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Colorado River Ecology and Dam Management Proceedings of a Symposium May 24-25, ~ 990 Santa Fe, New Mexico Committee to Review the Glen Canyon Environmental Studies Water Science and Technology Board Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Aeademy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special compe- tencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of dis- tinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs anned at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Aeademy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Aeademy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Aeademy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communi- ties. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for the project was provided by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation under Cooperative Agreement Number 6-FC-40-04240. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-04535-5 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 91-61623 Available from National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 S372 Printed in the United States of America

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On the walls, and back many miles into the country, numbers of monument~shaped buttes are observed. So we have a curious ensemble of wonderful features~arved walls, royal arches, glens, alcove gulches, mounds, and monuments. From which of these features shall we select a name? We decided to call it "Glen Canyon" . From John Wesley Powell's 1869 Expedition

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OMMITTEE ARZOLF, Chairman, Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky {, Consultant, San Francisco, California {AF, Arizona State University, Tempe ANEMANN, University of California, Berkeley GHES, Utah State University, Logan EWIS, JR., University of Colorado, Boulder HICK, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago-Kent College of Law ,TTEN, Arizona State University, Tempe COORDINATORS ), Senior Program Officer G. Symposium Public Relations Officer :NS, Program Assistant (through 8/90) ,, Production Assistant ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES PROGRAM R1 1 FINER, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Flagstaff, Arizona LUTHORS NDREWS, U.S. Geological Survey, Lakewood, Colorado EN, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff )LE, Arizona State University, Tempe IDY, Consulting Hydrologist, San Francisco, California IANEMANN,* University of California, Berkeley JGHES, Utah State University, Logar~ M, Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy, Tucson, Arizona ON, University of Arizona, Tucson 'OLD, University of California, Berkeley IARZOLF, Murray State University, Murray, Kentucky IINCKLEY, Arizona State University, Tempe , Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy, Tucson, Arizona iTTEN, Arizona State University, Tempe FORD, University of Montana, Polson LICK, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago-Kent College of ED, Colorado State University, Fort Collins FINER, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Salt Lake City, Utah Hanemann gave a presentation discussing the economics of hydropower not deliver a written paper for this proceedings. TV STEERING C G. RICHARD M DAVID DAWD' WILLIAM L. G] W. MICHAEL TREVOR C. HE WILLIAM M. L A. DAN TARLC EX-OFFICIO DUNCAN T. P.! SYMPOSIUM SHEILA DAVIl CHRIS ELFRIN RENEE HAWK. MARCIA HALl GLEN CANY MANAGE DAVID L. WEE PRINCIPAL, EDMUND D. A DEAN W. BLIl GERALD A. C( DAVID R. DAN W. MICHAEL I TREVOR C. HI HELEN INGRA R. ROY JOHNS LUNA B. LEOI G. RICHARD WENDELL L. CY R. OGGINS DUNCAN T. Pi JACK A. STAB; A. DAN TARLd Law JAMES V. WA DAVID L. WEt * Although Dr. Operations, he did

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PANEL MEMBERS ROBERT C. AVERETT, U.S. Geological Survey, Arvada, Colorado CLIFFORD I. BARRETT, Colorado River Electrical Distributors Association, Salt Lake City, Utah RICHARD BISHOP, University of Wisconsin, Madison WAYNE DEASON, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colorado HERBERT FULLERTON, Utah State University, Logan JULIE GRAF, U.S. Geological Survey, Tucson, Arizona WILLIAM L. GRAF, Arizona State University, Tempe DENNIS KUBLY, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix WILLIAM M. LEWIS, JR., University of Colorado, Boulder MARSHALL E. MOSS, U.S. Geological Survey, Tucson, Arizona DAVID J. POLICANSKY, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. PATRICIA PORT, U.S. Department of the Interior, San Francisco, California PETER ROWLANDS, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona LARRY STEVENS, National Park Service, Flag staff Arizona GARY WEATHERFORD, Ferris, Brennan and Britton, San Diego, California OWEN WILLIAMS, National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado JACQUELINE WYLAND, Environmental Protection Agency, Walnut Creek, California WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD MICHAEL KAVANAUGH, Chairman, James M. Montgomery Consulting Engineers, Walnut Creek, California NORMAN H. BROOKS, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation, South Charleston, West Virginia DUANE L. GEORGESON, Metropolitan Water District, Southern California, Los Angeles R. KEITH HIGGINSON, Idaho Department of Water Resources, Boise (through 6/ 30/89) HOWARD C. KUNREUTHER, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia ROBERT R. MEGLEN, University of Colorado at Denver JUDY L. MEYER, University of Georgia, Athens DONALD J. O'CONNOR, Manhattan College, Bronx, New York BETTY H. OLSON, University of California, Irvine KENNETH W. POTTER, University of Wisconsin, Madison P. SURESH C. RAG, University of Florida, Gainesville DONALD D. RUNNELLS, University of Colorado, Boulder PHILIP C. SINGER, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill A. DAN TARLOCK, Chicago-Kent College of Law, Chicago, Illinois HUGO F. THOMAS, Department of Environmental Protection, Hartford, Connecticut JAMES R. WALLIS, IBM Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York M. GORDON WOLMAN, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland v

