High Energy Physics, and the NSF’s Division of Astronomical Sciences (AST), Scott Gaudi, James Kasting, Sarah Church, Steven Ritz, Ed Feddeman, and Alan Dressler. The committee held roundtable discussions with representatives from NASA, DOE, and NSF. Of particular note, NASA announced that the Astrophysics Division had acquired two telescopes with 2.4-meter mirrors, and will begin to contemplate the use of the telescopes for advancing WFIRST scientific priorities. CAA held a WebEx meeting on July 27 to hear a presentation on the final report of the WFIRST Science Defini- tion Team. Neil Gehrels, NASA WFIRST Study Scientist, presented the report’s findings. Paul Hertz, Director of the Astrophysics Division also spoke about what NASA is doing in response to the report. The committee held another WebEx meeting on September 7 to hear a presentation on the report of the Portfolio Review Committee. Daniel Eisenstein, chair of the committee, delivered the presentation. Jim Ulvestad, Director of the NSF/AST, discussed how the NSF was going to move forward procedurally. During the fourth quarter, CAA held two WebEx meetings: (1) October 16 to hear presentations on the final reports of the NASA Gravitational Wave Mission Concept Study from Tuck Stebbins (NASA) and the NASA X- ray Mission Concepts Study from Rob Petre (NASA) and (2) on November 7 to hear about NASA Astrophysics’ work on its Astrophysics Implementation Plan. The CAA also held a town hall at the January 2013 meeting of the American Astronomical Society. CAA will meet again on March 6-8, 2013 during the NRC Space Science Week. A historical summary of reports from CAA and related committees is presented in Figure 2.3. Membership Paul L. Schechter, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (co-chair) David N. Spergel, Princeton University (co-chair) Jeremiah K. Darling, University of Colorado, Boulder Megan Donahue, Michigan State University Debra Fischer, Yale University Joshua A. Frieman, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and University of Chicago Charles F. Gammie, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Timothy M. Heckman, Johns Hopkins University Lynne Hillenbrand, California Institute of Technology Robert P. Kirshner, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Christopher F. McKee, University of California, Berkeley Rene A. Ong, University of California, Los Angeles Eve C. Ostriker, Princeton University Marcia J. Rieke, University of Arizona J. Craig Wheeler, University of Texas, Austin Eric M. Wilcots, University of Wisconsin, Madison A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin (retired) Staff David B. Lang, Program Officer, BPA Lewis Groswald, Research Associate, SSB Dionna Williams, Program Associate, SSB

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16 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2012 A Strategy for Space Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s (1979) Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s (1982) Institutional Arrangements for the Space Telescope (1976) Institutional Arrangements The Explorer Program for Long-Lived Space Space Science in the Twenty- for the Space Telescope: A Astronomy and Observatories for Astronomy First CenturyAstronomy and Mid-Term Review (1985) Astrophysics (1986) and Astrophysics (1987) Astrophysics (1988) The Decade of Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1991) A Scientific Assessment of A Strategy for Ground-Based Review of Gravity a New Technology Orbital Optical and Infrared Probe B (1995) Telescope (1995) Astronomy (1995) A New Science Strategy for Space Astronomy Ground-Based Solar Failed Stars and Super Federal Funding of and Astrophysics (1997) Research (1998) Planets (1998) Astronomical Research (2000) Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium (2000) U.S. Astronomy and Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos (2002) “Review of Science The Atacama Large Astrophysics: Requirements for the Millimeter Array (ALMA): Managing an Terrestrial Planet Finder: Implications of a Potential Integrated Program Letter Report” (2004) Descope (2005) (2001) “The Review of Progress in Astronomy and The Astrophysical Context of Life (2005) NASA’s Beyond Einstein Portals to the Universe: Astrophysics toward the Decadal Vision Program: An Architecture The NASA Astronomy (The Mid-Course Review)” (2005) for Implementation Science Centers (2007) (2007) A Performance Assessment of NASA’s Astrophysics Program (2007) New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2010) Panel ReportsNew Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011) Report of the Panel on Implementing Recommendations from the Assessment of a Plan for U.S. Participation in Euclid (2012) New Worlds, New Horizons Decadal Survey (2012) FIGURE 2.3  NRC-SSB advice on astronomy and astrophysics (1979-2012).

