A

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A References Abrams, D. 2012. Estimating the deterrent effect of incarceration using sentencing enhancements. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 4(4):32-56. Adachi, P. J. C., and T. Willoughby. 2011a. The effect of video game competi- tion and violence on aggressive behavior: Which characteristic has the greatest influence? Psychology of Violence 1(4):259-274. Adachi, P. J. C., and T. Willoughby. 2011b. The effect of violent video games on aggression: Is it more than just the violence? Aggression and Violent Be- havior 16(1):55-62. Ahern, J., S. Galea, H. Resnick, D. Kilpatrick, M. Bucuvalas, J. Gold, and D. Vlahov. 2002. Television images and psychological symptoms after the September 11 terrorist attacks. Psychiatry 65(4):289-300. Akers, T. A., and M. M. Lanier. 2009. Epidemiological criminology: Coming full circle. American Journal of Public Health 99(3):397-402. Akers, T. A., R. H. Potter, and C. V. Hill. 2013. Epidemiological Criminology: A Public Health Approach to Crime and Violence. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Anderson, C. A. 2004. An update on the effects of playing violent video games. Journal of Adolescence 27(1):113-122. Anderson, C. A., and B. J. Bushman. 2001. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific lit- erature. Psychological Science 12(5):353-359. Anderson, C. A., and K. E. Dill. 2000. Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78(4):772-790. Anderson, C. A., W. E. Deuser, and K. M. DeNeve. 1995. Hot temperatures, hostile affect, hostile cognition, and arousal: Tests of a general model of af- fective aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 21(5):434- 448. 69

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70 RESEARCH TO REDUCE THE THREAT OF FIREARM-RELATED VIOLENCE Anderson, C. A., A. J. Benjamin, Jr., and B. D. Bartholow. 1998. Does the gun pull the trigger? Automatic priming effects of weapon pictures and weapon names. Psychological Science 9(4):308-314. Anderson, C. A., L. Berkowitz, E. Donnerstein, L. R. Huesmann, J. D. Johnson, D. Linz, N. M. Malamuth, and E. Wartella. 2003. The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, Supplement 4(3):1-30. Anderson, C. A., A. Sakamoto, D. A. Gentile, N. Ihori, A. Shibuya, S. Yukawa, M. Naito, and K. Kobayashi. 2008. Longitudinal effects of violent video games on aggression in Japan and the United States. Pediatrics 122(5): e1067-e1072. Anderson, C. A., A. Shibuya, N. Ihori, E. L. Swing, B. J. Bushman, A. Sakamoto, H. R. Rothstein, and M. Saleem. 2010. Violent video game effects on ag- gression, empathy, and prosocial behavior in Eastern and Western coun- tries: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin 136(2):151-173. ATF (Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives). 2011. Firearms tracing guide: Tracing firearms to reduce violent crime. Washington, DC: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. http://www. atf.gov/files/publications/download/p/atf-p-3312-13.pdf (accessed April 17, 2013). ATF. 2012. Firearms commerce in the United States: Annual statistical update, 2012. Washington, DC: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explo- sives. http://www.atf.gov/files/publications/firearms/050412-firearms- commerce-in-the-us-annual-statistical-update-2012.pdf (accessed April 8, 2013). Bandura, A., D. Ross, and S. A. Ross. 1963. Imitation of film-mediated aggres- sive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 66(1):3-11. Bartholow, B. D., M. A. Sestir, and E. B. Davis. 2005. Correlates and conse- quences of exposure to video game violence: Hostile personality, empathy, and aggressive behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31(11):1573-1586. Bartholow, B. D., B. J. Bushman, and M. A. Sestir. 2006. Chronic violent video game exposure and desensitization to violence: Behavioral and event- related brain potential data. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 42(4):532-539. Beaman, V., J. L. Annest, J. A. Mercy, M. J. Kresnow, and D. A. Pollock. 2000. Lethality of firearm-related injuries in the United States population. Annals of Emergency Medicine 35(3):258-266. Bell, C. C., and D. F. McBride. 2010. Commentary: Homicide-suicide in older adults—cultural and contextual perspectives. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 38(3):312-317.

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APPENDIX A 71 Beresin, E. V. 2010. The impact of media violence on children and adolescents: Opportunities for clinical interventions. http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/ developmentor/the_impact_of_media_violence_on_children_and_adol-escents_ opportunities_for_clinical_interventions (accessed March 22, 2013). Berkowitz, L., and A. LePage. 1967. Weapons as aggressive-eliciting stimuli. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 7(2, Pt 1):202-207. Bernstein, K. T., J. Ahern, M. Tracy, J. A. Boscarino, D. Vlahov, and S. Galea. 2007. Television watching and the risk of incident probable posttraumatic stress disorder: A prospective evaluation. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 195(1):41-47. Bingenheimer, J. B., R. T. Brennan, and F. J. Earls. 2005. Firearm violence ex- posure and serious violent behavior. Science 308(5726):1323-1326. Bjelopera, J. P., E. Bagalman, S. W. Caldwell, K. M. Finklear, and G. McCallion. 2013. Public mass shootings in the United States: Selected implications for federal public health and safety policy. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43 004.pdf (accessed April 8, 2013). BJS (Bureau of Justice Statistics). 2010. Criminal victimization in the United States, 2008: Statistical tables, NCJ 231173. Washington, DC: BJS. http://bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cvus08.pdf (accessed April 29, 2013). Blumstein, A. 1995. Youth violence, guns, and the illicit-drug industry. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 86(1):10-36. Blumstein, A., and D. Cork. 1996. Linking gun availability to youth gun violence. Law and Contemporary Problems 59(1):5-24. Bollen, K. A., and D. P. Phillips. 1982. Imitative suicides: A national study of the effects of television news stories. American Sociological Review 47(6):802-809. Boxer, P., L. Rowell Huesmann, B. J. Bushman, M. O’Brien, and D. Moceri. 2009. The role of violent media preference in cumulative developmental risk for violence and general aggression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 38(3):417-428. Braitman, K. A., A. T. McCartt, D. S. Zuby, and J. Singer. 2010. Volvo and Infiniti drivers’ experiences with select crash avoidance technologies. Traf- fic Injury Prevention 11(3):270-278. Branas, C. C., M. L. Nance, M. R. Elliott, T. S. Richmond, and C. W. Schwab. 2004. Urban-rural shifts in intentional firearm death: Different causes, same results. American Journal of Public Health 94(10):1750-1755. Branas, C. C., M. R. Elliott, T. S. Richmond, D. P. Culhane, and D. J. Wiebe. 2009. Alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and the risk of being assaulted with a gun. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research 33(5):906-915. Branas, C. C., R. A. Cheney, J. M. MacDonald, V. W. Tam, T. D. Jackson, and T. R. Ten Have. 2011. A difference-in-differences analysis of health, safety, and greening vacant urban space. American Journal of Epidemiology 174(11):1296-1306.