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STAFF STEPHEN D. PARKER, Director SHEILA D. DAVID, Senior Program Officer CHRIS ELFRING, Senior Program Officer SARAH CONNICK, Program Officer JEANNE AQUILINO, Administrative Specialist RENEE A. HAWKINS, Administrative Assistant (through 8/90) ANITA A. HALL, Administrative Secretary MARCIA D. WARE, Secretary PATRICIA L. CICERO, Secretary COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCES M. GORDON WOLMAN, Chairman, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore ROBERT C. BEARDSLEY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts B. CLARK BURCHFIEL, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge RALPH J. CICERONE, University of California, Irvine PETER S. EAGLESON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge HELEN INGRAM, University of Arizona, Tucson GENE E. LIKENS, New York Botanical Gardens, Millbrook SYUKURO MANABE, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Princeton, New Jersey JACK E. OLIVER, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York PHILIP A. PALMER, E. I. du Pant de Nemours & Company, Newark, Delaware FRANK L. PARKER, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee DUNCAN T. PA11EN, Arizona State University, Tempe MAXINE L. SAV1TZ, Allied Signal Aerospace, Torrance, California LARRY L. SMARR, National Center for Supercomputing Applications, Champaign, Illinois STEVEN M. STANLEY, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio CRISPIN TICKELL, Green College at the Radcliffe Observatory, Oxford KARL K. TUREKIAN, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut IRVIN L. WHITE, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany, New York JAMES H. ZUMBERGE, University of Southern California, Los Angeles COMMISSION STAFF STEPHEN RA11IEN, Executive Director STEPHEN D. PARKER, Associate Executive Director JANICE E. GREENE, Assistant Executive Director JEANETTE SPOON, Financial Officer CARL1TA PERRY, Administrative Assistant ROBIN LEWIS, Senior Secretary Y!

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Contents Committee Synopsis/Findings and Recommendations Background Papers 1 The Law and Politics of the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam by Helen Ingram, A. Dan Tarlock, and Cy R. Oggins 2 The Role of Science in Natural Resource Management: The Case for the Colorado River by G. R. Marzolf 3 Hydrology of Glen Canyon and the Grand Canyon by David R. Dawdy 4 Sediment Transport in the Colorado River Basin by Edmund D. Andrews Limnology of Lake Powell and the Chemistry of the Colorado River by Jack A. Stanford and James V. Ward 6 Algal and Invertebrate Biota in He Colorado River: Companson of Pre- and Post-Dam Conditions by Dean W. Blinn and Gerald A. Cole 7 Native Fishes of the Grand Canyon Region: An Obituary? by W. L. Minckley 8 Historic Changes in Vegetation Along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon by R. Roy Johnson 9 Reservoir Operations by Trevor C. Hughes v`' 1 10 28 40 54 75 102 124 178 207

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. ~ Vitl 10 A Brief History of the Glen Canyon Environmental Studies by David L. Wegner 11 Glen Canyon Environmental Studies Research Program: Past, Present, and Future by Duncan T. Patten 12 Closing Remarks by Lana B. Leopold Appendixes A Symposium Program B Biographical Sketches of Committee Members C Symposium Invitees D Glen Canyon Environmental Studies Technical Reports / CONTENTS 226 239 254 261 263 266 272

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Acknowledgments Thanking the many people who contributed to the success of this sympo- sium carries the risk of embarrassing omissions. The need for special thanks is obvious, however, and so I hope that any omissions will be forgiven. Professor Luna B. Leopold patiently absorbed the symposium discussions from the front row and was kind enough to make cogent concluding re- marks. Sheila David has been the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) staff officer for this committee activity from the beginning in 1986. She has kept us organized and on time, and has carried many frustrating burdens for us when we needed help. Renee Hawkins and Chris Elfring, also of the WSTB staff, kept the details of the organization of this meeting from being known to anyone. It was that smoothly done. We of course owe our gratitude to the authors who delivered these pa- pers, but also to the people asked to participate in panel discussions that contributed structure to the open discussions. The committee acknowledges that the success of the symposium was due in large measure to their interest and enthusiastic discussion of the many issues surrounding protection of the environment in the Grand Canyon. G. Richard Marzolf Chairman Committee on Glen Canyon Environmental Studies Six

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