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Board and Standing Committees 17 COMMITTEE ON EARTH SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS FROM SPACE The Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (CESAS) did not meet during the first quarter; however, several former members of the committee previously served on an ad hoc committee assessing NASA’s progress in implementing the 2007 Earth science and applications from space decadal survey at the mid-point of the decadal survey cycle (the 2007 decadal survey in Earth science, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, was the first Earth science decadal survey published by the NRC). The resulting mid-decade review report was published in mid-2012. Nominations to the newly reconstituted CESAS were approved by the NRC shortly before the first quarter of 2012 ended. CESAS held its first meeting of the year on July 10-11 at the Keck Center of the National Academies in W ­ ashington, D.C. At the meeting, CESAS was updated on the status of current and future NASA Earth science pro- grams and missions. CESAS received presentations from representatives of NASA’s Earth Science Division (ESD): Michael Freilich (ESD Director), Lawrence Friedl (Director, NASA Applied Sciences Program), and Jack Kaye (ESD Associate Director for Research). The committee also heard from Peter Colohan and Johannes Loschnigg from OSTP; Byron Tapley, chair of the NASA Earth Science Subcommittee (by teleconference); and Jeremy Weirich, a staff mem- ber of the Senate Committee on Appropriations. In addition, CESAS received a briefing from Robert Winokur, chair of the NOAA Science Advisory Board’s Satellite Architecture Study. During the meeting, CESAS discussed—among other items—the recently released report Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Midterm Assessment of NASA’s Implementation of the Decadal Survey. The committee had lengthy discussions with ESD leadership on its potential role in following up on the findings and recommendations in the report as well as other areas of mutual interest. CESAS held a teleconference with NASA ESD Director Mike Freilich on November 26 to discuss possible new activities for the committee. Planning has also begun for the committee’s second in-person meeting on March 6-8, 2013 as a part of the NRC Space Science Week in Washington, DC. A historical summary of NRC-SSB advice on Earth science and applications in space is presented in Figure 2.4. Membership Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University (chair) Joyce E. Penner, University of Michigan (vice chair) Steven A. Ackerman, University of Wisconsin, Madison Stacey W. Boland, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Antonio J. Busalacchi, Jr., University of Maryland Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Lee-Lueng Fu, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Inez Y. Fung, University of California, Berkeley Chelle L. Gentemann, Remote Sensing Systems Kenneth C. Jezek, Ohio State University Michael D. King, University of Colorado, Boulder Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future Walter S. Scott, Digital Globe, Inc. David L. Skole, Michigan State University William F. Townsend, Independent Aerospace Consultant Steven C. Wofsy, Harvard University Staff Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, SSB Lewis Groswald, Research Associate, SSB Terri Baker, Senior Program Assistant, SSB (until April) Andrea Rebholz, Program Associate, ASEB

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18 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2012 NASA's Plans for Post-2002 "On Review of Scientific Aspects of the NASA Triana Mission" (2000) Earth Observing Missions (1999) The Role of Small Satellites in NASA and NOAA Earth Observation Programs (2000) Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPP and NPOESS Meteorological Satellites (2000) Review of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Research Issues in the Integration of Issues in the Integration of Strategy for 2000-2010 (2000) Research and Operational Satellite Research and Operational Satellite Systems for Climate Research—I. Systems for Climate Research—II. Science and Design (2000) Implementation (2001) Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications (2001) Toward New Partnerships in Remote Sensing: Government, the Private Sector, and Earth Science Research (2002) Review of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Applications Review of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan (2002) Program Plan (2002) Using Remote Sensing in State and Local Government :Information for Management and Decision Making (2003) “Assessment of NASA's Draft 2003 Earth Science Enterprise Satellite Observations of the Earth's Environment: Strategy” (2003) Accelerating the Transition of Research to Operations (2003) Review of Goals and Plans for Steps to Facilitate Principal-Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions (2004) NASA's Space and Earth Sciences Utilization of Operational Environmental Satellite Data: (2005) Ensuring Readiness for 2010 and Beyond (2004) Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions (2005) “A Review of NASA's 2006 Draft Science Plan: Letter Report” (2006) Earth Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Opportunities to Serve the Nation (2005) Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond (2007) Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: A Workshop Report (2007)* Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: Elements of a Strategy to Recover Measurement Capabilities Lost in Program Restructuring (2008) Uncertainty Assessment of Assessing Requirements Management in Remote Impediments to Interagency for Sustained Ocean Sensing of Climate Collaboration on Space and Color Research and Data: Summary of a Earth Science Missions Operations (2011) Workshop (2009) (2011) Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Midterm Assessment of NASA’s Implementation of the Decadal Survey (2012) *The edited and final version of this Workshop Summary is also included as Appendix B in Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft (2008) FIGURE 2.4  NRC-SSB advice on Earth science and applications in space (1979-2012).