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72 RESEARCH TO REDUCE THE THREAT OF FIREARM-RELATED VIOLENCE Browne, K. D., and C. Hamilton-Giachritsis. 2005. The influence of violent me- dia on children and adolescents: A public-health approach. Lancet 365(9460):702-710. Buka, S. L., T. L. Stichick, I. Birdthistle, and F. J. Earls. 2001. Youth exposure to violence: Prevalence, risks, and consequences. American Journal of Or- thopsychiatry 71(3):298-310. Bulwa, D. 2013. Personalized guns touted as safety check. http://www.sfgate.com/ nation/article/Personalized-guns-touted-as-safety-check-4323902.php (ac- cessed April 30, 2013). Bushman, B. J., and L. R. Huesmann. 2001. Effects of televised violence on aggression. In Handbook of Children and the Media, edited by D. G. Singer and J. L. Singer. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Pp. 223-254. Bushman, B. J., and L. R. Huesmann. 2006. Short-term and long-term effects of violent media on aggression in children and adults. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 160(4):348-352. Butke, P., and S. C. Sheridan. 2010. An analysis of the relationship between weather and aggressive crime in Cleveland, Ohio. Weather, Climate, and Society 2:127-139. Carnagey, N. L., and C. A. Anderson. 2004. Violent video game exposure and aggression: A literature review. Minerva Psichiatrica 45(1):1-18. Carnagey, N. L., C. A. Anderson, and B. J. Bushman. 2007. The effect of video game violence on physiological desensitization to real-life violence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 43(3):489-496. Carr, B. G., M. L. Nance, C. C. Branas, C. S. Wolff, M. J. Kallan, S. R. Myers, and D. J. Wiebe. 2012. Unintentional firearm death across the urban-rural landscape in the United States. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 73(4):1006-1010. Carroll, W. R., and A. Bandura. 1987. Translating cognition into action: The role of visual guidance in observational learning. Journal of Motor Behavior 19(3):385-398. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2011a. Injury prevention & control data: Data & statistics (WISQARSTM): Fatal injury data. http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/fatal.html (accessed April 29, 2013). CDC. 2011b. Youth violence: Risk and protective factors. http://www.cdc.gov/ violenceprevention/youthviolence/riskprotectivefactors.html (accessed April April 29, 2013). CDC. 2012a. Suicide: Facts at a glance. http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/ pdf/Suicide_DataSheet-a.pdf (accessed April 29, 2013). CDC. 2012b. Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (4). http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/ss/ss 6104.pdf (accessed April 30, 2013). CDC. 2013a. National Violent Death Reporting System. http://www.cdc.gov/ violenceprevention/nvdrs (accessed April 29, 2013).

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APPENDIX A 73 CDC. 2013b. National suicide statistics at a glance: Case fatality rate among persons ages 10 years and older for males and females separately, and by selected mechanism for both sexes combined, United States, 2005-2009. http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/suicide/statistics/case_fatality.html (accessed April 29, 2013). Champion, H. L. O., and R. H. DuRant. 2001. Exposure to violence and victimi- zation and the use of violence by adolescents in the United States. Minerra Pediatrica 53(3):189-197. Chen, Y. Y., S. F. Liao, P. R. Teng, C. W. Tsai, H. F. Fan, W. C. Lee, and A. T. Cheng. 2012. The impact of media reporting of the suicide of a singer on suicide rates in Taiwan. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 47(2):215-221. Chen, Z., and M. Recce. 2007. Handgrip recognition. Journal of Engineering, Computing and Architecture (2). http://www.scientificjournals.org/journals2007/ articles/1226.pdf (accessed April 10, 2013). Chiricos, T., K. Padgett, and M. Gertz. 2000. Fear, TV news, and the reality of crime. Criminology 38(3):755-785. Comer, J. S., J. M. Furr, R. S. Beidas, H. M. Babyar, and P. C. Kendall. 2008. Media use and children’s perceptions of societal threat and personal vulner- ability. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 37(3):622- 630. Conner, K. R., P. R. Duberstein, Y. Conwell, and E. D. Caine. 2003. Reactive aggression and suicide—theory and evidence. Aggression and Violent Be- havior 8(4):413-432. Cook, P. J., and J. Ludwig. 1996. Guns in America: Results of a comprehensive survey on private firearms ownership and use. Washington, DC: Police Foundation. http://www.policefoundation.org/sites/pftest1.drupal gardens.com/files/ Cook%20et%20al.%20%281996%29%20-%20Guns%20 in%20America.pdf (accessed April 17, 2013). Cook, P. J., J. Ludwig, and D. Hemenway. 1997. The gun debate's new mythical number: How many defensive uses per year? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 16(3):463-469. Cook, T. D., D. A. Kendzierski, and S. V. Thomas. 1983. The implicit assump- tions of television research: An analysis of the 1982 NIMH report on televi- sion and behavior. Public Opinion Quarterly 47(2):161-201. Cooper, A., and E. L. Smith. 2011. Homicide trends in the United States, 1980- 2008, NCJ 236018. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics. http://bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/htus8008.pdf (accessed April 8, 2013). Cunningham, P. B., S. W. Henggeler, S. P. Limber, G. B. Melton, and M. A. Nation. 2000. Patterns and correlates of gun ownership among nonmetro- politan and rural middle school students. Journal of Clinical Child Psychol- ogy 29(3):432-442.

