tially explicit estimates of pesticide exposure, and for specifying the spatial structure of population models used in effects analysis (see below). Several methods for identifying and statistically modeling associations between species and their environment exist; although some caveats and uncertainties are associated with them, quantitative statistical habitat delineation is typically objective and more reliable than qualitative and subjective habitat descriptions.

The accuracy and reliability of habitat delineation and exposure analysis are increased substantially by the use of authoritative geospatial data. To be considered authoritative, geospatial data on any scale need to meet three criteria: availability from a widely recognized and respected source, public availability, and inclusion of metadata5 that are consistent with the standards of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure—a federal interagency program to organize and share spatial data and to ensure their accuracy. The geospatial data that are most useful for delineating habitat and estimating exposure are data on topography, hydrography, meteorology, solar radiation, soils, geology, and land cover. Table S-1 provides some examples of authoritative sources of those data. In many cases, there are multiple authoritative sources for each type of data on different spatial and temporal scales. Although it would be ideal to be able to identify specific authoritative sources, no one source will be best for all habitat delineations, exposure analyses, or other applications. However, accuracy assessments that generally are available for authoritative data sources might allow one to gauge which source is likely to be the most reliable for a particular objective.

EFFECTS

Pesticides are designed to have biological activity; specifically, they are “intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating” pests. Consequently, they have the potential to cause a variety of effects on nontarget organisms, including listed species. Determining the potential for and possible magnitude of effects is a process known as effects analysis. The following sections consider various topics on effects analysis as they are related to the committee’s task and highlight the committee’s conclusions on the topics.

Sublethal, Indirect, and Cumulative Effects

Pesticides can kill organisms but can also affect reproduction or growth or make organisms less competitive. Although EPA and the Services agree that those sublethal (less-than-lethal) effects should be considered in the assessment process, they disagree on the extent to which they can be included. To address

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5Metadata document the fundamental attributes of data, such as who collected them, when and where they were collected, what variables were measured, how and in what units measurements were taken, and the coordinate system used to identify locations.



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