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Board and Standing Committees 19 COMMITTEE ON SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS The Committee on Solar and Space Physics was on hiatus until the completion of the solar and space phys- ics (heliophysics) decadal survey. During the first quarter, plans were underway to nominate new members to the committee. Co-chairs J. Todd Hoeksema, Stanford University, and Mary K. Hudson, Dartmouth College, were ap- pointed during the third quarter. Appointment of the rest of the committee continued during the fourth quarter. The first in-person meeting of the newly appointed committee will occur on March 6-8, 2013, during the NRC Space Science Week. A historical summary of reports from CSSP and related committees is presented in Figure 2.5. J. Todd Hoeksema, Stanford University (co-chair) Mary K. Hudson, Dartmouth College (co-chair) Timothy S. Bastian, National Radio Astronomy Observatory Amitava Bhattacharjee, Princeton University Stephen A. Fuselier, Southwest Research Institute Sarah Gibson, National Center for Atmospheric Research, High Altitude Observatory George M. Gloeckler, University of Maryland (emeritus) David L. Hysell, Cornell University Thomas Immel, University of California, Berkeley Louis J. Lanzerotti, New Jersey Institute of Technology Judith L. Lean, Naval Research Laboratory Robyn Millan, Dartmouth College Terrance G. Onsager, NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center Aaron Ridley, University of Michigan Nathan A. Schwadron, University of New Hampshire Michelle F. Thomsen, Los Alamos National Laboratory Staff Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, SSB Abigail Sheffer, Associate Program Officer, SSB Amanda Thibault, Research Associate, ASEB Linda M. Walker, Senior Program Assistant, SSB SPACE RESEARCH DISCIPLINES WITHOUT STANDING COMMITTEE REPRESENTATION Although there are no longer standing committees representing microgravity research or space biology and medicine, a decadal survey on biological and physical sciences in space was conducted and published in 2011. A historical summary of NRC-SSB advice in space biology and medicine is presented in Figure 2.6, and a historical summary of NRC-SSB advice microgravity research is presented in Figure 2.7.

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20 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2012 Solar System Space Physics in the 1980’s: A Research Strategy (1980) An International Discussion on A Strategy for the Explorer The Physics of the Research in Solar and Space Program for Solar and Space Solar-Terrestrial Data Access, Sun (1985) Physics (1983) Physics (1984) Distribution, and Archiving (1984) An Implementation Plan for Priorities in Solar-System Space Physics (1985) Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015Solar and Space Physics (1988) Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics1991 (1991) A Space Physics Paradox (1994) A Science Strategy for Space Physics (1995) Scientific Assessment of NASA’s Space Weather: An Assessment of the Solar and Space Physics Aspects of SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics A Research NASA’s Space Science Enterprise Strategic Plan (1997) Mission Selections (1997) Perspective (1997) Radiation and the Astronomy and Readiness for the Ground-Based Solar Research: International Space Station: Astrophysics in the Upcoming Solar An Assessment and Strategy for Recommendations to New Millennium Maximum (1998) the Future (1998) Reduce Risk (1999) (2000) The Sun to the Earth–and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics (2002) The Sun to the Earth–and Beyond: Panel Reports (2003) Plasma Physics of the Local Cosmos (2004) Exploration of the Outer Solar and Space Physics Distributed Arrays of Small Heliosphere and the Local and Its Role in Space Instruments for Solar- Interstellar Medium: A Exploration (2004) Terrestrial Research: Report Workshop Report (2004) of a Workshop (2006) Space Radiation Hazards and the Vision for Space Exploration: Report of a Workshop (2006) Severe Space Weather EventsUnderstanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report (2008) A Performance Assessment of NASA's Heliophysics Program (2009) The Effects of Solar Variability on Earth’s Climate: A Workshop Report (2012) Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society [prepublication] (2012) FIGURE 2.5  NRC-SSB advice on solar and space physics (1980-2012).