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74 RESEARCH TO REDUCE THE THREAT OF FIREARM-RELATED VIOLENCE Cusimano, M., S. Marshall, C. Rinner, D. Jiang, and M. Chipman. 2010. Pat- terns of urban violent injury: A spatio-temporal analysis. PLoS ONE 5(1):e8669. Ditton, J., D. Chadee, S. Farrall, E. Gilchrist, and J. Bannister. 2004. From imi- tation to intimidation: A note on the curious and changing relationship be- tween the media, crime and fear of crime. British Journal of Criminology 44(4):595-610. Dowd, M. D., and R. D. Sege. 2012. Firearm-related injuries affecting the pedi- atric population. Pediatrics 130(5):e1416-e1423. Ehrensaft, M. K., P. Cohen, J. Brown, E. Smailes, H. Chen, and J. G. Johnson. 2003. Intergenerational transmission of partner violence: A 20-year pro- spective study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 71(4):741- 753. Elgar, F. J., and N. Aitken. 2011. Income inequality, trust and homicide in 33 countries. European Journal of Public Health 21(2):241-246. Eron, L. D., and L. R. Huesmann. 1980. Adolescent aggression and television. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 347:319-331. Eron, L. D., L. R. Huesmann, M. M. Lefkowitz, and L. O. Walder. 1972. Does television violence cause aggression? American Psychologist 27(4):253- 263. Etzersdorfer, E., M. Voracek, and G. Sonneck. 2001. A dose-response relation- ship of imitational suicides with newspaper distribution. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 35(2):251. Farah, M. M., H. K. Simon, and A. L. Kellermann. 1999. Firearms in the home: Parental perceptions. Pediatrics 104(5 Pt 1):1059-1063. FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation). 2011a. Crime in the United States, 2010: Table 1. http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2010/crime-in- the-u.s.-2010/tables/10tbl01.xls (accessed May 8, 2013). FBI. 2011b. Crime in the United States, 2011: Expanded homicide data table 8. http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2011/crime-in-the- u.s.-2011/tables/expanded-homicide-data-table-8 (accessed April 8, 2013). FBI. 2011c. Crime in the United States, 2010: Expanded offense data. http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2010/crime-in-the-u.s.-2010/ offenses-known-to-law-enforcement/expanded (accessed May 1, 2013). FBI. 2011d. Law enforcement officers killed and assaulted 2011: Table 14, Law enforcement officers feloniously killed with their own weapons—victim of- ficer’s type of weapon, 2002-2011. http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ ucr/leoka/2011/tables/table-14 (accessed April 10, 2013). Ferguson, C. J. 2009. Media violence effects: Confirmed truth or just another X- file? Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice 9(2):103-126. Ferguson, C. J. 2011. Video games and youth violence: A prospective analysis in adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 40(4):377-391.

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APPENDIX A 75 Ferguson, C. J., and J. Kilburn. 2009. The public health risks of media violence: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Pediatrics 154(5):759-763. Ferguson, C. J., S. M. Rueda, A. M. Cruz, D. E. Ferguson, S. Fritz, and S. M. Smith. 2008. Violent video games and aggression: Causal relationship or byproduct of family violence and intrinsic violence motivation? Criminal Justice and Behavior 35(3):311-332. Ferguson, C. J., C. San Miguel, A. Garza, and J. M. Jerabeck. 2012. A longitu- dinal test of video game violence influences on dating and aggression: A 3- year longitudinal study of adolescents. Journal of Psychiatric Research 46(2):141-146. Ferguson, C. J., A. Garza, J. Jerabeck, R. Ramos, and M. Galindo. 2013. Not worth the fuss after all? Cross-sectional and prospective data on violent video game influences on aggression, visuospatial cognition and mathemat- ics ability in a sample of youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 42(1):109-122. Finkelhor, D., H. Turner, R. Ormrod, S. Hamby, and K. Kracke. 2009. Chil- dren’s exposure to violence: A comprehensive national survey. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Delinquency Prevention. https://www.ncjrs.gov/ pdffiles1/ojjdp/227744.pdf (accessed May 8, 2013). Fitzpatrick, K. M. 1997. Aggression and environmental risk among low-income African-American youth. Journal of Adolescent Health 21(3):172-178. Fleegler, E. W., L. K. Lee, M. C. Monuteaux, D. Hemenway, and R. Mannix. 2013. Firearm legislation and firearm-related fatalities in the United States. JAMA Internal Medicine. [Epub ahead of print]. http://archinte.jamanetwork. com/article.aspx?articleid=1661390 (accessed May 8, 2013). Fowler, P. J., C. J. Tompsett, J. M. Braciszewski, A. J. Jacques-Tiura, and B. B. Baltes. 2009. Community violence: A meta-analysis on the effect of expo- sure and mental health outcomes of children and adolescents. Development and Psychopathology 21(1):227-259. Fox, J. A., and M. W. Zawitz. 2007. Homicide trends in the United States. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics. http://bjs.gov/content/pub/ pdf/htius.pdf (accessed April 8, 2013). Fremont, W. P., C. Pataki, and E. V. Beresin. 2005. The impact of terrorism on children and adolescents: Terror in the skies, terror on television. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 14(3):429-451. Fuld, G. L., D. A. Mulligan, T. R. Altmann, A. Brown, D. A. Christakis, K. Clarke-Pearson, B. P. Dreyer, H. L. Falik, K. G. Nelson, G. S. O’Keeffe, V. C. Strasburger, R. M. Milteer, D. L. Shifrin, M. Brody, B. Wilcox, C. A. Anderson, D. A. Gentile, G. L. Steiner, and V. L. Noland. 2009. Policy statement—media violence. Pediatrics 124(5):1495-1503. Funk, J. B., H. B. Baldacci, T. Pasold, and J. Baumgardner. 2004. Violence ex- posure in real-life, video games, television, movies, and the Internet: Is there desensitization? Journal of Adolescence 27(1):23-39.

