and implemented and that a thorough risk assessment be conducted. In addition, Appendix 1 of the Guidelines for Onshore and Offshore Wind Farms recommends specific best practices on access, egress, and emergency response for offshore turbines. The recommendations do not constitute a definitive list and are based on the experience of wind farm operators in the United Kingdom. The following is a partial list of recommended requirements for ladder access and egress:

•   Optimally positioned ladders to take advantage of sea state,

•   Placement of rest platforms on transition pieces if ladders exceed a certain length,

•   Installation of two fenders to protect the ladder during boat landing,

•   Inclusion of lifting equipment (davit or winch) for tools and other equipment,

•   Installation of fall arrest systems if ladders exceed a certain length,

•   Inspection of equipment (lifting, emergency, and fall arrest) at least biannually, and

•   Compatibility between ladder docking configurations and service vessels.

The requirements also indicate that all personnel should be trained and demonstrate competency in ladder access to and egress from a vessel and in the use of appropriate personal protective equipment and sea survival techniques. More important, the guidelines note that risk assessments should account for advances in the industry’s knowledge of operations and for new technology and changes in state-of-the-art equipment and that any recommended best practices should evolve as well.

When appropriate, RenewableUK has supplemented its guidelines document with a minimum recommended safety training standard for personnel in the areas of marine safety and vessel transfer, working at heights, and rescue. The standard details the process and methods for assessing and certifying the competency of all personnel involved in vessel transfer (RenewableUK 2012a).3 Although it does not address


3   The Global Wind Organisation released a similar basic training standard in an effort to document common industry best practices (see GWO 2012).

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