Appendix B

Participant Biographies

Valentina Aksenova, M.D., is Head of the Children and Adolescents Department, Research Institute of Physiopulmonology of the First Sechenov Moscow State Medical University, and Chief Freelance Expert Pediatrician-Physiologist of the Russian Health Ministry. Dr. Aksenova graduated from the 2nd Pirogov Moscow Medical Institute as a pediatrician. Since 1981, she has been working in the Research Institute of Physiopulmonology, Children and Adolescents Department, starting as junior scientific worker and now working as Head of the Department. Since 1991, she has been the Chief Freelance Expert Pediatrician-Physiologist of the Russian Health Ministry and the Head of the Health Ministry Republic Centre for BCG Complications. Since 1998, she has been Professor of Physiopulmonology and Chair of the Postgraduate Education Faculty of the 1st Sechenov Moscow State Medical University. Since 2001, she has been a member of the WHO Eastern Europe Working Group for Childhood Tuberculosis. Dr. Aksenova is also a member of the Russian Society of Physiologists, the World Association of Pediatricians, and The Union. Her areas of research interest include issues of physiopulmonology and pulmonology in children and adolescents, pediatrics, and organization of health care in the continents. She has authored more than 300 scientific publications; 25 Ph.D. and 4 M.D. theses were completed under her guidance. The Russian Ministry of Health awarded her the Medal of Merit for domestic health care.

Rifat Atun, M.B.B.S., M.B.A., FRCGP, FFPH, FRCP, is Professor of International Health Management, Imperial College Business School and Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London. He heads the Health Management



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Appendix B Participant Biographies Valentina Aksenova, M.D., is Head of the Children and Adolescents Department, Research Institute of Physiopulmonology of the First Sechenov Moscow State Medical University, and Chief Freelance Expert Pediatrician- Physiologist of the Russian Health Ministry. Dr. Aksenova graduated from the 2nd Pirogov Moscow Medical Institute as a pediatrician. Since 1981, she has been working in the Research Institute of Physiopulmonology, Children and Adolescents Department, starting as junior scientific worker and now working as Head of the Department. Since 1991, she has been the Chief Freelance Expert Pediatrician-Physiologist of the Russian Health Ministry and the Head of the Health Ministry Republic Centre for BCG Complications. Since 1998, she has been Professor of Physio­ ulmonology p and Chair of the Postgraduate Education Faculty of the 1st Sechenov Moscow State Medical University. Since 2001, she has been a member of the WHO Eastern Europe Working Group for Childhood Tuberculosis. Dr. Aksenova is also a member of the Russian Society of Physiologists, the World Association of Pediatricians, and The Union. Her areas of research interest include issues of physiopulmonology and pulmonology in children and adolescents, pediatrics, and organization of health care in the conti- nents. She has authored more than 300 scientific publications; 25 Ph.D. and 4 M.D. theses were completed under her guidance. The Russian Ministry of Health awarded her the Medal of Merit for domestic health care. Rifat Atun, M.B.B.S., M.B.A., FRCGP, FFPH, FRCP, is Professor of Inter- national Health Management, Imperial College Business School and Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London. He heads the Health Management 171

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172 DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN CHINA AND THE BRICS Group at Imperial College Business School. Between 2008 and 2012, he was a member of the Executive Management Team at the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria in Switzerland as the Director of Strategy, Performance and Evaluation Cluster. Since 2009, he has been the Chair of the Stop TB Partnership Coordinating Board. Dr. Atun has worked globally with the UK Department for International Development (DFID), the DFID Resource Centre for Health Systems, the World Bank, WHO, and other international health agencies to design, implement, and evaluate health systems reforms and communicable and noncommunicable disease programs. His research focuses on innovation in health systems. Dr. Atun was a member of the Strategic Technical Advisory Group of WHO for Tuberculosis and the Advisory Committee for the WHO Research Centre for Health Development in Japan. He is a member of the Scientific Advisory Board for PEPFAR, the Global Health Group at the UK Medical Research Council, and the Global Task Force for Expanding Cancer Care and Control in Developing Countries. He has published extensively on health systems, communicable disease control, and innovation in health and biopharmaceutical sectors. Dr. Atun studied medicine at the University of London as a Commonwealth Scholar and completed his postgraduate medical studies and master’s degree in business administration at University of London and Imperial College London. He is a Fellow of the Faculty of Public Health of the Royal College of Physicians (UK), a Fellow of the Royal College of General Practitioners (UK), and a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians (UK). Mercedes C. Becerra, Sc.D., is Associate Professor in the Department of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School. She is a graduate of Harvard College (A.B., history) and earned an Sc.D. in epide- miology at the Harvard School of Public Health. Her research focuses on the treatment of TB and the TB burden in patient households. Dr. Becerra is the principal investigator of a large ongoing study of the epidemiology of DR TB in Peru, supported by grants from NIAID. She is also the recipi- ent of a Charles H. Hood Foundation Child Health Research Award and a career development award from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Insti- tute. Dr. Becerra serves as a senior TB specialist with Partners In Health, an international nonprofit organization that provides direct health care services and advocates on behalf of those who are sick and living in poverty. She is co-founder of the Sentinel Project on Pediatric Drug-Resistant Tuber- culosis, a global coalition of researchers, caregivers, and advocates seeking to end child deaths from this curable and preventable disease. Jean-Luc Berland, M.Sc., is Assistant Scientist, Fondation Mérieux–­ Laboratoires des Pathogènes Emergents. Mr. Berland is interested in diag-

