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Appendix D Technical Specifications Spurred initially by a California mandate, automakers have agreed on connectors and standards for 120-V and 240-V alternating current (ac) charging (Figure D-1). Most plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can thus be charged with chargers made by a variety of manufacturers. Such cooperation and interchangeability remove what otherwise could be a substantial barrier to the adoption of PEVs. That is not the case for direct current (dc) fast charging. There are now at least two competing standards for the fast charge. Most battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on the road that can be fast-charged, and the vast majority of chargers that have been installed in the United States, Japan, and Europe use the CHAdeMO standard (Figure D-2). Automobile manufacturers that intend to introduce PEVs starting in 2013 and SAE International have agreed on a new standard that they wish to call the Universal EV Combined Charging System (Figure D-3). Furthermore, Tesla has unveiled several DC fast-charging stations in California and on the East Coast that use a different plug design (Figure D-4). To help to develop standard terminology and technical specifications, SAE International has developed the charging specifications and terminology shown in Figure D-5. The standard accommodates two power levels for DC fast charging: Level 1 at a maximum power of 40 kW and Level 2 at a maximum power of 100 kW. FIGURE D-2 The CHAdeMO plug for DC FIGURE D-1 The standard connector used for fast charging is used for most DC fast chargers AC Level 1 and Level 2 charging (the J1772 in the United States, Europe, and Japan and is standard of SAE International) allows most available on most batter electric vehicles that plug-in electric vehicles to be charged with can accept DC fast charging. SOURCE: chargers built by various manufacturers. Brissette (2013). SOURCE: Adapted from GM (2012). 66
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FIGURE D-3 Standard proposed as an alternative to the CHAdeMO connector includes the current plug and socket for AC Level 1 and 2 charging as the upper connector and two lower connectors added for DC fast charging. SOURCE: GM (2012). FIGURE D-4 The Tesla proprietary plug for DC fast charging is used for all Tesla DC fast chargers (Superchargers) now available in the United States. It is available only on the Tesla Model S. SOURCE: Gordon-Bloomfield (2011). Photo by Nikki Gordon- Bloomfield. 67
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FIGURE D-5 Society of Automotive Engineers charging configurations and ratings terminology. SOURCE: SAE (2012). Copyright 2012 by SAE International. REFERENCES Brissette, P. 2013. “CHAdeMO Says Quick Charger Installations Doubled Last Year, To Double Again in 2013.” HybridCars.com. January 24. Available at http://www.hybridcars.com/chademo-says- quick-charger-installations-doubled-last-year-to-double-again-in-2013/, accessed April 29, 2013. GM (General Motors). 2012. “Global Automakers to Demo EV Fast Charging at EVS26: Combined Charging System Allows AC and DC Fast-Charging From Single Inlet Port.” GM News, May 3. Available at http://media.gm.com/media/us/en/gm/news.detail.html/content/Pages/news/us/en/ 2012/May/0503_combocharging.html, accessed April 24, 2013. Gordon-Bloomfield, N. 2011. “Tesla 2012 Model Charging Equipment. Redesign for Redesign’s Sake?” Green Car Reports. October 4. Available at http://www.greencarreports.com/news/1066861_ teslas-2012-model-s-charging-equipment-redesign-for-redesigns-sake, accessed April 24, 2013. SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers). 2012. “SAE Changing Configurations and Rating Technology.” October 3. Available at http://www.sae.org/servlets/pressRoom?OBJECT_TYPE=PressReleases &PAGE=showRelease&RELEASE_ID=1897, accessed April 24, 2013. 68