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Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 15 Origin of the Study, 15 Areas of Focus, 15 Definitions, 17 Study Approach, 18 Essential Principles to Achieve TSU Overmatch, 19 Committee’s Approach to the Human Dimension, 20 Report Organization, 22 References, 24 2 CAPABILITIES 25 TSU Missions and Tasks, 27 Situational Understanding, 31 The Role of Decision-Making in Overmatch, 31 Three Levels of Situational Awareness, 32 Network Integration, 33 Military Effects, 36 Lethality, 36 Stability and Humanitarian Effects, 38 Maneuverability, 40 Sustainability, 41 Power and Energy, 41 Survivability, 43 Individual Soldier Protection, 44 TSU Protection, 45 Layers of Protection External to the TSU, 46 Current Operational Weaknesses, 46 Human Dimension Issues, 47 Deficits in TSU and Soldier Training, 51 Deficits in the Analytical Foundation for Building Decisive TSUs, 54 The Untapped Human Dimension, 55 Prospective Solution Categories, 55 References, 56 3 SETTING THE CONDITIONS TO ACHIEVE SOLDIER AND TSU 59 OVERMATCH Placing Emphasis on the Human Dimension, 60 Systems Engineering For Decisive Overmatch, 62 ix
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Metrics for the Dismounted TSU and Soldier, 66 Streamlining Acquisition of Solutions to Achieve TSU Overmatch Capabilities, 69 References, 73 4 ACHIEVING OVERMATCH 75 Designing the TSU, 76 TSU Design Considerations, 77 Soldier Performance, 78 Soldier Selection, 82 Focusing on TSU Training, 85 The TSU Training Imperative, 85 Findings and Recommendations on TSU Training, 91 Integrating the TSU into Army Networks, 92 Definition of Network Integration, 93 Potential Benefits, 94 DOTMLPF Considerations, 96 Network Integration Priorities, 100 Balancing TSU Maneuverability, Military Effects, and Survivability, 105 Soldiers Carry Too Much to Move Quickly, Act Effectively, and Avoid Injury, 106 Potential Benefits of Optimizing TSU and Soldier Systems for Maneuverability, Military Effects, and Survivability, 108 Selected DOTMLPF Opportunities for Balancing Maneuverability, Military Effects, and Survivability, 112 Findings and Recommendations for Achieving TSU Balance, 118 Leveraging Advances in Portable Power, 121 DOTMLPF Considerations, 121 Battery and Fueled Energy Storage Systems, 122 Energy Harvesting, 125 References, 127 APPENDIXES A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 131 B Committee Meetings 139 C Army Terminology and Doctrine Relevant to Dismounted Soldier Missions 143 D History and Status of Design for the Soldier as a System 157 E Measures of Performance and Measures of Effectiveness 165 F Simulation Technologies and Devices 171 G Technology Solutions for TSU Sensor Missions 175 H Prospective Robotics Technologies 197 I Energy Technologies and Applications for the Soldier 207 J Lethal and Nonlethal Weapons 227 x
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Tables, Figures, and Boxes TABLES 2-1 Energy Formats and Amounts of Energy Required for a 72-Hour Mission, 43 G-1 Squad-Level Sensor Considerations, 179 G-2 Squad-Level Sensor Missions, 182 G-3 Situational Awareness Sensor Technology Gap Assessment, 188 G-4 Force Protection Sensor Technology Gap Assessment, 191 G-5 Precision Targeting Gap Assessment, 194 I-1 State of the Art for Technologies Most Relevant to the Dismounted Soldier, 208 I-2 Fuel-cell State of the Art, 212 I-3 Near-term State of the Art for Relevant Combustion Technologies, 216 I-4 Energy and Weight of Biomechanical Prototype, 223 I-5 State of the Art in Hybrid Systems, 224 FIGURES 2-1 Decreasing size of fighting unit with critical influence and increasing area of operation for a tactical small unit, 29 2-2 Generic U.S. Army rifle squad, 38 2-3 The modern warrior with combat load during dismounted operation in Afghanistan, 42 4-1 Notional information requirements for TSU with offensive mission, 97 4-2 Soldier power solutions, 123 4-3 Comparison of energy options for the dismounted Soldier, 124 C-1 The elements of combat power, 151 D-1 Soldier with combat load, 160 H-1 Protection Ensemble Test Mannequin (PETMAN) robot without external shell, 199 H-2 BigDog, 201 H-3 LS3, Legged Squad Support System, 202 I-1 Selected energy densities, 207 I-2 Deployable portable solar array, 219 I-3 Harvest of biomechanical energy, 221 I-4 Soldier Power Regeneration Kit, 222 xi
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J-1 Major improvements to individual and crew served weapons over the last 10 years, 229 J-2 Current and future crew served weapons, 230 J-3 Enhanced sniper technologies, 231 J-4 Sensors and lasers functions, 232 J-5 Distribution of mortars in Army units, 234 J-6 Examples M224A1 Lt Wt 60mm mortars, 235 J-7 MI50/M151 MFCS dismount, 236 J-8 Accelerated precision mortar, 237 BOXES SUM-1 Statement of Task, 2 1-1 Statement of Task, 16 3-1 Military Implementation of Human-Systems Integration, 65 xii