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APPENDIX B 173 nostics of infectious disease. After receiving a master’s degree in biochemistry from the Lyon 1 University, he joined the R&D Immunoassays Department of BioMérieux in 1995. He participated in the development of in vitro diag- nostic reagents for the detection of various pathogens, including respiratory viruses and hepatitis C virus (HCV), as well as for characterization of the sera lipid particles containing HCV and development of tools for preclinical immune response monitoring of an HCV vaccine candidate concept. Since 2008, he has been responsible for a TB project in the Scientific Department of Fondation Mérieux. With its research programs, Fondation Mérieux pursues objectives such as developing diagnostic tools enabling improved epidemiological monitoring on a global scale, distributing these tools exten- sively, and promoting advanced research in developing countries. Fondation Mérieux has worked to create international scientific partnerships in coun- tries in the field of TB, including HBCs. In partnership with local partners in several developing countries and through collaboration with international institutions, this program aims to implement and develop molecular tools and build capacities for the diagnosis of DR, MDR, and XDR TB. Barry R. Bloom, Ph.D., D.Sc. (Hon.), is Harvard University Distinguished Service Professor and Joan L. and Julius H. Jacobson Professor of Public ­ Health, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health. Dr. Bloom is a graduate of Amherst College (B.S., 1958, and Hon. D.Sc., 1990) and Rockefeller University (Ph.D., 1963). He served as Dean of the Harvard School of Public Health from 1998 through 2008 and is a leading scientist in the areas of infectious diseases, vaccines, and global health. After more than 35 years as the principal investigator in a Harvard laboratory researching immune response to TB, he recently shut down his lab to concentrate on teaching and lecturing. He is a member of the NAS, the IOM, the American Association for the Advancement of Sci- ence, and the American Philosophical Society. While dean of the Harvard School of Public Health, Dr. Bloom served as secretary and treasurer for the Association of Schools of Public Health. Prior to joining Harvard, he served as chairman of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and as an investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, where he also served on the National Advisory Board. In 1978, he was a consultant to the White House on international health policy. He is a past president of the American Association of Immu- nologists and the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. He received the first Bristol-Myers Squibb Award for Distinguished Research in Infectious Diseases, shared the Novartis Award in Immunology in 1998, and was the recipient of the Robert Koch Gold Medal for Lifetime Research in Infectious Diseases in 1999. Dr. Bloom has been extensively involved with WHO for more than 40 years. He is currently chair of the Technical

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174 DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN CHINA AND THE BRICS and Research Advisory Committee to the Global Programme on Malaria at WHO, has been a member of the WHO Advisory Committee on Health Research, chaired the WHO Committees on Leprosy Research and Tubercu- losis Research, and chaired the Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee of the UN Development Programme/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases. He is also a member of the Innovation Working Group under the UN Secretary General’s Joint Effort to Improve the Health of Women and Children. Dr. Bloom serves on the Scientific Advisory Boards of the Earth Institute at Columbia University, the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, City University of New York School of Public Health at Hunter College, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute K-RITH. In addition, he is an Expert Advisory Group member of the Global Fund AMFm, and a Scientific Oversight Group member of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington, Seattle. He is a member of the Board of Trustees for the Tuberculosis Vaccine Institute and the first Chairman of the Board of Trustees and now Chairman Emeri- tus of the International Vaccine Institute. Most recently, he has joined the Advisory Board of the Fogarty International Center at NIH. Gail H. Cassell, Ph.D., D.Sc. (Hon.), is Visiting Professor, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Vice President of TB Drug Development of the not-for-profit Infectious Disease Research Institute, Seattle, Washington. Dr. Cassell has recently retired as Vice President, Scientific Affairs, and Distinguished Eli Lilly Research Scholar for Infectious Diseases, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, I ­ndiana. In this capacity, among other things, she was responsible for initiating and leading the not-for-profit Eli Lilly TB Drug Discovery Initia- tive launched in 2007. In 2003, she was one of two individuals at Eli Lilly who initiated and developed the Eli Lilly Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Partnership. The partnership has resulted in company support to date of $135 million and is the largest philanthropic effort in Eli Lilly’s 135-year history. The partnership now involves more than 20 partners, including WHO and U.S. CDC. She is the former Vice President of Infectious Dis- eases, Drug Discovery, and Clinical Development of Eli Lilly, where she led the programs of a hepatitis C protease inhibitor recently approved by FDA from the discovery phase to clinical candidate and the development of a new class of antibiotics from clinical development to product decision. Prior to moving to Eli Lilly in 1997, Dr. Cassell was the Charles H. McCauley Professor and Chairman of the Department of Microbiology at the Uni- versity of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry at Birmingham, a ­ department which ranked first in research funding from NIH during the decade of her leadership. She obtained her B.S. from the University of A ­ labama in Tuscaloosa and in 1993 was selected by that institution as

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APPENDIX B 175 one of the top 31 female graduates of the 20th century. She obtained her Ph.D. in microbiology from the University of Alabama at Birmingham and was selected as its 2003 Distinguished Alumnus. She is a past president of the American Society for Microbiology, the oldest and single largest life sciences organization, with a membership of more than 42,000 (more than 20 percent international members). She was named to the original Board of Scientific Councilors of the Center for Infectious Diseases, U.S. CDC, and served as Chair of the Board. She has served on the Advisory Board of the Director of NIH, the Director of U.S. CDC, and the Secretary of Health and Human Services Advisory Council of Public Health Pre- paredness, FDA’s Science Board, the Advisory Committee to the Commis- sioner. Currently, she is a member of the NIH Science Management Board, the newly appointed NIH Board of Trustees, and the Advisory Council of the Fogarty International Center of NIH. Since 1996, she has been a mem- ­ ber of the U.S.–Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program responsible for advising the respective governments on joint research agendas (U.S. ­ State Department/Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs). She was instrumental in the establishment of the U.S./Russia Cooperative Medical Sciences and Training Program under the Bilateral Presidential Commission in 2009, which represents a collaboration involving NIH, the NAS, the IOM, the Russian Academy of Sciences, and the Russian Academy of Medical Sci- ences. She has served on the editorial boards of several scientific journals and has authored more than 350 articles and book chapters. Dr. Cassell has received national and international awards for her research in infectious diseases, including two honorary degrees, the U.S. CDC Honor Award in Public Health for exceptional leadership and contributions in the develop- ment and implementation of U.S. CDC’s Emerging Infectious Disease Plan 1997, a Citation from the FDA Commissioner for her role as chair of the review of science and technology at FDA and the report FDA: Science and Mission at Risk 2008, and the Emmy Klineberger-Nobel Award in 2008 from the International Organization for Mycoplasmology for outstanding and sustained research contributions to the field of myco­ lasmology. She p is a member of the IOM of the NAS and has recently completed a second 3-year term on the IOM Council (the governing board). She was elected in 2011 to membership on the U.S. Council of Foreign Relations and appointed by the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Ser- vices as a member of the U.S. CDC Advisory Committee on Tuberculosis Elimination. Dr. Cassell has been intimately involved in the establishment of science policy and legislation related to biomedical research and public health. For 9 years she was Chair of the Public and Scientific Affairs Board of the American Society for Microbiology; she has served as an advisor on infectious diseases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and has been an invited partici-

