3. Information quality, peer review, performance evaluation, and scientific integrity
a. The 2000 Information Quality Act and associated guidelines
b. 2004 OMB peer review guidance
c. The 2010 Government Results and Performance Modernization Act
d. 2009–2010 guidance on scientific integrity
Most of the legislation, regulations, and guidance pertains to the authority of OMB, which plays a critical role in oversight of the federal government’s widely dispersed statistical operations. The oversight dates to 1939, when the functions of a Central Statistical Board, created in 1933, were transferred to the then-named Bureau of the Budget (see Anderson, 1988; Duncan and Shelton, 1978; Norwood, 1995). Recent legislation and guidance address such systemwide issues as confidentiality protection and privacy of respondents, data quality (including peer review prior to dissemination), efficiency of operations, and scientific integrity.
THE 1980 PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT AND ASSOCIATED GUIDANCE
The Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1980 (44 USC 3501, amended in 1986 and reauthorized and amended in 1995 by P.L. 104-13) is the foundation for the modern statistical coordination and management mission of OMB. It establishes OMB’s review power over federal statistical agencies and myriad other agencies throughout the federal government that collect information from individuals and organizations. This review power covers both data collection budgets and methods and practices for data collection and dissemination.
The PRA’s origins trace back to Executive Order 6226, signed by Franklin D. Roosevelt in July 1933, which established a Central Statistical Board to “appraise and advise upon all schedules of all Government agencies engaged in the primary collection of statistics required in carrying out the purposes of the National Industrial Recovery Act, to review plans for tabulation and classification of such statistics, and to promote the coordination and improvement of the statistical services involved.” Members of the