Explore individual state and international policy approaches to gun safety technology for applicability to the United States as a whole.

Examples of topics that could be examined:

What can be learned from various state or international policy approaches to implementing passive and active gun technology changes, and what has been the impact of these changes on firearm violence?

image What can be learned about the effects of these changes on the types of firearm-related injuries and deaths?

image What was the impact of these approaches on consumer adoption and acceptance?

What have been the adoption rates and effectiveness of active protection technologies among law enforcement users?

However, cross-national comparisons, as suggested here, are susceptible to large ecological biases and unmeasured confounding biases, and therefore conclusions from these studies may not apply to individuals.

VIDEO GAMES AND OTHER MEDIA

Although research on the effects of media violence on real-life violence has been carried out for more than 50 years (Cook et al., 1983; Eron and Huesmann, 1980; Eron et al., 1972; Huesmann, 1986; Huesmann and Miller, 1994; Huesmann et al., 2003; McIntyre et al., 1972; Milavsky et al., 1982; Robinson and Bachman, 1972; Rubenstein, 1983; Surgeon General’s Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior, 1972), little of this research has focused on real-life firearm violence in particular (Boxer et al., 2009; Huesmann et al., 2003; Ybarra et al., 2008). As a result, a direct relationship between media violence and real-life firearm violence has not been established. Although the bulk of past media violence research has focused on violence portrayed in television and film, more recent research has expanded to include music, video games, social media, and the Internet. Interest in media effects is fueled by the fact that youth spend an increasing amount of time engaging with media. The most recent estimates indicate that 8- to 18-yearolds in the United States spend an average of 7.5 hours per day using



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