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76 RESEARCH TO REDUCE THE THREAT OF FIREARM-RELATED VIOLENCE Gallup. 2013. Guns. http://www.gallup.com/poll/1645/Guns.aspx (accessed April 8, 2013). Garbarino, J., C. P. Bradshaw, and J. A. Vorrasi. 2002. Mitigating the effects of gun violence on children and youth. Future Child 12(2):72-85. Gentile, D. A., P. J. Lynch, J. R. Linder, and D. A. Walsh. 2004. The effects of violent video game habits on adolescent hostility, aggressive behaviors, and school performance. Journal of Adolescence 27(1):5-22. Gerbner, G., L. Gross, M. Morgan, and N. Signorielli. 1980. The “mainstream- ing” of America: Violence profile no. 11. Journal of Communication 30(3):10-29. Gerbner, G., L. Gross, M. Morgan, and N. Signorielli. 1986. Living with televi- sion: The dynamics of the cultivation process. In Perspectives on Media Ef- fects, edited by J. Bryant and D. Zillmann. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erl- baum Associates. Pp. 17-40. Gibbons, R. D., C. H. Brown, and K. Hur. 2012. Is the rate of suicide among veterans elevated? American Journal of Public Health 102(Suppl 1):S17- S19. Goldstein, P. J. 1985. The drugs/violence nexus: A tripartite conceptual frame- work. Journal of Drug Issues 15(4):493-506. Gould, M., P. Jamieson, and D. Romer. 2003. Media contagion and suicide among the youth. American Behavioral Scientist 46(9):1269-1284. Greenberg, M., and D. Schneider. 1994. Violence in American cities: Young black males is the answer, but what was the question? Social Science and Medicine 39(2):179-187. Griffiths, E., C. Yule, and R. Gartner. 2011. Fighting over trivial things: Ex- plaining the issue of contention in violent altercations. Criminology 49(1):61-94. Grimes, T., J. Anderson, and L. Bergen. 2008. Media Violence and Aggression: Science and Ideology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Grossman, D. C., B. A. Mueller, C. Riedy, M. D. Dowd, A. Villaveces, J. Prodzinski, J. Nakagawara, J. Howard, N. Thiersch, and R. Harruff. 2005. Gun storage practices and risk of youth suicide and unintentional firearm in- juries. Journal of the American Medical Association 293(6):707-714. Gunter, W. D., and K. Daly. 2012. Causal or spurious: Using propensity score matching to detangle the relationship between violent video games and vio- lent behavior. Computers in Human Behavior 28(4):1348-1355. Haddon, W., Jr. 1967. The prevention of accidents. In Preventive Medicine, ed- ited by D. W. Clark and B. MacMahon. Boston, MA: Little, Brown. Pp. 591-621. Haddon, W., Jr. 1968. The changing approach to the epidemiology, prevention, and amelioration of trauma: The transition to approaches etiologically rather than descriptively based. American Journal of Public Health 58(8):1431- 1438.

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APPENDIX A 77 Haddon, W., Jr. 1980. Options for the prevention of motor vehicle crash injury. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences 16(1):45-65. Hahn, R. A., O. Bilukha, A. Crosby, M. T. Fullilove, A. Liberman, E. Moscicki, S. Snyder, F. Tuma, and P. A. Briss. 2005. Firearms laws and the reduction of violence: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 28(2 Suppl 1):40-71. Hall, J. E., T. R. Simon, J. A. Mercy, R. Loeber, D. P. Farrington, and R. D. Lee. 2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Expert Panel on Protective Factors for Youth Violence Perpetration: Background and over- view. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 43(2 Suppl 1):S1-S7. HarassMap. 2013. HarassMap: The blog. http://blog.harassmap.org (accessed April 30, 2013). Harlow, C. W. 2001. Survey of inmates in state and federal correctional facili- ties: Firearm use by offenders, NCJ 189369. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics. http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/fuo.pdf (accessed April 29, 2013). Hemenway, D. 2001. The public health approach to motor vehicles, tobacco, and alcohol, with applications to firearms policy. Journal of Public Health Policy 22(4):381-402. Hemenway, D., and M. Miller. 2013. Public health approach to the prevention of gun violence. New England Journal of Medicine. [Epub ahead of print]. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsb1302631 (accessed May 8, 2013). Hemenway, D., T. Shinoda-Tagawa, and M. Miller. 2002. Firearm availability and female homicide victimization rates among 25 populous high-income countries. Journal of the American Medical Women’s Association 57(2): 100-104. Hemenway, D., C. Barber, and M. Miller. 2010. Unintentional firearm deaths: A comparison of other-inflicted and self-inflicted shootings. Accident Analysis and Prevention 42(4):1184-1188. Hepburn, L., M. Miller, D. Azrael, and D. Hemenway. 2007. The US gun stock: Results from the 2004 national firearms survey. Injury Prevention 13(1):15- 19. Heron, M. 2012. Deaths: Leading causes for 2009. National Vital Statistics Re- port 61(7):1-96. HHS and DOJ (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. De- partment of Justice). 1996. Surgeon General’s Workshop on Violence and Public Health: Report, HHS Publication No. HRS-D-MC 86-1. Washing- ton, DC: Health Resources and Services Administration. http://profiles. nlm.nih.gov/ps/access/NNBCFX.pdf (accessed May 6, 2013). Hindelang, M. J., M. R. Gottfredson, and J. Garofalo. 1978. Victims of Personal Crime: An Empirical Foundation for a Theory of Personal Victimization. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.

