trainees. Using nonveridical feedback in virtual environments could accelerate the speed and accuracy of training for initial entry and skill sustainment training of units. In virtual or other scenario training, providing trainees explicit comparison between seemingly similar (or dissimilar) situations would enable development of abstracted representations of situations. This builds robust, flexible knowledge bases that afford transfer to new situations. Other adaptive training techniques include the following:
After Action Review (AAR) Systems for Squad Operations. AAR is an essential step in the training process (Meliza et al., 2007), and AAR systems have been shown to increase the effectiveness of learning considerably (Katz et al., 2000; Katz et al., 2003; Schurig et al., 2011). To meet the TSU training imperative, all simulations and games used for training should have an automated AAR system included as a standard part of the system. The AAR shows detailed cause and effect in both offensive/defensive and stability operations so that a squad can review what it did right and what it did wrong; it also suggests ways of improving. The AAR should be linked directly back to the learning objectives and assessment tools populated by the authoring tools described above.
Adaptive Tutoring. Many studies have shown the effectiveness of personalized tutoring (Fletcher, 2011; Bloom, 1984). The differences in learning between standard lecture-based learning and personalized tutoring are dramatic. To accelerate and accentuate the effectiveness of TSU training, a significant focus should be placed on developing adaptive training systems that model and assess the user and consequently personalize the learning experience by providing tailored feedback and instruction. To accomplish this, the system will continually assess the state of the learner, including physiological monitoring as well as knowledge and skill assessment. It will provide feedback and tutoring as well as motivation, and it will adapt the pace and content of the instruction to optimize the learning path for the individual. As has already been pointed out, the feedback for such systems can be tied back to the learning objectives and the authoring of content for the system.
Mobile Learning Applications. One of the barriers to training is access. It is limiting to think of training occurring only when the Soldier or TSU is in a classroom, a simulation facility, or a training area. It is now possible to bring training to the TSU wherever it is, through the use of mobile devices. It will be possible to deliver standard instruction not only through web portals but also on smart phones and digital notepads. As autonomous conversational characters are ported onto mobile devices, it will become possible to train on human dimension skills such as negotiation, counseling, and building trust. Human terrain applications will enable greater effectiveness in the sociocultural dimension of the mission set.
Currently, initial entry training includes just 45 minutes on general nutrition and health. For TSU Soldiers, this initial training must include the effects on cognitive as well as physical performance of nutrition, hydration, sleep, dietary supplements, tobacco, and