In Boston, a problem-oriented “Gun Project” targeting serious youth offenders was implemented under the Cure Violence model. There was a significant decrease in homicides among youth, but the difficulty of controlling for all environmental factors that may have affected crime rates prevented a firm conclusion about exactly what contribution the interventions made (Fox and Zawitz, 2007). Effective place- and problem-oriented policing is aimed at all violence, not just firearm-related violence.

Regulations that limit the hours for on-premise alcohol sales in pubs, bars, and nightclubs have been associated with reduced violence. A quasi-experimental design based on data from Norwegian cities where the closing hours for on-premise alcohol sales were reduced demonstrated an impact on violence. For each additional hour of alcohol sales availability, violence increased by 16 percent (Rossow and Norstrom, 2012). Assault by firearm was 9.34 times more likely among heavy drinkers near off-premise alcohol points of sale than among nondrinkers in areas of low off-premise alcohol availability (Branas et al., 2009).

To date, there is little information about the potential role of mobile phone interventions or other electronic interventions in preventing firearm violence, although the combined use of mobile technology, including SMS (short message service) and GPS (global positioning system) has highlighted, in real time, the locations of violence against women in Cairo and Delhi (HarassMap, 2013).

Public Education and Warnings

Firearm safety education is intended to address the risk of unintentional injury and is particularly important when guns are kept in the home. Although firearm injury prevention education programs are widespread in public schools, they are inadequately studied and the few evaluations that have been conducted provide little evidence of effectiveness. It has been suggested that school-based prevention programs could actually glamorize guns among youth; however, information on childhood gun safety provided to parents by physicians may be effective (Dowd and Sege, 2012).

Regarding interventions for public mass shootings, there is no conclusive information about which policies and enforcement and prevention strategies might be effective. There have been analyses of these shootings (Bjelopera et al., 2013), but little has been done to compare them with those that were successfully averted. Although communities,



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