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National Academy of Engineering in cooperation with the National Park Service and the John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center Proctor Reid and Steve Olson, Rapporteurs

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS   500 Fifth Street, NW   Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: This publication has been reviewed according to procedures approved by the National Academy of Engineering report review process. Publication of signed work signifies that it is judged a competent and useful contribution worthy of public consideration, but it does not imply endorsement of conclusions or recommendations by the National Academy of Engineering. The interpretations and conclusions in such publications are those of the authors and do not purport to present the views of the council, officers, or staff of the National Academy of Engineering. This project was supported by funding from the US Department of Transportation. Any opinions, finding, or conclusions expressed in this publication are those of the workshop participants. International Standard Book Number 13:  978-0-309-28542-1 International Standard Book Number 10:  0-309-28542-9 Copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (888) 624-8373 or (202) 334-3313; www.nap.edu. For more information about the National Academy of Engineering, visit the NAE home page at www.nae.edu. Copyright 2013 by the National Academies. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examina- tion of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to ­ ssociate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s a purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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WORKSHOP STEERING COMMITTEE GREGG G. FLEMING, Chair, Director, Environmental and Energy Systems Technical Center, Volpe Center, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, US Department of Transportation WILLIAM W. LANG, NAE, President, Noise Control Foundation CYNTHIA S.Y. LEE, Electronics Engineer, Volpe Center, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, US Department of Transportation GEORGE C. MALING JR., NAE, Managing Director, Emeritus, Institute of Noise Control Engineering NICHOLAS MILLER, Project Manager and Past President, Harris Miller Miller & Hanson Inc. FRANK TURINA, Policy, Planning, and Compliance Program Manager, Natural Sounds and Night Skies Division, National Park Service ERIC J.W. WOOD, Director, Noise and Vibration Group, Acentech Inc. National Academy of Engineering Staff PROCTOR P. REID, Director, Program Office STEVE OLSON, Consultant CAMERON H. FLETCHER, Senior Editor PENELOPE GIBBS, Senior Program Associate v

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Preface T his summary is based on a workshop hosted by the National Park Service (NPS) in Fort Collins, Colorado, on October 3–4, 2012. After review of the Technology for a Quieter America report by the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), published in October 2010, the chief of the NPS Natural Sounds and Night Skies Division, Karen Trevino, concluded that the NAE could assist the NPS in refin- ing portions of its national noise program. This workshop summary was prepared by rapporteurs Steve Olson and Proctor Reid. A steering committee developed the program for the workshop following NAE procedures for the organization of workshops and subsequent publica- tion of the results. This report discusses NPS mandates to protect the soundscape in its 400-plus properties. Empowered by these mandates, NPS has a long history of actively managing noise in its properties and has taken actions, both administrative and legal, to protect soundscapes. Noise sources of concern include those related to transportation, maintenance, and construction. NPS also has a long history of studying the effects of noise on park visitors and wildlife. This work is ongoing and is vital to best understand how to protect park soundscapes. This workshop and resulting summary focus on noise sources wholly under NPS control (e.g., facilities management, transportation within the park, and construction). The aim was to provide best practices to assist NPS park managers, contractors, and concessionaires in protecting park soundscapes. It is essential that parks have flexibility in the application of best practices and that each park be able to develop programs appro- priate for its own circumstances. In some areas, such as procurement of quiet products, the steering committee recognized that best practices vii

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viii PREFACE could leverage the experience of other government agencies, and that is why considerable attention was paid to the ­ uy-Quiet program of the B National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Workshop participants represented a broad array of expertise and included both park personnel and noise control specialists. It is expected that there will be a continuing dialogue between work- shop participants and related stakeholders, and it is hoped that novel solutions will be identified to help improve park soundscapes. Gregg G. Fleming George C. Maling Jr. Volpe National Transportation Institute of Noise Control Systems Center Engineering (ret.)

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Acknowledgments T his summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals c ­ hosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies. The purpose of the independent review is to provide candid and critical comments to assist the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) in mak- ing its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: James E. Barger, Raytheon BBN Technologies Paul R. Donovan, Illingworth & Rodkin Inc. Lawrence S. Finegold, Finegold & So, Environmental Noise Consultants Richard H. Lyon, RH Lyon Corp. Nicholas Miller, Harris Miller Miller & Hanson Inc. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the views expressed in the report, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Lance Davis, NAE Executive Officer. Appointed by NAE, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and NAE. ix

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Contents 1 INTRODUCTION AND THEMES OF THE WORKSHOP 1 Origins of the Workshop, 2 Organization of the Breakout Groups, 3 Themes of the Workshop, 3 Structure of This Report, 6 2 NOISE IN THE NATIONAL PARKS 7 Noise Generated in the National Parks, 9 Effects of Noise on Wildlife, 13 Effects of Noise on Park Visitors, 14 The Buy-Quiet Program at NASA, 15 Low-Noise Products in the National Parks, 21 3 REPORT FROM THE TRANSPORTATION BREAKOUT GROUP 22 Technologies for Reducing Noise, 22 Guidance for Purchasing, 23 Future Goals, 24 4 REPORT FROM THE FACILITIES AND MAINTENANCE BREAKOUT GROUP 25 Park Practices, 25 Promotion of Low-Noise Policies, 26 Purchasing, 27 Discussion, 28 xi

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xii CONTENTS 5 REPORT FROM THE CONSTRUCTION BREAKOUT GROUP 30 Source Controls, 30 Path Controls, 31 Receiver Controls, 32 Developing and Implementing Construction Noise Programs, 33 6 REFLECTIONS ON THE WORKSHOP 34 REFERENCES 36 APPENDIXES A Workshop Steering Committee Biographical Information 37 B Workshop Agenda 43 C Workshop Attendees 46 BOXES 1-1 General Topics for All Sessions, 4 2-1 Soundscape Management in the National Park Service, 8 2-2  ilderness Act and NPS Policies Governing Noise from Motorized W Equipment in the National Park Service, 10 2-3 Examples of Noise Challenges, 12