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78 RESEARCH TO REDUCE THE THREAT OF FIREARM-RELATED VIOLENCE Hirsch, J. K. 2006. A review of the literature on rural suicide: Risk and protec- tive factors, incidence, and prevention. Crisis 27(4):189-199. Hopf, W. H., G. L. Huber, and R. H. Weiß. 2008. Media violence and youth violence: A 2-year longitudinal study. Journal of Media Psychology 20(3):79-96. Howard, G., R. T. Anderson, G. Russell, V. J. Howard, and G. L. Burke. 2000. Race, socioeconomic status, and cause-specific mortality. Annals of Epide- miology 10(4):214-223. Hoyert, D. L., and J. Xu. 2012. Deaths: Preliminary data for 2011. National Vi- tal Statistics Reports (6). http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr61/nvsr61 _06.pdf (accessed April 15, 2013). Huesmann, L. R. 1986. Psychological processes promoting the relation between exposure to media violence and aggressive behavior by the viewer. Journal of Social Issues 423:125-139. Huesmann, L. R. 2007. The impact of electronic media violence: Scientific theo- ry and research. Journal of Adolescent Health 41(6 Suppl 1):S6-S13. Huesmann, L. R., and L. S. Miller. 1994. Long-term effects of repeated expo- sure to media violence in childhood. In Aggressive Behavior: Current Per- spectives, edited by L. R. Huesmann. New York: Plenum Press. Pp. 153- 186. Huesmann, L. R., and L. D. Taylor. 2006. The role of media violence in violent behavior. Annual Review of Public Health 27:393-415. Huesmann, L. R., K. Lagerspetz, and L. D. Eron. 1984. Intervening variables in the TV violence-aggression relation: Evidence from two countries. Devel- opmental Psychology 20(5):746-775. Huesmann, L. R., C. A. Anderson, L. Berkowitz, E. Donnerstein, J. D. Johnson, D. Linz, N. M. Malamuth, and E. Wartella. 2000. Media violence influences on youth: Expert panel report to the U.S. Surgeon General. Unpublished manuscript. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Institute for Social Research. Huesmann, L. R., J. Moise-Titus, C. L. Podolski, and L. D. Eron. 2003. Longi- tudinal relations between children’s exposure to TV violence and their ag- gressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977-1992. Developmen- tal Psychology 39(2):201-221. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1999. Reducing the Burden of Injury: Advancing Prevention and Treatment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2008. Violence Prevention in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Find- ing a Place on the Global Agenda: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM. 2012. Social and Economic Costs of Violence: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM. 2013. Contagion of Violence: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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APPENDIX A 79 Jackman, G. A., M. M. Farah, A. L. Kellermann, and H. K. Simon. 2001. Seeing is believing: What do boys do when they find a real gun? Pediatrics 107(6):1247-1250. Jain, S., S. Gupta, and R. K. Thenua. 2012. A review on advancements in bio- metrics. International Journal of Electronics and Computer Science Engi- neering (3). http://www.ijecse.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Volume- 1Number-3PP-853-859.pdf (accessed April 10, 2013). Jaiswal, S., S. S. Bhadauria, and R. S. Jadon. 2011. Biometric: Case study. Journal of Global Research in Computer Science (10). http://www. jgrcs.info/index.php/jgrcs/article/view/236 (accessed April 10, 2013). Jennings, W. G., G. E. Higgins, R. Tewksbury, A. R. Gover, and A. R. Piquero. 2010. A longitudinal assessment of the victim-offender overlap. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 25(12):2147-2174. Jensen, G. F., and D. Brownfield. 1986. Gender, lifestyles, and victimization: Beyond routine activity. Violence and Victims 1(2):85-99. Johnson, R. M., M. Miller, M. Vriniotis, D. Azrael, and D. Hemenway. 2006. Are household firearms stored less safely in homes with adolescents? Anal- ysis of a national random sample of parents. Archives of Pediatrics & Ado- lescent Medicine 160(8):788-792. Kaiser Family Foundation. 2010. Daily media use among children and teens up dramatically from five years ago. http://kff.org/disparities-policy/press- release/daily-media-use-among-children-and-teens-up-dramatically-from-five years-ago (accessed May 8, 2013). Kaplan, M. S., B. H. McFarland, and N. Huguet. 2009. Characteristics of adult male and female firearm suicide decedents: Findings from the National Vio- lent Death Reporting System. Injury Prevention 15(5):322-327. Karch, D. L., J. Logan, and N. Patel. 2011. Surveillance for violent deaths— National Violent Death Reporting System, 16 states, 2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (SS10). http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mm wrhtml/ss6010a1.htm (accessed April 29, 2013). Karp, A. 2007. Completing the count: Civilian firearms. In Small Arms Survey, 2007: Guns and the City. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 39-72. Kellermann, A. L., and F. P. Rivara. 2013. Silencing the science on gun re- search. Journal of the American Medical Association 309(6):549-550. Kellermann, A. L., R. K. Lee, and J. A. Mercy. 1991. The epidemiologic basis for the prevention of firearm injuries. Annual Review of Public Health 12:17-40. Kellermann, A. L., F. P. Rivara, G. Somes, D. T. Reay, J. Francisco, J. G. Banton, J. Prodzinski, C. Fligner, and B. B. Hackman. 1992. Suicide in the home in relation to gun ownership. New England Journal of Medicine 327(7):467-472.

