board were appointed by the relevant cabinet secretaries. The board was established in law for a 5-year period in 1935. Its functions were transferred to the Bureau of the Budget (itself established in 1921) in 1939, when the Budget Bureau was transferred to the Executive Office of the President.

The 1942 Federal Reports Act represented another milestone by codifying the authority for the Budget Bureau to coordinate and oversee the work of federal statistical agencies. Most famously, it provided that no federal agency could collect data from 10 or more respondents without approval of the budget director. (Data collections by contractors on behalf of federal agencies are covered by this provision, although data collections by government grantees are generally not covered.) The 1950 Budget and Accounting Procedures Act (31 USC 1104(d)) further strengthened the statistical coordinating and improvement role of OMB, giving OMB authorization to promulgate regulations and orders governing statistical programs throughout the federal government.

The statistical policy function continued in the budget office in the Executive Office of the President when the Budget Bureau became the Office of Management and Budget in 1970. However, in 1977, the statistical policy staff was split into two groups: one group remained in the OMB to handle the paperwork clearance and review function for statistical agencies; the other group was moved to the Department of Commerce to address statistical policy and standards issues.

Paperwork Reduction

The overarching goal of the 1980 Paperwork Reduction Act was to reduce the burden of filling out federal forms by businesses and individuals. It moved the statistical policy office back to OMB (from the Department of Commerce) under a new Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA), which was charged to reduce the combined burden imposed by regulatory agencies and administrative and statistical program agencies. The PRA required OMB, through the chief statistician, to engage in long-range planning to improve federal statistical programs; review statistical budgets; coordinate government statistical functions; establish standards, classifications, and other guidelines for statistical data collection and dissemination; and evaluate statistical program performance. In the 1995 reauthorization and extensive revision of the PRA, two of the most significant provisions added for statistical policy were (1) to codify the Interagency Council on Statistical Policy (ICSP), chaired by the chief statistician, and (2) to update



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