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176 DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN CHINA AND THE BRICS pant in numerous congressional hearings and briefings related to infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance, and biomedical research. She has served two terms on the Liaison Committee on Medical Education, the accredit- ing body for U.S. medical schools, as well as on other national committees involved in establishing policies in training in the biomedical sciences. She is an emeritus member of the Board of Research!America and a former member and Chair of the Board of Directors of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund. She has recently completed terms on the Leadership Council of the School of Public Health of Harvard University, the Executive Committee of Columbia University Medical Center Board of Visitors, and the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing. Currently, she is a member of the Morehouse School of Medicine Board of Trustees, the Advisory Council of the Uni- versity of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health, and the Stakeholders Advisory Committee of the newly established Howard Hughes Institute K-RITH in Durban, South Africa. Richard E. Chaisson, M.D., is Professor of Medicine, Epidemiology, and International Health, Center for TB Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, ­ Maryland. He received his B.S. and M.D. from the University of Massa­ chusetts and was an intern, resident, and fellow at the University of California, San Francisco. From 1988 to 1998, he was director of the Johns Hopkins AIDS Service, and he co-founded with Richard Moore the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinic cohort, an observational cohort study that has made seminal contributions to understanding the outcomes of HIV disease and its treatment. In 1997, he founded the Johns Hopkins Center for Tuberculosis Research, a multidisciplinary institute dedicated to the study of TB from bench to bedside to community. His research interests focus on TB and HIV infection, including global epidemiology, clinical trials, diagnostics, and public health interventions. He is also Principal Investigator and Director of the Consortium to Respond Effectively to the AIDS/TB Epidemic, an international research consortium funded by BMGF to assess the impact of novel strategies for controlling HIV-related TB at the population level, including active case finding and widespread use of TB preventive therapy. In 2011, Dr. Chaisson was named Chair of the TB Transformative Science Group of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group and is leading the network’s efforts in developing new TB therapeutic regimens. He maintains active collaborative research and training programs in Brazil, ­ India, ­ esotho, Malawi, and South Africa. Most recently, he assumed L leader­ hip of the Johns Hopkins Center for AIDS Research, re-establishing s and revitalizing a transdisciplinary program to catalyze innovative HIV research at Hopkins, with a special focus on combating the Baltimore epi- demic. He has published more than 400 scientific papers and book chapters.

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APPENDIX B 177 Jin Chen, Ph.D., received his Ph.D. in immunology in 2005 from Fudan University. He then spent 5 years in the United States, obtained his post­ doctoral training and Clinical Laboratory Technology license, and worked as faculty member in Mount Sinai School of Medicine. He went back to China in 2010 as the Chair of the Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, and Deputy Director, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tuberculosis, S ­ hanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Medical School, Tongji University. Dr. Chen has authored more than 30 research publications since entering the field. He is also the principal investigator of several research projects founded by the Chinese government. Mingting Chen is Vice Director and Researcher, National Center for Tuber- culosis Control and Prevention, China CDC. He received his master’s degree in medicine from Beijing Union Medical College in 2000. In 1987, he joined the Department of Scientific Management, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, which was renamed China CDC in 2002. From Janu- ary 2000 to January 2002, he worked in the Department of Infectious Dis- ease Management and Supervision of China CDC and then served as Vice Director of Office of China CDC. From 2006, Mr. Chen has been working in the National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention of China CDC. As a leader of a research group, Mr. Chen is responsible for the study of a new type of anti-TB drug using anti-TB fixed-dose combination treat- ment in China. His specialties include health management, epidemiology, TB control and prevention (especially in MDR TB control and prevention programs), health promotion and training, and drug management. Xiaoyou Chen, Ph.D., is Director and Chief Physician, Tuberculosis Depart- ment, Beijing Chest Hospital, Beijing Tuberculosis and Thoracic Tumor Research Institute. He received his B.S. from Anhui Medical University in 1993 and his Ph.D. from Beijing Tuberculosis and Thoracic Tumor Research Institute in 2003. He has been engaged in clinical diagnosis and treatment for patients with pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB since 1993. Dr. Chen conducted postdoctoral research on rapid screen mutation of a drug-resistant gene from M.tb. at Westmead Center for Infectious Dis- eases and Microbiology of Sydney University in 2007. His chief research areas are (1) new diagnostic marker screening in TBM, (2) rapid diagnosis of DR TB with gene mutation detection, and (3) treatment of pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB. Dan Collins is a member of the Global Health Programs and Access Depart- ment, Corporate Affairs, Eli Lilly. He is leading the company’s efforts to improve supply of and access to quality-assured second-line medications for MDR TB patients. Funded by the Eli Lilly & Co. Foundation, this effort