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80 RESEARCH TO REDUCE THE THREAT OF FIREARM-RELATED VIOLENCE Kellermann, A. L., F. P. Rivara, N. B. Rushforth, J. G. Banton, D. T. Reay, J. T. Francisco, A. B. Locci, J. Prodzinski, B. B. Hackman, and G. Somes. 1993. Gun ownership as a risk factor for homicide in the home. New England Journal of Medicine 329(15):1084-1091. Kellermann, A. L., L. Westphal, L. Fischer, and B. Harvard. 1995. Weapon in- volvement in home invasion crimes. Journal of the American Medical As- sociation 273(22):1759-1762. Kennedy, B. P., I. Kawachi, D. Prothrow-Stith, K. Lochner, and V. Gupta. 1998. Social capital, income inequality, and firearm violent crime. Social Science and Medicine 47(1):7-17. Kennedy, D. M., A. M. Piehl, and A. A. Braga. 1996. Youth violence in Boston: Gun markets, serious youth offenders, and a use-reduction strategy. Law and Contemporary Problems 59(1):147-196. Kleck, G. 1984. Handgun-only gun control: A policy disaster in the making. In Firearms and Violence: Issues of Regulation, edited by D. B. Kates. Cam- bridge, MA: Ballinger. Pp. 167-199. Kleck, G. 1988. Crime-control through the private use of armed force. Social Problems 35(1):1-21. Kleck, G. 1991. Point Blank: Guns and Violence in America. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter. Kleck, G. 2001a. The frequency of defensive gun use: Evidence and disinfor- mation. In Armed: New Perspectives on Gun Control, edited by G. Kleck and D. B. Kates. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. Pp. 213-284. Kleck, G. 2001b. The nature and effectiveness of owning, carrying and using guns for self-protection. In Armed: New Perspectives on Gun Control, edit- ed by G. Kleck and D. B. Kates. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. Pp. 285- 342. Kleck, G., and M. DeLone. 1993. Victim resistance and offender weapon effects in robbery. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 9(1):55-81. Kleck, G., and M. Gertz. 1995. Armed resistance to crime: The prevalence and nature of self-defense with a gun. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 86(1):150-187. Kleck, G., and E. B. Patterson. 1993. The impact of gun control and gun owner- ship levels on violence rates. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 9:249- 287. Kleck, G., and S.-Y. K. Wang. 2009. The myth of big-time gun trafficking and the overinterpretation of gun tracing data. UCLA Law Review (5). http://www.uclalawreview.org/pdf/56-5-6.pdf (accessed April 29, 2013). Kochanek, K. D., J. Xu, S. L. Murphy, A. M. Minino, and H. C. Kung. 2011. Deaths: Final data for 2009. National Vital Statistics Report (3). http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr60/nvsr60_03.pdf (accessed April 29, 2013).

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APPENDIX A 81 Krahé, B., and I. Möller. 2010. Longitudinal effects of media violence on ag- gression and empathy among German adolescents. Journal of Applied De- velopmental Psychology 31(5):401-409. Krahé, B., I. Möller, L. R. Huesmann, L. Kirwil, J. Felber, and A. Berger. 2011. Desensitization to media violence: Links with habitual media violence ex- posure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior. Journal of Person- ality and Social Psychology 100(4):630-646. Krouse, W. J. 2012. Gun control legislation. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL32842.pdf (accessed April 29, 2013). Kuhn, E. M., C. L. Nie, M. E. O’Brien, R. L. Withers, G. J. Wintemute, and S. W. Hargarten. 2002. Missing the target: A comparison of buyback and fatality related guns. Injury Prevention 8(2):143-146. Kung, H. C., J. L. Pearson, and X. Liu. 2003. Risk factors for male and female suicide decedents ages 15-64 in the United States—results from the 1993 National Mortality Followback Survey. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 38(8):419-426. Kutner, L., and C. Olson. 2008. Grand Theft Childhood: The Surprising Truth About Violent Video Games and What Parents Can Do. New York: Simon & Schuster. Langton, L. 2012. Firearms stolen during household burglaries and other prop- erty crimes, 2005-2010, NCJ 239436. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics. http://bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/fshbopc0510.pdf (accessed April 29, 2013). Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence. 2013. Statistics on gun deaths & injuries. http://smartgunlaws.org/gun-deaths-and-injuries-statistics (accessed April 8, 2013). Lenhart, A., J. Kahne, E. Middaugh, A. R. Macgill, C. Evans, and J. Vitak. 2008. Teens, video games, and civics. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2008/Teens- Video-Games-and-Civics.aspx (accessed May 8, 2013). Makarios, M. D., and T. C. Pratt. 2012. The effectiveness of policies and pro- grams that attempt to reduce firearm violence: A meta-analysis. Crime & Delinquency 58(2):222-244. Markovic, J. 2012. Criminal justice and public health approaches to violent crime: Complementary perspectives. Geography and Public Safety (2). http://cops.usdoj.gov/Publications/e05122469c.pdf (accessed April 8, 2013). Marvell, T. B., and C. E. Moody. 1995. The impact of enhanced prison terms for felonies committed with guns. Criminology 33(2):247-281. Massachusetts Executive Office of Health and Human Services. 2013. Weapon Related Injury Surveillance Systems (WRISS). http://www.mass.gov/ eohhs/gov/departments/dph/programs/health-stats/injury-surveillance/reports/ weapon-related-injury-surveillance-system.html (accessed April 17, 2013).