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Board and Standing Committees 21 SPACE BIOLOGY HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT STUDIES Science in Space: Biological Science and Space Research (1960) Radiobiological Factors in Report on NASA Biology Program Physiology in the Space Manned Spaceflight (1967) (1968) Environment , Vol. 1 and 2 (1968) Space Biology (1970) Radiation Protection Guides and Infectious Disease Life Sciences in Space: Report of Constraints for in Manned the Study to Review NASA Life Space-Mission and Spaceflight: Sciences Programs (1970) Vehicle-Design Probabilities and Studies Involving Countermeasures Priorities for Space Research: Nuclear Missions (1970) 1971-1980 (1971) (1970) Life Beyond the Earth's Scientific Uses of the HZE-Particle Effects in Manned Environment (1979) Space Shuttle (1974) Spaceflight (1973) A Strategy for Space Biology and Medical Science for the 1980s and 1990s (1987) Space Science in the Twenty-First “On the Extended Century: Life Sciences (1988) Duration Orbiter Medical Research “On Several Issues in the Assessment of Programs in Space Biology and Program” (1989) Space Life Sciences” Medicine1991 (1991) (1993) “On Continued Operation of the “On Life and Microgravity BEVALAC Facility” (1992) Sciences and the Space Station Program” (1994) Radiation Hazards to Crews of Interplanetary Missions: Biological Issues “On Peer Review in “On the Planned National and Research Strategies (1996) NASA Life Sciences Space Biomedical Research Programs” (1995) Institute” (1996) A Strategy for Research in Space Biology and Medicine in the New Century (1998) Readiness Issues Related to Research in the Biological and Physical Review of NASA's Sciences on the International Space Station (2001) Biomedical Research Program (2000) Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences (2003) Review of NASA Plans for the International Space Station (2006) Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era of Space Exploration: An Interim Report (2010) Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era (2011) Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation (2012) FIGURE 2.6  NRC-SSB advice on space biology and medicine (1960-2012).

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22 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2012 Materials Processing in Space (1978) Space Science in the Twenty-First Microgravity Science and Century: Imperatives Applications: Report on a for the Decades Workshop (1986, Board on 1995 to 2015. Physics and Astronomy) Fundamental Physics and Chemistry (1988) Toward a Microgravity Research Strategy (1992) "On Life and Microgravity Sciences and the Space Station Program“ (1994) "On the Utilization of the Space Station“ (1994) Microgravity Research Opportunities for the 1990s (1995) "On Archiving An Initial Review of Clarification of Microgravity Microgravity Research in Issues in the Flight Data and Support of Human Exploration Opportunities Samples and Development of Space Report“ (1995) (1996) (1997) "On Research Facilities Planning for the International Space Station“ (1997) Future Biotechnology Research on the International Microgravity Research in Support of Technologies for the Human Space Station Exploration and Development of Space and Planetary Bodies (2000) (2000) Readiness Issues Related to Research in the Biological and The Mission of Microgravity and Physical Physical Sciences on the International Space Station (2001) Sciences Research at NASA (2001) Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences (2003) Assessment of Directions in Microgravity and Physical Sciences Research at NASA (2003) Review of NASA Plans for the International Space Station (2006) Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era of Space Exploration: An Interim Report (2010) Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era (2011) FIGURE 2.7  NRC-SSB advice on microgravity research (1978-2012).