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178 DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN CHINA AND THE BRICS is designed to drive forward bold, action-oriented approaches; support new, innovative ideas and leverage Eli Lilly’s internal assets, partnerships, and strong allies to advance progress. Mr. Collins is a certified Lean Six Sigma Black Belt and has led process and quality improvement and orga- nizational effectiveness initiatives for Eli Lilly during the past 5 years. He is also accredited in public relations and has been responsible for external communications for many of Eli Lilly’s pharmaceutical products. Before joining Eli Lilly, Mr. Collins provided crisis communications, marketing communications, and media relations counsel to clients in the health care industry and in a number of other private and not-for-profit sectors. Jarbas Barbosa da Silva, Jr., M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., has a degree in medi- cine from the Federal University of Pernambuco (1981), specialization degrees in public health (1984) and epidemiology (1989) from the National School of Public Health (Oswaldo Cruz Foundation/FIOCRUZ), a master’s degree in medical sciences (M.P.H., 1995), and a doctorate in epidemiol- ogy (Ph.D., 2004) from the State University of Campinas. He was the Director of Health Surveillance and the Secretary of Health for the munici- pality of Olinda (state of Pernambuco, 1993–1994) and Secretary of Health for the state of Pernambuco (1995–1996). In 1997, he started a career in ­ the Ministry of Health, Brazil, as Director of the National Center for Epide- miology (1997–2003); Secretary (Vice Minister) of Health Surveillance for the Ministry of Health (2003–2006); and Executive Secretary (Deputy Min- ister) for the Ministry of Health (second half of 2006). In 2007, Dr. Barbosa da Silva, Jr., joined the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)/WHO in Washington, DC, as Area Manager of Health Surveillance, Prevention and Disease Control (January 2007–April 2010). In January 2011, he was appointed as Secretary (Vice Minister) of Health Surveillance, the Ministry of Health, Federative Republic of Brazil, which is his current position. Dr. Barbosa da Silva, Jr., is author or co-author of several articles and books on public health, epidemiology, surveillance, and disease prevention, control, and management. He has also participated as a speaker at national and international conferences and seminars and has been a member of the Brazilian delegation for international events such as WHO and the PAHO/ WHO Regional Office for the Americas Direct Council. Kathryn DeRiemer, Ph.D., M.P.H., is Associate Professor in the Depart- ments of Public Health Sciences and Medical Microbiology and Immunol- ogy at the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine. Dr. DeRiemer received her M.P.H. and Ph.D. in epidemiology/biostatistics and epidemi- ology, respectively, from the University of California, Berkeley. She was a postdoctoral fellow in molecular epidemiology at Stanford University, Cali- fornia. Dr. DeRiemer is the recipient of an NIH Director’s New Innovator

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APPENDIX B 179 Award and is the Principal Investigator of an NIH/Fogarty International Center Global Infectious Diseases Research Training program with China. She has prior TB research experience in Brazil, India, and Mexico and has been working with collaborators at the Shanghai Municipal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Fudan University in China since 2006 to understand TB transmission dynamics and the spread and prevention of DR TB. Min Fang, Ph.D., is Professor, Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Labo- ratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, IMCAS. Dr. Fang received her Ph.D. from the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biol- ogy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, in 2003. She worked in the Fox Chase Cancer Center, Temple University, as a postdoctoral associate, research associate, and staff scientist before she joined IMCAS in June 2012 as a professor supported by the “Thousand Young Talents Program” of China’s government. Her work has focused on studying the pathogenesis of viral infection using the ectromelia virus as a model, as well as the mechanisms by which vaccines afford protection. In this work she has uncovered impor- tant mechanistic insights into natural and acquired resistance to acute viral disease. Dr. Fang’s work has been published in esteemed journals such as Immunity, Journal of Experimental Medicine, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, and PLoS Pathogen. Multiple works were selected and referred to by the “Faculty of 1,000.” One of the main research interests in Dr. Fang’s laboratory is to investigate the role of natural killer (NK) cells in the control of M.tb. infection, espe- cially the molecular mechanisms of NK cells recognizing M.tb.-infected cells and NK cell interaction with regulatory T-cells during infection. Paul E. Farmer, M.D., Ph.D., is a medical anthropologist, physician, and Founding Director of Partners In Health, an international nonprofit organi- zation that provides direct health care services and has undertaken research and advocacy activities on behalf of those who are sick and living in poverty. Dr. Farmer is Presley Professor of Social Medicine and Chair of the Depart- ment of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School, Chief of the Division of Global Health Equity at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and United Nations deputy special envoy for Haiti under special envoy Bill Clinton. Dr. Farmer and his colleagues in the United States and in Haiti, Lesotho, Malawi, Peru, Russia, and Rwanda have pioneered novel community-based treatment strategies that demonstrate the delivery of high-quality health care in resource-poor settings. Dr. Farmer has written extensively on health, human rights, and the consequences of social inequal- ity. His most recent book is Partner to the Poor: A Paul Farmer Reader. Other titles include Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and

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180 DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN CHINA AND THE BRICS the New War on the Poor; The Uses of Haiti, Infections and Inequalities: The Modern Plagues; and AIDS and Accusation: Haiti and the Geography of Blame. Dr. Farmer is the recipient of numerous honors, including the Margaret Mead Award from the American Anthropological Association; the Outstanding International Physician (Nathan Davis) Award from the American Medical Association; a John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Fellowship; and, with his Partners In Health colleagues, the Hilton Humanitarian Prize. He is a member of the IOM and of the Ameri- can Academy of Arts and Sciences. Neel R. Gandhi, M.D., is Associate Professor in the Departments of Epide- miology, Global Health, and Infectious Diseases at the Emory Rollins School of Public Health. Dr. Gandhi received his B.A. in chemistry from Williams College in 1994 and his M.D. in 1999 from Brown University School of Medicine. After completing his residency in internal medicine, Dr. Gandhi received epidemiology training at the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars ­ Program at Yale University and infectious disease training at Emory Univer- sity School of Medicine. He served on the faculty at Albert Einstein College of Medicine from 2006 to 2012. In July 2012, Dr. Gandhi joined the faculty at the Emory Rollins School of Public Health. Dr. Gandhi has been engaged in clinical research in TB and HIV co-infection since 1998. Since 2002, Dr Gandhi has led a research team focused on epidemiology and operational research studies to improve care for TB patients co-infected with HIV in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. In 2006, Dr. Gandhi was the lead author on a study describing high rates of mortality in patients with XDR TB and HIV co-infection in the rural town of Tugela Ferry, KwaZulu-Natal. This study has been credited with uncovering a rapidly expanding MDR and XDR TB epidemic in South Africa. Since the discovery of the epidemic, Dr. Gandhi’s efforts have been devoted to understanding the impact of HIV co-infection on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of MDR and XDR TB. His research group has definitively demonstrated that primary transmission of DR TB strains in health care and community settings are driving the rapid expansion of the epidemic. His group has also shown that the diagnosis of MDR TB is feasible in children, using bodily fluids other than sputum, and using the Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility assay in a resource-poor setting. In an effort to improve treatment capacity and out- comes, Dr. Gandhi’s group developed an integrated, home-based treatment model for MDR TB and HIV, which is now being expanded nationwide in South Africa. Currently, Dr. Gandhi has grants from NIH/NIAID to examine the impact of concurrent antiretroviral and second-line TB therapy on sur- vival, treatment outcomes, and adverse events for MDR TB and HIV, and to examine the transmission dynamics of XDR TB using molecular fingerprint- ing and social network analysis techniques.

