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D Table of Indicator Data Sources 321

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322 TABLE D-1  Table of Indicator Data Sources* Level of Sample Design and Estimates or Frequency of Data Sample Size Target Population (or Data Data Source and Website Sponsor Updates (if applicable) Components) Available Comments American Community U.S. Census Annual Cross-sectional All households National County, city, Survey (ACS) Bureau 50 states, DC, Puerto State and ZIP Code http://www.census.gov/acs More than 2 million Rico County estimates households in 2011 City available in 1-, ZIP Code 3-, and 5-year Selected increments American based on the Indian/ jurisdiction size Alaskan Native areas Behavioral Risk Factor HHS/CDC Annual Cross-sectional Civilian, households National Surveillance System (BRFSS) Sampling frame: 50 with land-line or State http://www.cdc.gov/brfss states, DC, Puerto cellular telephones, Selected Rico, Virgin Islands, respondents must be MMSAs Guam, and other U.S. age 18+ Selected territories counties ~506,000 interviews in 2011 Bridging the Gap (BTG) Robert Wood Annual Coded state laws 50 states and DC National Coded http://www. Johnson related to food and State state policy bridgingthegapresearch.org Foundation Tax data begin in beverage taxation; surveillance 1997; all other data school food, nutrition, data based on begin with school physical education, codified state year 2006-07 and physical activity statutory and environments; state administrative safe routes to school- (regulatory) laws related laws; state farm-to-school-related laws

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CDC Chronic Disease State HHS/CDC Ongoing 4,788 nutrition, Regulation and State Individual bill- Policy Tracking System physical activity, and legislative bills related level tracking http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/ obesity policies (as of to nutrition, physical CDPHPPolicySearch/ 3/18/2013) activity, and obesity Default.aspx prevention CDC State Indicator Report HHS/CDC Annual Data indicators 50 states and DC National Individual-level on Fruits and Vegetables constructed from State diet behavioral http://www.cdc.gov/ several other national indicators, nutrition/downloads/State- and state databases policy, and Indicator-Report-Fruits- environmental Vegetables-2013.pdf indicators Classification of Laws HHS/NIH/NCI 2003-2008 State school-based 50 states and DC National Coded state Associated with School 2010 physical education, State law policy Students (CLASS) Every 2 years recess, and nutrition- surveillance data http://class.cancer.gov related laws system County and ZIP Code U.S. Census Annual Cross-sectional Businesses with paid National Business Patterns (CZCBP) Bureau business trends employees State http://www.census.gov/econ/ County cbp/index.html MMSA ZIP Code Federal appropriations laws U.S. Annual NA NA National http://thomas.loc.gov/home/ Government approp/app13.html General Services U.S. NA NA NA National Administration (GSA) Government http://www.gsa.gov Healthcare Effectiveness NCQA Ongoing 80 measures across 5 Data provided by National Includes Data and Information Set domains of health care health plans Regional measures related (HEDIS) State to diabetes care http://www.ncqa.org/ and childhood HEDISQualityMeasurement/ and adult weight/ HEDISMeasures.aspx body mass index (BMI) assessment continued 323

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324 TABLE D-1 Continued Level of Sample Design and Estimates or Frequency of Data Sample Size Target Population (or Data Data Source and Website Sponsor Updates (if applicable) Components) Available Comments Infant Feeding Practices HHS/FDA, 1992-1993 Pregnant women Pregnant women and National Individual-level Study II (IFPS-II) CDC 2005-07 periodic and their infants their infants diet and health http://www.cdc.gov/ sampled from a behaviors and breastfeeding/data/infant_ national consumer practices feeding.htm panel and followed longitudinally (2,000 women in IFPS-II) National Ambulatory HHS/CDC Annual Cross-sectional Nonfederal employed National Health care Medical Care Survey office-based physicians office visits (NAMCS) http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/ ahcd.htm National College Health American Biannual National sample, College students National Self-reported Assessment (NCHA) College Health but not nationally height and http://www.acha-ncha.org Association representative because weight, diet and schools self-select (141 activity behaviors institutions in 2012) National Compensation Bureau of Annual Employer-provided Workplaces National Data on Survey–Benefits (NCS) Labor Statistics programs Selected employer- http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ebs MMSAs provided Census benefits, regions compensation, Census and earnings divisions National Consumer Panel Nielsen/ Quarterly Representative sample Consumers National Household (formerly known as A.C. Symphony IRI purchasing Nielsen Homescan) Joint Venture of food and http://ncppanel.com/content/ beverage items in ncp/ncphome.html retail outlets

