explained to respondents that market research does not fall under the purview of social science R&D. Inclusion of social science R&D in the total R&D performed by the industrial sector increased the total industrial R&D by $500 million, 0.2 percent of the industry R&D total, and made the numbers internationally comparable. Two-thirds of the $500 million is reported by software publishers and computer design companies.

2. Capital R&D: Capital R&D is not part of total federal R&D reported in National Patterns. However, when NCSES reports the United States’ R&D performance to OECD, capital R&D expenditure is included in federal R&D. To support this reporting, BRDIS explicitly asks companies to report their capital R&D expenditure. NCSES intends to make the information available by industry classification.

3. More detailed R&D funding data: The predecessor to BRDIS combined internal and external sources of nongovernment funding into a single category and no further details were requested from the respondents. BRDIS now asks companies to report not only their domestic expenses, but also their operations outside of the United States. Separate data are collected on company’s internal sources of funding, as well as funding from other companies inside the United States; from companies located outside of the United States; and from several other nongovernment sources. In the 2010 BRDIS, a foreign parent was included as an explicit source of R&D funding to differentiate such support from other funding from companies located outside of the United States.

4. Expanded R&D personnel data: The Frascati Manual recommends that companies separately report headcounts and FTEs for researchers, technicians, and support staff. Total R&D personnel is the sum of researchers, technicians, and support staff (see Chapter 3). The predecessor to BRDIS contained items only on FTE R&D scientists and engineers. NCSES resolved the data gap by adding questions on the 2011 BRDIS on FTE researchers and total R&D personnel (headcount) by gender; occupation (scientists and engineers, technicians, support staff); and location, including foreign locations.

Janowski said the following changes were made to the Higher Education Research and Development Survey (HERD) when it was revised and renamed:

1. Humanities and other nonscience and nonengineering R&D: The predecessor to the HERD survey collected data for 1972-2009 on educational institutions that performed science and engineering R&D. In doing so, NCSES was collecting information on nonscience and nonengineering R&D performed by institutions that also performed science and engineering R&D but missing institutions that performed R&D but not science and engineering R&D. Beginning in 2010 (NCSES redesigned its higher



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