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APPENDIX B 181 George Fu Gao, Ph.D., is Vice Director General, China CDC, Beijing Insti- tute of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Dr. Gao obtained his Ph.D. (D.Phil.) from Oxford University and completed his postdoctoral work at both Oxford University and Harvard University (with a brief stay at Calgary University). He is now Professor and Director in the Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, IMCAS. He is also the Vice President of Beijing Institutes of Life Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Deputy Director-General of China CDC; and Vice President of Chinese Society of Biotechnology. His research interests include the molecular mechanisms of interspecies transmission of pathogens, molecular virology, and molecular immunology. His group research focuses on the influenza virus, Streptococcus suis, and the molecular/structural basis of recognition of T-cell receptors to peptide- MHC complexes. He has published more than 190 refereed papers and 9 books or book chapters and has applied and obtained 20 UK, U.S., and Chinese patents. Qian Gao, Ph.D., is Professor, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, China. Dr. Gao received his bachelor’s degree from Southwest Agricultural University, China. He then completed his Ph.D. in molecular bacteriology at the University of Southern California and began TB research in 2000 during a postdoctoral fellowship at the Stanford University School of Medi- cine. Dr. Gao’s research program on the transmission and pathogenesis of M.tb. incorporates national and international collaborations and includes research studies and training activities in China. Dr. Gao has more than 10 years’ experience working with M.tb., the disease it causes (TB), and other infectious diseases. Since 2004, Dr. Gao has been collaborating with researchers and public health professionals in China. His research focuses on the molecular epidemiology of TB, especially the transmission of this disease in China, and the genetic diversity and pathogenesis of Beijing genotype strains of M.tb. During the past several years, his team performed a prospective, population-based molecular epidemiological study of TB in China and found serious ongoing transmission of TB, especially MDR TB, in communities. His research results suggest that efforts to control TB, including MDR TB, must develop strategies to reduce the transmission of disease. He believes that novel strategies for the rapid diagnosis and control of recent transmission of M.tb. are essential for elimination of TB in China. Maria Y. Giovanni, Ph.D., is Director, Office of Genomics and Advanced Technologies, and Assistant Director, Microbial Genomics and Advanced Technology, Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, NIAID, NIH. Dr. Giovanni holds a Ph.D. in molecular biology from the Uni- versity of Pennsylvania. She did her postdoctoral training in molecular

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186 DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN CHINA AND THE BRICS M.P.H. and Sc.D. at the Harvard School of Public Health. Dr. Murray is a Professor in the Department of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School and an Associate Professor of Medicine and the Director of Research at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital Division of Global Health Equity and its sister organization, Partners In Health. She is also an Associate Professor of Epidemiology at the Harvard School of Pub- lic Health, where she leads a research team that conducts multidisciplinary research on MDR and XDR TB involving conventional and molecular epidemiology, cost-effectiveness and mathematical modeling, outcomes and operations research, and genomic epidemiology. She has conducted field studies in Peru, Russia, Rwanda, South Africa, and the United States and has previously worked in Kenya, Niger, and Pakistan. Dr. Murray serves as an editor for PLoS Medicine and for the European Journal of Epide- miology. She is a member of WHO’s TB-Strategic and Technical Advisory Group, the Stop TB MDR Working Group, and the WHO Global XDR-TB Task Force. She has also served on numerous other committees, including the Harvard University Human Subjects Committee, the Harvard Pandemic Flu Advisory Committee, the IOM committee on Gulf War and Infectious Diseases, and NIH study sections. Edward A. Nardell, M.D., is Associate Professor, Division of Global Health, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School. Dr. Nardell is a pulmonologist with a special interest in TB. He trained in pulmonary medi- cine at Massachusetts General Hospital, with additional research training at Boston University School of Medicine. While at Boston City Hospital, he became Director of TB Control for the city of Boston. In 1981, he became Chief of Pulmonary Medicine and Director of TB Control for the city of Cambridge, positions he held until 2005. His principal academic appoint- ment is Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, with secondary parallel appointments in the Department of Social Medicine and Harvard School of Public Health. In the early 1980s, Dr. Nardell became Medical Director of TB Control for the Massachusetts Department of Pub- lic Health, a position he held for 18 years. In 2002, he joined Partners In Health as director of TB research. In 2005, he left Cambridge Hospital to assume a full-time research position in the Department of Social Medicine and Health Inequalities, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, the hospital arm of Partners In Health. He is also a member of the Pulmonary Division at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, where he serves on the Pulmonary Consult Service. Dr. Nardell’s research interests include the control of MDR TB in Peru, Russia, and other HBCs. His special research interest is airborne TB transmission and control. Currently, he has a project in South Africa, funded by National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, studying the transmission of MDR TB using large numbers of guinea pigs to quan-