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National Farm-to-School Tides Center, Ongoing Tracks farm-to-school National K-12 schools National Network San Francisco, programs in 50 states and local farms State http://www.farmtoschool.org CA National Health and HHS/CDC Continuous Cross-sectional Civilian, household National Individual-level Nutrition Examination Annual since 1999 ~5,000 persons population all ages estimates of Survey (NHANES) USDA/ARS examined annually since 1999 behaviors and “What We Eat in America” Oversample of low- measured health http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/ income, Hispanics, status nhanes.htm and Asians National Health Interview HHS/CDC Annual (weekly Cross-sectional Civilian, household National Household- and Survey (NHIS) and monthly ~39,500 households population Selected state individual-level http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/ probability (HHs); Oversample of African estimates estimates nhis.htm samples) ~101,900 persons in Americans, Hispanics, w/years ~40,500 families, all and Asians combined ages (2011) National Household Travel DOT/FHWA 2009 Periodic Cross-sectional Civilian, household National Household- and Survey (NHTS) (every 5-7 years) ~150,000 HHs; population Selected states individual-level http://nhts.ornl.gov 351,000 persons Daily travel for (if they choose estimates persons 5+ years to add-on) National Immunization HHS/CDC Annual Cross-sectional Children aged 19-35 National Data on Survey (NIS) months State breastfeeding http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/ Health care providers Selected large practices nis.htm of children urban areas National Profile of Local NACCHO Semi-regularly (last The core questionnaire Local health National Local health Health Departments survey conducted in is sent to every LHD departments department http://www.naccho.org/ 2013) in the United States; infrastructure topics/infrastructure/profile/ a random sample of index.cfm LHDs also receive supplemental modules National Resource Center National At least 2× per year Census Early child care State Links to state for Resource Center centers laws containing Health and Safety in Child for Health and licensing Care and Early Education— Safety in Child standards for State Licensing Information Care and Early early child care http://nrckids.org/STATES/ Education programs states.htm continued 325

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326 TABLE D-1 Continued Level of Sample Design and Estimates or Frequency of Data Sample Size Target Population (or Data Data Source and Website Sponsor Updates (if applicable) Components) Available Comments National Survey of HHS/HRSA/ Every 4 years; Cross-sectional Noninstitutionalized National Children’s Health (NSCH) MCHB possibly annual in ~91,642 surveys of children aged 0-17 yrs State http://childhealthdata.org/ future children (0-17 yrs old HRSA region learn/NSCH old); between 1,700- 1,900 for each state National Survey of Mercer Annual Employer health care Employers National Employer-Sponsored Health policies Plans http://www.mercer.com/ ushealthplansurvey National Survey of HHS/CDC Every 2 years since Birth facilities, All U.S. states and National Maternity Practices in 2007 practices, and program territories State Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) http://www.cdc.gov/ breastfeeding/data/mpinc/ index.htm National Survey on Energy HHS/NIH/ 2008 Cross-sectional Primary care National Balance-related NCI, NICHD, (unclear when next physicians treating Care Among Primary Care NIDDK, survey will occur) children and/or adults Physicians OBSSR, CDC http://outcomes.cancer.gov/ surveys/energy

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National Vital Statistics HHS/CDC Ongoing Collected during vital Legal authority for National System events—births, deaths, the registration of State http://www.cdc.gov/NCHS/ marriages, divorces, vital events resides nvss.htm and fetal deaths individually with 50 states, 2 cities (Washington, DC, and New York City), and 5 territories (Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands) Nielsen Media Research The Nielsen Ongoing Longitudinal panel Households in the 48 National Contains data on http://www.nielsen.com Company contiguous states Metropolitan exposure to food Each household Market and beverage panel member groups advertising as participates for 2 (constructed well as data on years. Random digit by Nielsen) the frequency dialing and online of television panel recruitment viewing, to obtain a sample videogame, and that is as nationally Internet use each representative as day (sedentary possible. Stratified behaviors) sampling and oversampling of certain populations (e.g., youth, racial/ ethnic minorities) Approximately 25,000 households continued 327

