ity of population survival (population viability), and probability of population recovery—on the basis of individual-level effects. For purposes of population modeling, the effects must be estimated at a range of concentrations that includes all values that the populations being assessed might plausibly experience. Therefore, test results expressed only as threshold values, such as a no-observed-adverse-effect level or a lowest observed-adverse-effect level, are insufficient for a population-level risk assessment.

Because the ESA is concerned with species, population models are necessary for quantifying the effects of pesticides on populations of listed species. Population models require three basic inputs: changes in survival or reproduction as a function of pesticide concentration, exposure estimates of pesticide concentration over time and space, and demographic and life-history information. There are a variety of population models, and the choice of a model will depend on the data available. Although species-specific models that incorporate all three inputs are preferred, in the absence of detailed demographic information it is reasonable to use simple generic models that characterize the life history of a group of species to estimate the effects of a pesticide on a given species. It is important to incorporate density dependence by using models with parameter values that are functions of population density or population size, but it is not accurate to assume that mortality due to pesticide exposure will be compensated for by density dependence because it is likely that such exposure will decrease the growth rate of the population at all densities and generally depress the curve of population size vs growth rate.


Assessing the risks posed by exposure to mixtures is clearly a subject of disagreement and concern for the agencies. To address the mixture issue, the committee made several distinctions. First, some pesticides might contain more than one active ingredient (a chemical that is responsible for the biological effect of the pesticide); most pesticides contain other chemicals that are typically designated as “inerts.”6 Second, pesticides are often mixed with other chemicals before their application. The resulting mixtures are referred to as tank mixture and can contain other pesticides, fertilizers, and adjuvants—materials that facilitate handling and application, such as surfactants, compatibility agents, antifoaming agents, and drift-control agents. Third, chemicals from other sources are already in the environment; unless exposure occurs only at or near the point of pesticide application, species are more likely to be exposed to environmental mixtures than to a single pesticide formulation or tank mixture. Environmental


6 The term inerts is defined by FIFRA as an ingredient that is not active. Inerts are intentionally added to pesticide products, and the term does not mean that the chemicals are nontoxic.

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