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APPENDIX B 187 tify the infectiousness of MDR TB patients and the effectiveness of various control interventions, including UVGI. Dr. Nardell is past president of the Massachusetts Thoracic Society and The Union, North American Region. He was the 2005 recipient of the Chadwick Medal of the Massachusetts Thoracic Society. Mark Nicol, M.D., Ph.D., is the Wernher and Beit Professor and Head of the Division of Medical Microbiology, University of Cape Town and National Health Laboratory Service of South Africa. He directs an aca- demic diagnostic microbiology laboratory as well as a research laboratory where TB diagnostic assay development and evaluation takes place. He has worked closely with the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics and the TB Clinical Diagnostics Research Consortium in the evaluation of novel diagnostics for TB, from early-stage performance studies to studies evaluating clinical impact. Dale Nordenberg, M.D., is Chief Executive Officer of Novasano Health and Science, a company that delivers services and products to accelerate innovation in health care and life sciences with a particular focus on lever- aging the strategic application of information resources. He co-founded and is directing a public–private partnership based at the U.S. CDC Foundation that includes numerous initiatives to build laboratory information manage- ment capability for DR TB, including genomic foundations for resistance. He is also the Co-Founder and Executive Director for the Medical Device Innovation, Safety, and Security Consortium—a public–private partnership that works to improve the security and safety of medical devices. Prior to Novasano, Dr. Nordenberg was a managing director in the health care prac- tice of PricewaterhouseCoopers. From 2002 through 2007, Dr. Nordenberg held various positions at U.S. CDC, including Chief Information Officer and Associate Director, National Center for Infectious Diseases. He was detailed to the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology at the Department of Health and Human Services in 2004– 2005 to catalyze the development of a national strategy for children’s health information technology. Dr. Nordenberg has been a member of the Science and Technology Review Subcommittee of the Science Advisory Board of FDA, 2007 and 2009. Prior to joining U.S. CDC, Dr. Nordenberg was a founding executive of a company that launched VeriSign affiliates in Latin America and Asia; prior to that, he was faculty in the Emory School of Medicine, where he founded and directed the Office of Medical Informatics ­ for the Emory University Children’s Center. Dr. Nordenberg has served on the boards of multiple companies. He is a board-certified pediatrician; received a B.S. in microbiology from the University of Michigan and an M.D. from Northwestern University, and completed his training in pediat-

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188 DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN CHINA AND THE BRICS rics at McGill University, Montreal Children’s Hospital, and his fellowship in epidemiology and public health in the Epidemic Intelligence Services Program at U.S. CDC. Carol Rao, Sc.D., M.S., CIH, joined the U.S. CDC International Emerging Infections Program, Global Disease Detection, China Office, to serve as the Chief of the Epidemiology Section in September 2009. In this position, she collaborates with China CDC to provide technical support for public health projects in China, with a particular focus on TB infection control and health care–associated infections. Since 1999, Dr. Rao has worked as an epidemiologist and industrial hygienist at U.S. CDC in several of its centers, conducting research on infectious and noninfectious respira- tory diseases. Her work has included implementing a national surveillance system for influenza vaccination among health care workers, investigating mycotic disease outbreaks in hospital and community settings, and conduct- ing exposure assessments for indoor microorganisms in relation to work- related asthma. Her research interests include infectious aerosols, infection control, health care–associated infections, and controlling transmission of respiratory diseases, such as TB. Dr. Rao received an undergraduate degree in biophysics from the University of California, Berkeley, and an M.S. in industrial hygiene and a Sc.D. in environmental health from Harvard Uni- versity School of Public Health. She received postdoctoral training at the Finnish National Public Health Institute in Kuopio, Finland, as a Fulbright ­ Fellow and at U.S. CDC as an Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer. Dr. Rao is board-certified in industrial hygiene. Dr. Rao has twice received the Department of Health and Human Services Secretary’s Award for Distin- guished Service, as well as numerous U.S. Public Health Service commen- dations and medals for her work on outbreaks and emergency response. Fabio Scano, M.D., is a Medical Officer, WHO Tuberculosis Program, China. Dr. Scano, a medical doctor and public health specialist, is a Team Leader within WHO in Beijing, responsible for the organization’s TB con- trol program in China, which has one of the highest burdens of MDR TB. He began his career with WHO in 2001 in the Stop TB Department, where he helped develop policies to provide diagnosis and care to those co-infected with both TB and HIV in low- and middle-income countries. In 2007, Dr. Scano was deployed to South Africa to assist the Department of Health in the response to the XDR TB outbreak in Tugela Ferry. Upon his return to WHO headquarters, Dr. Scano coordinated the development of the WHO policy on TB infection control. Dr. Scano, a former Yale World Fellow, also collaborates with the Aspen Institute on initiatives aimed at alleviating “brain drain” in Italy, a phenomenon in which talented young Italians leave the country in search of better opportunities.

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APPENDIX B 189 Oskar Slotboom is the Business Unit Head, Vaccines and Infectious Dis- eases, of Xian Janssen Pharmaceutical Ltd., a pharmaceutical company of Johnson & Johnson. Prior to joining Johnson & Johnson, Mr. Slotboom worked for Crucell in the Netherlands, a biotech company focusing on innovative vaccines and biologics for the treatment of infectious dis- eases. Crucell was acquired by Johnson & Johnson in 2011. At Crucell, Mr. Slotboom was responsible for the pediatric vaccine franchise that included the best-selling vaccine (Quinvaxem) for UNICEF under GAVI funding at the time. He also worked as a consultant at McKinsey & Com- pany in Amsterdam. Mr. Slotboom holds a master’s degree in chemical engineering from the University of Twente, the Netherlands, and received an M.B.A. from INSEAD, Fontainebleau, France. Yao-Ju Tan is Director of the Clinical Laboratory Department of Guangzhou ­ Chest Hospital. He is primarily engaged in basic research of M.tb. In 1998, he was a Visiting Scholar in the Department of Microbiology of Hong Kong University. He then was at in the College of Life Sciences of Wuhan Univer- sity, where he obtained his master’s degree in 2002. Currently, Mr. Tan serves as the Associate Director of the Basic Research Board of the Chinese Anti-TB Association, as the Technical Specialist of the TB Project of BMGF of the Ministry of Health, China, and as the Associate Director of Microbiology ­ and Immunology of Guangdong Province Phylaxiology Association. He is also a member of the Guangdong Medical Ecsomatics Association. In addi- tion, he has taken charge of or participated in research programs including the National Great Research Program of China (2008zx10003-009) and has published many research papers in the past 2 years. Carrie Tudor, Ph.D., M.P.H., R.N., attended Indiana University with a double major in Chinese language and political science. She later attended the Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University, where she earned her M.P.H. After Emory, she worked for more than 10 years on various international health projects in Cambodia, China, India, Myanmar, and South Africa. Dr. Tudor has worked in infection control for several years and trains nurses on TB and infection control in several countries for the International Council of Nurses. She has conducted research on infection control in MDR and XDR TB facilities throughout South Africa and has studied health care worker infection control knowledge. Dr. Tudor recently completed her Ph.D. at the Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing with a focus on occupational risk factors for TB among health care ­ orkers w in South Africa and is currently a Fogarty Global Health Postdoctoral F ­ ellow at Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She is passionate about improving the protection of health care workers in low-resourced settings.

