Novel Processes for
Advanced Manufacturing

SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP

Maureen Mellody, Rapporteur

Standing Committee on Defense Materials,
Manufacturing and Infrastructure

National Materials and Manufacturing Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Maureen Mellody, Rapporteur Standing Committee on Defense Materials, Manufacturing and Infrastructure National Materials and Manufacturing Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

OCR for page R1
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, NW  Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this workshop summary was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. W911NF-10-C-0098 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Defense. The views presented in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number-13:  978-0-309-28591-9 International Standard Book Number-10:  0-309-28591-7 This report is available in limited quantities from: National Materials and Manufacturing Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 nmmb@nas.edu http://www.nationalacademies.edu/nmmb Additional copies of this workshop summary are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu/. Cover: The image depicts the juxtaposition of established industrial processes such as sand-casting of metals. It shows the novel uses of additive manufacturing, which is capable of creating objects of intriguing complexity in many dimensions, voxel by voxel, and represents a case of modernization and rejuvenation, perhaps even a revolution, of established industrial processes. Artist: Erik Svedberg, 3D image generated computationally, pixel by pixel. Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to as- sociate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR NEW AND NOVEL PROCESSES THAT ARE ON THE VERGE OF INDUSTRIAL MODERNIZATION: A WORKSHOP ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK, GE Aviation, Chair ROSARIO A. GERHARDT, Georgia Institute of Technology GEORGE T. GRAY III, Los Alamos National Laboratory ROBERT H. LATIFF, R. Latiff Associates MICHAEL F. McGRATH, Analytic Services, Inc. GREGORY B. OLSON, Northwestern University PRABHJOT SINGH, GE Global Research SONYA T. SMITH, Howard University DENISE F. SWINK, Private Consultant HAYDN N.G. WADLEY, University of Virginia v

OCR for page R1
STANDING COMMITTEE on DEFENSE MATERIALS, MANUFACTURING AND INFRASTRUCTURE ROBERT H. LATIFF, R. Latiff Associates, Chair ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK, GE Aviation, Vice Chair VALERIE BROWNING, ValTech Solutions, LLC JESUS M. de la GARZA, Virginia Polytechnic and State University GEORGE T. GRAY III, Los Alamos National Laboratory MICHAEL F. McGRATH, Analytic Services, Inc. E. SARAH SLAUGHTER, Built Environment Coalition DENISE F. SWINK, Private Consultant A. GALIP ULSOY, University of Michigan HAYDN N.G. WADLEY, University of Virginia STEVEN G. WAX, Private Consultant Staff DENNIS I. CHAMOT, Acting Director ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer TERI G. THOROWGOOD, Administrative Coordinator HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate ANN F. LARROW, Program Associate, until May 2013 JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Project Assistant, from June 2013 vi

OCR for page R1
National Materials and Manufacturing Board ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK, NAE, GE Aviation, Chair PETER R. BRIDENBAUGH, NAE, ALCOA, retired LAWRENCE D. BURNS, NAE, University of Michigan JIM C.I. CHANG, National Cheng Kung University STEPHEN H. DAVIS, Northwestern University GEORGE T. GRAY III, Los Alamos National Laboratory JENNIE S. HWANG, H-Technologies Group SUNDARESAN JAYARAMAN, Georgia Institute of Technology ROBERT H. LATIFF, R. Latiff Associates MICHAEL F. McGRATH, Analytic Services, Inc. CELIA MERZBACHER, Semiconductor Research Corporation EDWARD MORRIS, National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR., International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative VINCENT J. RUSSO, Aerospace Technologies Associates, LLC HAYDN N.G. WADLEY, University of Virginia BEN WANG, Georgia Tech Manufacturing Institute ALBERT R.C. WESTWOOD, Sandia National Laboratories Staff DENNIS I. CHAMOT, Acting Director ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer TERI G. THOROWGOOD, Administrative Coordinator HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate ANN F. LARROW, Program Associate, until May 2013 JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Project Assistant, from June 2013 vii

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Acknowledgment of Reviewers This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this workshop summary: Peter R. Bridenbaugh (NAE), ALCOA, retired, Rosario A. Gerhardt, Georgia Institute of Technology, Paul S. Peercy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, and Prabhjot Singh, GE Global Research. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this workshop summary was overseen by Lyle Schwartz, University of Maryland. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the author and the institution. ix

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Contents OVERVIEW 1 1 WORKSHOP INTRODUCTION: Welcome and Meeting 11 Objectives 2 ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING—SESSION SUMMARY 12 Introduction to Additive Manufacturing and Current and Future Applications, 12 Additive Manufacturing at GE, 16 Center for Innovative Materials Processing Through Direct Digital Deposition, 19 Open Discussion: Additive Manufacturing, 23 3 ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD MANIPULATION OF PROPERTIES— 25 SESSION SUMMARY High-Magnetic-Field Processing and Synthesis to Develop the Next Generation of Structural and Functional Materials, 25 Materials Processing at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 30 Field-Assisted Sintering Technology, 34 Open Discussion: Electromagnetic Manipulation of Properties, 37 xi

OCR for page R1
xii Contents 4 DESIGN OF MATERIALS­ SESSION SUMMARY — 39 Materials Genomics Past and Future from CALPHAD to Flight, 39 Some Steels on the Verge of Industrialization, 45 Data-Driven Materials Codesign, 48 Open Discussion: Design of Materials, 51 5 WORKSHOP WRAP-UP 54 REFERENCES 56 APPENDIXES A Workshop Statement of Task 59 B Workshop Participants 60 C Workshop Agenda 64 D Acronyms 68