benefit from the direct CIED approaches. ISR technology can be used to find potential IED emplacements: This information can be provided directly to the squad. Yet, providing technology to the squad that allows remote status monitoring of culverts and other structures where IEDs can easily be emplaced is more useful. For example, providing the squad with radio frequency or optical readers to scan antitamper mechanisms along a chosen route is a direct, valuable, and low-SWAP solution, especially if integrated with other systems. IED electronic warfare technology, such as the Joint Counter-Radio-Controlled Improvised Explosive Device Electronic Warfare system, is effective for vehicle-borne squad missions and should continually be improved.

The DARPA Boomerang system is a counter-fire, small arms locator. It was originally developed for use on vehicles. Specifically, it was found that vehicle noise made it difficult for blue forces to identify the location of hostile, small arms fire. Boomerang, a multimicrophone system, would provide a general location of incoming fire. Multipath signal degradation, especially in urban and mountainous terrain, is a fundamental, limiting factor. The extension of Boomerang to the dismounted squad was a planned activity under the Land Warrior system; this integration has not yet been accomplished, perhaps in part due to cancellation of Land Warrior. Providing enhanced small arms locating systems to the squad should be an objective. The lack of such a capability and the degradation of sensor performance in urban and mountainous terrain lead to a yellow assessment for this sensor mission area.

A number of commercially available ground-penetrating radar systems are available. Mine detection is complicated by mine composition and soil attributes. Naturally, detecting a metal mine in dry sand is easier than detecting a composite mine in wet clay. Generally, ground-penetrating radars are vehicle mounted and usually placed in proximity to potential mine locations. Other than vehicle-borne ground-penetrating radar, it is hard to imagine a dismounted Soldier mine detection capability, except for the very dangerous approach that employs metal detectors. This technology is mature, but the hatched green assessment in Table G-4 indicates that it may not be possible to further adapt mine detection capability to the squad.

Technology is currently available to respond to an array of chemical, biological, radioactive, and nuclear agents. For example, it is possible to build carbon nanotube switches that are sensitive to ammonium nitrate or a number of other chemicals; once the switch is thrown, a signature characteristic of the deployed device—such as resonant frequency—is detectable via remote sensing by means of, for example, radiofrequency or optical probing. The development of low-cost CBRN detectors that are reliably and easily probed by a squad during execution of its mission is an invaluable force protection capability. Some relevant technology has been developed and demonstrated in government and university laboratories, and further system development is warranted. A responsive approach that is able to deploy new sensors as the threat evolves is essential, hence the yellow assessment.

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