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190 DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN CHINA AND THE BRICS Zarir F. Udwadia, M.D., FRCP, FCCP, is a Consultant Chest Physi- cian, Medical Research Council, Hinduja Hospital and Research Center, M ­ umbai. In postgraduate studies at Grant Medical College, Bombay, he spent 5 years training in various centers of excellence in the United King- dom, including Sir John Crofton’s former TB unit in Edinburgh and the prestigious Brompton Hospital, London. On his return, he established an active chest department at the Hinduja Hospital, a tertiary referral center in Mumbai. He has a special interest and expertise in DR TB. About 7,000 patients pass through his busy outpatient department (OPD) annually, a number of whom are MDR TB patients referred by colleagues from differ- ent parts of the country. TB remains his overriding passion. Dr. Udwadia has been invited to lecture on TB in several countries, including guest ora- tions before the British Thoracic society, ERS, the International Union, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy, and the Royal Society of Medicine in London. He was invited to deliver the inaugural lecture on “Tackling MDR and XDR TB in Resource-Limited Settings: India” at the Gordon TB drug discovery conference, Oxford, United Kingdom, in 2009 and the inaugural lecture at the TB conference at Harvard Medical School on TDR TB in 2012. He was the only Indian invited to be on the WHO “Guide- lines Group.” This group, after meetings in Paris, formulated the fourth edition of the TB Guidelines, published by WHO in 2010. Dr. Udwadia’s group was the first to publish data on the survival of a large cohort of Indian MDR TB patients treated on an OPD basis at the Hinduja Hospital, which showed that this group of patients could be treated even in difficult, cost-constrained settings with success rates of more than 60 percent. His group was also the first to report fluoroquinolone-resistant and XDR TB in India. His recent publication about the first Indian patients with TDR TB attracted intense media and medical interest from across the globe. He was invited by WHO to Geneva in March 2012 to be part of the techni- cal group to determine the most appropriate nomenclature and treatment for these patients. His work on TDR TB served to galvanize great change in the community. The Indian health authorities responded by declaring TB a notifiable disease on May 7 and increasing the budget and staff- ing for TB control in the city. With the sanction of government health authorities and at the invitation of the Indian Health Secretary, he has set up a public–­ rivate DOTS-Plus clinic in Dharavi (Asia’s largest slum), p where he devotes his time on a voluntary basis. This clinic will be the first of its kind in the city of Mumbai, and it is hoped that it will serve as a model for the MDR TB public–private mix in the National TB program. Dr. Udwadia has more than 80 PubMed-indexed publications to his credit, and his book Principles of Respiratory Medicine has just been published by Oxford International Publishers (2011). His chapters on “Tuberculosis in India” and “Drug-Resistant TB in India” have been featured in several

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APPENDIX B 191 editions of Clinical Tuberculosis, the standard textbook of TB (edited by P.D.O. Davies). Dr. Udwadia is actively involved in ongoing TB research collaborations with partners from across the globe. These projects include new TB diagnostics (with colleagues at the Imperial College London) and new TB drugs (with colleagues in Japan, Portugal, and the United States). He is currently the section editor for TB for the journal Thorax. Martie van der Walt, Ph.D., M.B.A., is the Interim Director of the Tuber- culosis Epidemiology and Intervention Research Unit of the South African Medical Research Council and Extraordinary Professor in the Department of Internal Medicines, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa. The unit conducts research on infection control, the epide- miology of DR TB, treatment adherence, and TB/HIV integration through the program for Tuberculosis HIV/AIDS Treatment Support and Integrated Therapy. The WHO/The Union Tuberculosis Supranational Reference Lab- oratory for Africa is also housed by Dr. van der Walt’s unit, whereby tech- nical assistance in TB laboratory capacity is provided to southern African countries and to the National Health Laboratory Service in South Africa. Dr. van der Walt is specifically interested in the programmatic delivery of DR TB treatment and treatment adherence. Prior to working for the Medi- cal Research Council, she was involved in animal health and obtained her Ph.D. in vaccine development and biotechnology. Grigory V. Volchenkov, M.D., is TB Infection Control Expert and Chief Doctor at Vladimir Oblast Regional Tuberculosis Dispensary, Center of Excellence for TB Infection Control. He graduated in 1985 from Ivanovo ­ State Medical Institute, Russia. Dr. Volchenkov worked in Vladimir ­ ardiology Hospital as a cardiologist, intensive cardiology care special- C ist, and medical director from 1985 to 1999. From 1999 to 2002, he worked for the Vladimir Oblast Department of Health as Chief Internal Medicine Specialist. At that time, he started to coordinate regional TB and HIV control programs. Since 2002, he has been the Head of Vladimir Regional Tuberculosis Dispensary and Director of the regional TB control program. In 2002–2003, he moved the dispensary to a new building and implemented an intensive TB infection control program supported by U.S. CDC, the WHO TB control program in the Russian Federation, and the Central TB Research Institute (Moscow), resulting in substantial reduction of occupational TB among health care workers. In 2008, Vladimir Oblast TB Dispensary became a Center of Excellence for TB Infection Control for the Russian Federation. Dr. Volchenkov is co-author of the national TB Infection Control Guidelines of several Eastern European and Central Asian countries. He coordinated and chaired TB infection control–related symposia and sessions at the IUATLD World and European Conferences

