such as emergency escape routes and escape procedures, documented roles and responsibilities of personnel, an appropriate alarm system, and training.

Industry Guidance and Emergency Evacuation

In its Guidelines for Onshore and Offshore Wind Farms, RenewableUK recommends developing an emergency response plan (ERP) addressing all emergency situations that may occur during the wind farm development process. However, all offshore renewable energy developers and operators in the United Kingdom are required to formulate ERPs by using the Maritime and Coastguard Agency’s (MCA’s) emergency response cooperation plan (ERCoP) template8 and must submit their plans to MCA for approval before construction can begin. On the basis of the MCA template, Section 9.10 of RenewableUK’s guidelines discusses items and procedures recommended for inclusion in the ERP and develops “bridging” documents to the ERPs of any contractors (RenewableUK 2010).

Early in the development of an ERP, operators must consider the distance from the offshore renewable energy site to emergency services and must assess the level of training needed by on-site personnel in carrying out the plan. Once ERP development is under way, all site plans and access points must be documented, and information must include the contact details of all personnel and vessels and the procedures for emergency communications. The roles and responsibilities of key personnel managing the ERPs must also be documented. Details must include all potential hazards and emergency situations encountered, with documented procedures based on appropriate risk assessments. More detailed response procedures are required for events such as evacuations from the turbine, fires, falls into the water, and extreme sea or weather conditions. If emergency supplies and accommodations


8   MCA implements maritime safety policy in the United Kingdom. The MCA ERCoP template includes requirements for emergency response on offshore renewable energy installations and search and rescue helicopter operations. More information concerning the MCA template is available at

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