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82 RESEARCH TO REDUCE THE THREAT OF FIREARM-RELATED VIOLENCE McDowall, D., C. Loftin, and B. Wiersema. 1992. A comparative study of the preventive effects of mandatory sentencing laws for gun crimes. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 83(2):378-394. McDowall, D., C. Loftin, and B. Wiersema. 1998. Estimates of the frequency of firearm self-defense from the redesigned National Crime Victimization Survey. Violence Research Group Discussion Paper 20. College Park, MD: University of Maryland Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice. McIntyre, J. J., Jr., Teevan, J. J., and T. Hartnagel. 1972. Television violence and deviant behavior. In Television and Social Behavior: Vol. 3, Television and Adolescent Aggressiveness, edited by G. A. Comstock and E. A. Rubenstein. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Pp. 383- 435. Milavsky, J. R., R. C. Kessler, H. H. Stipp, and W. S. Rubens. 1982. Television and Aggression: A Panel Study. New York: Academic Press. Miller, M., D. Azrael, and D. Hemenway. 2001. Firearm availability and unin- tentional firearm deaths. Accident Analysis and Prevention 33(4):477-484. Miller, T. R. 2010. Societal cost per firearm injury, United States, 2010. Calver- ton, MD: Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. http://www.pire. org/documents/GSWcost2010.pdf (accessed April 29, 2013). Mozaffarian, D., A. Afshin, N. L. Benowitz, V. Bittner, S. R. Daniels, H. A. Franch, D. R. Jacobs, W. E. Kraus, P. M. Kris-Etherton, D. A. Krummel, B. M. Popkin, L. P. Whitsel, and N. A. Zakai. 2012. Population approaches to improve diet, physical activity, and smoking habits: A scientific state- ment from the American Heart Association. Circulation 126(12):1514- 1563. Mozaffarian, D., D. Hemenway, and D. S. Ludwig. 2013. Curbing gun violence: Lessons from public health successes. Journal of the American Medical As- sociation 309(6):551-552. NAE (National Academy of Engineering). 2003. Owner-Authorized Handguns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. NAE. 2005. Technological Options for User-Authorized Handguns: A Technology-Readiness Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Acade- mies Press. Nance, M. L., L. Denysenko, D. R. Durbin, C. C. Branas, P. W. Stafford, and C. Schwab. 2002. The rural-urban continuum: Variability in statewide serious firearm injuries in children and adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics & Ado- lescent Medicine 156(8):781-785. NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics). 2012. LCWK1. Deaths, percent of total deaths, and death rates for the 15 leading causes of death in 5-year age groups, by race and sex: United States, 2010. http://www.cdc.gov/ nchs/data/dvs/LCWK1_2010.pdf (accessed April 29, 2013). Newcombe, T. 2013. Transparency, social media and gun safety. http://www. governing.com/columns/col-transparency-social-media-gun-safety.html (accessed April 10, 2013).

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APPENDIX A 83 Nielsen, A. L., and R. Martinez. 2003. Reassessing the alcohol-violence linkage: Results from a multiethnic city. Justice Quarterly 20(3):445-469. NIJ (National Institute of Justice). 2008. Gun violence program: Operation Ceasefire. http://www.nij.gov/topics/crime/gun-violence/prevention/ceasefire. htm (accessed April 30, 2013). NRC (National Research Council). 2005. Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. NRC and IOM. 1985. Injury in America: A Continuing Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. O’Keefe, G. S. 1984. Public views on crime: Television exposure and media credibility. In Communication Yearbook 8, edited by R. N. Bostrom. Bever- ly Hills, CA: Sage. Pp. 514-535. Olson, C. K., L. A. Kutner, L. Baer, E. V. Beresin, D. E. Warner, and A. M. Nicholi II. 2009. M-rated video games and aggressive or problem behavior among young adolescents. Applied Developmental Science 13(4):188-198. Onwuachi-Saunders, C., and D. F. Hawkins. 1993. Black-white differences in injury. Race or social class? Annals of Epidemiology 3(2):150-153. Osgood, D. W., J. K. Wilson, P. M. O’Malley, J. G. Bachman, and L. D. Johnston. 1996. Routine activities and individual deviant behavior. Ameri- can Sociological Review 61(4):635-655. Otto, M. W., A. Henin, D. R. Hirshfeld-Becker, M. H. Pollack, J. Biederman, and J. F. Rosenbaum. 2007. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms follow- ing media exposure to tragic events: Impact of 9/11 on children at risk for anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 21(7):888-902. Paik, H., and G. Comstock. 1994. The effects of television violence on antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis. Communication Research 21(4):516-546. Papachristos, A. V. 2009. Murder by structure: Dominance relations and the social structure of gang homicide. American Journal of Sociology 115(1): 74-128. PatentStorm, LLC. 2013. PatentStorm. www.patentstorm.us (accessed April 10, 2013). Pew Research Center. 2013. Why own a gun? Protection is now top reason. http://www.people-press.org/2013/03/12/why-own-a-gun-protection-is-now top-reason (accessed April 29, 2013). Phillips, D. P. 1982. The impact of fictional television stories on U.S. adult fa- talities: New evidence on the effect of the mass media on violence. Ameri- can Journal of Sociology 87(6):1340-1359. Pirkis, J. E., P. M. Burgess, C. Francis, R. W. Blood, and D. J. Jolley. 2006. The relationship between media reporting of suicide and actual suicide in Aus- tralia. Social Science & Medicine 62(11):2874-2886. Przybylski, A. K., C. S. Rigby, and R. M. Ryan. 2010. A motivational model of video game engagement. Review of General Psychology 14(2):154-166.