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328 TABLE D-1 Continued Level of Sample Design and Estimates or Frequency of Data Sample Size Target Population (or Data Data Source and Website Sponsor Updates (if applicable) Components) Available Comments NPD Group NPD Group Ongoing Nationally Consumers National https://www.npd.com/wps/ representative sample portal/npd/us/home of consumers Online consumer panel with more than 2 million participants Pregnancy Risk Assessment HHS/CDC Annual Random sample from Women with a State Breastfeeding Monitoring System birth certificates recent live birth (and Maternal diet (PRAMS) their infants) in 40 and activity http://www.cdc.gov/prams participating states behaviors and New York City Pre-pregnancy weight Gestational diabetes Quarterly Food-at- USDA/ERS 1999-2006 26 metropolitan Food prices for 54 Local Home Price Database (version 1) and 9 nonmetro- food groups (QFAHPD) http://www.ers. 2004-2010 politan markets for usda.gov/data-products/ (version 2) 2004-2010 quarterly-food-at-home- price-database.aspx#. UUNs3BfkuSo School Health Policies and HHS/CDC Every 6 years Nationally represented Public school state National Practices Study (SHPPS) sample of 50 states agencies; State http://www.cdc.gov/ and DC public school Selected large HealthyYouth/shpps/index. Randomly selected administration; districts htm classes (classroom- public and private level data) school faculty and staff; teachers

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School Nutrition Dietary USDA/FNS Periodic Cross-sectional Nationally National Student-level Assessment Survey (SNDA) SNDA-III: SNDA-III: 2,314 representative samples behaviors in http://www.mathematica- 2004-2005 public school students of districts, schools, SNDA-III and mpr.com/nutrition/ SNDA-IV: in grades 1-12 from and students (in V; School-level snda_IV.asp 2009-2010 287 sampled schools SNDA III) in 48 indicators in SNDA-V: planned SNDA IV: 595 school contiguous states and SNDA-III, IV, food authorities and DC and V 902 sampled schools State Birth Registries/Birth U.S. Ongoing Collected during vital Pregnant women and State Records Databases Government events—births newborns http://www.cdc.gov/ nchs/nvss/state_health_ departments.htm State SNAP-Ed Plans USDA Annual Census SNAP-Ed programs State State-level plans http://snap.nal.usda.gov/ for SNAP-Ed state-gates programs State SNAP Policy Database USDA Ongoing Census SNAP state program State SNAP Policy http://www.ers.usda.gov/ policies Database data-products/snap-policy- http://www.ers. database.aspx usda.gov/data- products/snap- policy-database. aspx Yale Rudd Center for Yale Rudd 2010-present Census Legislation introduced, National Food policy Food Policy and Obesity— Center for enacted, vetoed, failed, State and obesity- Legislative Database Food Policy & or repealed Selected large related legislative http://www.yaleruddcenter. Obesity metropolitan tracking org/legislation areas database continued 329

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330 TABLE D-1 Continued Level of Sample Design and Estimates or Frequency of Data Sample Size Target Population (or Data Data Source and Website Sponsor Updates (if applicable) Components) Available Comments Youth Risk Behavior HHS/CDC Biennial Cross-sectional Youth in public and National Individual-level Surveillance System (YRBSS) school-based survey private schools, grades State behaviors http://www.cdc.gov/ samples (47 states, 9-12; ages 12-21 yrs Local HealthyYouth/yrbs/index. 5 territories, 2 tribal, old htm 22 local regions) ~15,500 youth in 2011 * This table provides detailed information on each of the data sources listed in Chapter 4, Table 4-2, including the sponsoring organization, study design, periodicity, and populations studied. Appendix F, Table F-2 lists examples of national surveillance and evaluation system data sources that can be considered for their potential based on the specific measures, target population, and level of the data desired for indicators. NOTES: ARS = Agricultural Research Service; CDC = U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; DOT = U.S. Department of Transportation; ERS = Economic Research Service; FDA = U.S. Food and Drug Administration; FHWA = U.S. Federal Highway Administration; FNS = Food and Nutrition Service; HH = household; HHS = U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; HRSA = Health Resources and Services Administration; IRI = Information Resources, Inc.; LHD = local health department; MCHB = Maternal and Child Health Bureau; MMSA = metropolitan and micropolitan statistical area; NACCHO = National Association of County and City Health Officials; NCI = National Cancer Institute; NCQA = National Center for Quality Assurance; NICHD = National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; NIDDK = National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; NIH = National Institutes of Health; OBSSR = Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research; SNAP = Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program; USDA = U.S. Department of Agriculture.