based services, as well as closer integration with the country’s HIV program.

•   Major health care system reforms undertaken in China include reducing the cost of MDR TB treatment for patients and improving the national TB surveillance system to provide individual patients with care as early as possible while generating data to facilitate the management of the disease from a population-based perspective. Opportunities for the future include applying China’s strong scientific research capability to better understand the burden of disease and contribute to the development of new drugs to treat MDR TB.


a Identified by individual speakers.

As part of the final session of the workshop, several speakers provided reflections from the perspective of the BRICS countries. They were asked to discuss the leading role of the BRICS countries in the effort to combine science- and evidence-based policies with economic interventions to combat DR TB. After presenting an overview of the role of the BRICS countries overall in combating DR TB, this chapter summarizes remarks made by individual speakers concerning specific BRICS countries.


Rifat Atun, Professor of International Health Management, and Head, Health Management Group, Imperial College London, noted that although the BRICS countries have been engines of economic growth, they also have been engines for the spread of MDR TB. Approximately 60 percent of the estimated 310,000 MDR TB cases among notified TB patients with pulmonary TB in 2011 were in China, India, and the Russian Federation, he observed (WHO, 2012).

The BRICS countries also provide a substantial portion of funding for TB control worldwide (Figure 2-1). Among 104 countries that account for almost 95 percent of TB cases globally, the BRICS countries have contributed an average of more than 60 percent of TB control funding since 2006. These countries also serve as a source for much of the funding for MDR TB. “Without the BRICS, global TB and MDR TB control efforts would collapse,” said Atun.

Atun identified four areas in which the BRICS countries can play an

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