led the development of guidance documents for ecological risk assessments, such as the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Framework for Metals Risk Assessment, the British Columbia Ministry of Environment’s guidance for implementing Tier 1 ecological risk assessments of contaminated sites, and EPA’s ecological soil screening levels. Recently, she served on a science advisory panel for the state of Utah and as a consultant to the British Columbia Ministry of Environment to set site-specific water-quality standards for selenium that protect fish and wildlife. Dr. Fairbrother has served as president of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, the American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians, and the Wildlife Disease Association. In addition, she has been a member of the National Research Council’s Committee on Animals as Monitors of Environmental Hazards. Dr. Fairbrother earned a DVM from the University of California, Davis and a PhD in veterinary science from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Daniel Goodman was a professor of ecology at Montana State University. His research interests included environmental statistics, risk analysis, population dynamics, and environmental modeling. Dr. Goodman was a member of the Silvery Minnow PVA Working Group (Middle Rio Grande Endangered Species Collaborative), the Fish Passage Center Oversight Board of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council, the Hawaiian Monk Seal Recovery Team, and the Cook Inlet Beluga Whale Recovery Team. Dr. Goodman earned a PhD in zoology from Ohio State University.

William L. Graf is University Foundation Distinguished Professor Emeritus of the Department of Geography of the University of South Carolina and Regents Professor Emeritus in Geography at Arizona State University. His research interests include fluvial geomorphology and hydrology and policy for public land and water with an emphasis on river channel and habitat change, human effects on rivers, contaminant transport and storage in rivers, and the downstream effects of large dams. He has served as a science-policy adviser on more than 40 committees for federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. In addition, Dr. Graf has chaired and been a member of many National Research Council committees, including those focused on the Klamath River, the Platte River, the Everglades, the Missouri River, and watershed management. He is chair of the NRC Geographical Sciences Committee, a national associate of the National Academy of Sciences, and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Graf earned his PhD in physical geography from the University of Wisconsin-Madison with a certificate in water-resources management.

Philip M. Gschwend is a professor of civil and environmental engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His research interests are environmental organic chemistry, phase exchanges and transformation processes, modeling fates of organic pollutants, roles of colloids and black carbons, and passive



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