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84 RESEARCH TO REDUCE THE THREAT OF FIREARM-RELATED VIOLENCE Reeves, A., D. Stuckler, M. McKee, D. Gunnell, S. S. Chang, and S. Basu. 2012. Increase in state suicide rates in the USA during economic recession. Lancet 380(9856):1813-1814. Richardson, E. G., and D. Hemenway. 2011. Homicide, suicide, and uninten- tional firearm fatality: Comparing the United States with other high-income countries, 2003. Journal of Trauma 70(1):238-243. Robinson, J. P., and J. G. Bachman. 1972. Television viewing habits and aggres- sion. In Television and Social Behavior: Vol. 3, Television and Adolescent Aggressiveness, edited by G. A. Comstock and E. A. Rubenstein. Washing- ton, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Pp. 372-382. Ross, C. E., and J. Mirowsky. 2001. Neighborhood disadvantage, disorder, and health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 42(3):258-276. Rossow, I., and T. Norstrom. 2012. The impact of small changes in bar closing hours on violence. The Norwegian experience from 18 cities. Addiction 107(3):530-537. Rubinstein, E. A. 1983. Television and behavior. Research conclusions of the 1982 NIMH report and their policy implications. The American Psycholo- gist 38(7):820-825. Ruddell, R., and G. L. Mays. 2004. Risky behavior, juveniles, guns, and unin- tentional firearms fatalities. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 2(4):342- 358. Runyan, C. W. 1998. Using the Haddon matrix: Introducing the third dimension. Injury Prevention 4(4):302-307. Sampson, R. J., and J. L. Lauritsen. 1990. Deviant lifestyles, proximity to crime, and the offender-victim link in personal violence. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 27(2):110-139. Sampson, R. J., S. W. Raudenbush, and F. Earls. 1997. Neighborhoods and vio- lent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science 277 (5328):918-924. Sampson, R. J., J. D. Morenoff, and S. Raudenbush. 2005. Social anatomy of racial and ethnic disparities in violence. American Journal of Public Health 95(2):224-232. Satcher, D. 1995. Violence as a public health issue. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 72(1):46-56. Savage, J. 2004. Does viewing violent media really cause criminal violence? A methodological review. Aggression and Violent Behavior 10(1):99-128. Savage, J., and C. Yancey. 2008. The effects of media violence exposure on criminal aggression: A meta-analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior 35(6):772-791. Saylor, C. F., B. L. Cowart, J. A. Lipovsky, C. Jackson, and A. J. Finch, Jr. 2003. Media exposure to September 11: Elementary school students’ expe- riences and posttraumatic symptoms. American Behavioral Scientist 46(12):1622-1642.

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APPENDIX A 85 Scribner, R. A., D. P. MacKinnon, and J. H. Dwyer. 1995. The risk of assaultive violence and alcohol availability in Los Angeles County. American Journal of Public Health 85(3):335-340. Sharkey, P. T., N. Tirado-Strayer, A. V. Papachristos, and C. C. Raver. 2012. The effect of local violence on children’s attention and impulse control. American Journal of Public Health 102(12):2287-2293. Sheley, J. F., and J. D. Wright. 1995. In the line of fire: Youth, guns, and vio- lence in urban America. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Shepherd, J. P., I. Sutherland, and R. G. Newcombe. 2006. Relations between alcohol, violence and victimization in adolescence. Journal of Adolescence 29(4):539-553. Simon, T. R., C. W. Dent, and S. Sussman. 1997. Vulnerability to victimization, concurrent problem behaviors, and peer influence as predictors of in-school weapon carrying among high school students. Violence and Victims 12:277- 289. Sims, D. W., B. A. Bivins, F. N. Obeid, H. M. Horst, V. J. Sorensen, and J. J. Fath. 1989. Urban trauma: A chronic recurrent disease. Journal of Trauma 29(7):940-947. Sinauer, N., J. L. Annest, and J. A. Mercy. 1996. Unintentional, nonfatal fire- arm-related injuries—a preventable public health burden. Journal of the American Medical Association 275(22):1740-1743. Singh, G. K., and M. Siahpush. 2002. Increasing rural-urban gradients in US suicide mortality, 1970-1997. American Journal of Public Health 92(7):1161-1167. Skogan, W. G., S. M. Hartnett, N. Bump, and J. Dubois. 2008. Evaluation of CeaseFire–Chicago. Chicago, IL: U.S. Department of Justice. https://www. ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/227181.pdf (accessed April 8, 2013). Slater, M. D., K. L. Henry, R. C. Swaim, and L. L. Anderson. 2003. Violent media content and aggressiveness in adolescents: A downward spiral mod- el. Communication Research 30(6):713-736. Slovak, K., and K. Carlson. 2004. Firearms, violence, and attitudes among rural youth. Journal of Rural Community Psychology E7(1). http://muwww. new.marshall.edu/jrcp/E62_slovak.htm (accessed April 29, 2013). Slovak, K., and M. Singer. 2001. Gun violence exposure and trauma among rural youth. Violence and Victims 16(4):389-400. Sorenson, S. B. 2006. Firearm use in intimate partner violence: A brief over- view. Evaluation Review 30(3):229-236. Southwick, L. 2000. Self-defense with guns—the consequences. Journal of Criminal Justice 28(5):351-370. Spano, R., C. Rivera, and J. M. Bolland. 2010. Are chronic exposure to violence and chronic violent behavior closely related developmental processes dur- ing adolescence? Criminal Justice and Behavior 37(10):1160-1179.

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