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192 DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN CHINA AND THE BRICS from 2005 to 2012, dedicated to TB case findings, DR, MDR and XDR TB epidemiology, and TB infection control. He also coordinated and lectured in postgraduate courses on TB infection control from 2006 to 2012 at the Annual World IUATLD Conferences. Since 2006, he been implementing a GLC-approved MDR TB project at Vladimir Oblast. The TB Alliance included Vladimir Oblast TB Dispensary in a list of potential research and trial centers. Dr. Volchenkov is a regional coordinator of a multicenter international PETTS (Preserving Effective TB Treatment) Study. He partici- pated as a faculty member in a Harvard University continuing education course, Building Design and Engineering Approaches to Airborne Infection Control, held in Boston, Massachusetts, in 2008–2012. Dr. Volchenkov was invited by WHO, the Finnish Lung Health Association, the KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation, Médicins Sans Frontières, and other interna- tional organizations to lecture on TB infection control in Amaty, Armenia, Ashgabat, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Minsk Belarus, Moscow, Petrozavodsk, St. Petersburg, Tartu, Turkmenistan, Yerevan, and other regional centers of Russia. As a TB infection control consultant, Dr. Volchenkov conducted WHO technical assistance missions to Armenia, Azerbaijan, Chechnya, Myanmar, Nepal, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and other countries. Kristina Wallengren, Ph.D., M.P.H., is Clinical Advisor, K-RITH, Nelson ­ R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal; and Chief Executive Officer, THINK. Dr. Wallengren has 20 years of research expe- rience ranging from basic science to clinical research. She conducted molecular and cellular virology research at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden (1991–1998) and at Centro Nacional de Biotechnologia in Spain (1998– 2001). She then ventured into the field of clinical research on TB and HIV after studying international health at the Harvard School of Public Health, where she also completed postdoctoral studies in the Department of Epi- demiology. Since 2005, Dr. Wallengren has been based in South Africa, where she started conducting research on risk factors for TB and adherence to HIV treatment with Harvard. In 2007, she was recruited by WHO to conduct an analysis of DR TB in the KwaZulu-Natal province following an outbreak of XDR TB in Tugela Ferry (Ghandi et al., Lancet, 2006). This work led her to introduce community-based MDR TB treatment for the first time in the country, and she is currently following a cohort of 800 MDR TB subjects to evaluate the impact of the new program compared to hospital-based treatment. Since 2010, Dr. Wallengren has headed clinical research at K-RITH in Durban, South Africa, and is engaged in conducting clinical trials to improve TB treatment as well as developing new diagnos- tics tools for TB. Dr. Wallengren earned a Ph.D. in cellular and molecular biology from Karolinska Institute and an M.P.H. from the Harvard School of Public Health.

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APPENDIX B 193 Pang Yu, Ph.D., is Associate Professor, National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention, China CDC. Dr. Yu received his Ph.D. in 2009 from Peking University. Since 2009, he has been involved with the National Tuberculosis Reference Labo- ratory. His research focuses on the mechanism of drug resistance in TB, the molecular epidemiology of TB in China, and evaluation of new diagnostic tools for TB. Dr. Yu is a committee member on the Basic Research Board of the Chinese Anti-Tuberculosis Association. He has authored more than 20 research publications since 2009. Jack Zhang, M.S., M.B.A., represents PATH (an international nonprofit organization that transforms global health through innovation) in China. He is responsible for program development, project management, office management, and liaising with local and international collaborators, includ- ing local health authorities, public and private institutions, and other NGOs in China. Mr. Zhang joined PATH in January 2007 as senior program officer for commercialization of the Ultra Rice® project in China and was appointed as program leader in September of the same year. Before joining PATH, he created and served as Chief Representative and General Manager of Haemoneitics China Subsidiary, a Boston-based blood-processing com- pany. Prior to that, Mr. Zhang worked in the Shanghai Institute of Biologi- cal Products, a subsidiary of China National Biotec Group, where his last position was Executive Vice President for Operations. During his tenure at the Shanghai Institute of Biological Products, he also served as Director of the Board of SmithKline Beecham Biologicals (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., and as Vice Chairman of the board of Shanghai Feilong Medical Diagnostic Articles Ltd., a joint venture between the Shanghai Institute of Biological Products and the Lab System Company of Finland. His areas of man- agement experience include strategy, organization building, and business development and commercialization of vaccines, plasma-derived products, diagnostics, and medical devices in transfusion therapy. Mr. Zhang obtained a diploma in public health from Shanghai Songjiang Health School, a B.A. in French and English from Shanghai Fudan University, a master of library and information sciences specializing in medicine from a joint program of Dominican University and Loyola Medical School, and an executive M.B.A. from the China European International Business School. Lixin Zhang, Ph.D., is a Deputy Director, Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology; and Inaugural Director, Drug Discovery Center for Tuberculosis, IMCAS. Before joining IMCAS in 2006, Dr. Zhang worked in three pharmaceutical companies in the United States: SynerZ, Cetek, and Microbia, Inc. He received his Ph.D. at the Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and did

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194 DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS IN CHINA AND THE BRICS his postdoctoral work at Emory University. He has published 7 books and more than 100 papers and holds 12 Patent Cooperation Treaty patents. Dr. Zhang co-edited a book with Arnold Demain on natural products, published in 2005 by Humana Press. He served as an Executive Board Member of the International Symposium on the Biology of Actinomycetes and of the International Chemical Biology Society. He was recognized as an honorary lifetime member, Sino-American Pharmaceutical Professional Association. He has been appointed as an Associate Editor-in-Chief for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology and is on the editorial board of six other peer-reviewed journals. The long-term goal of his research is to discover and develop synergistic medicines from marine microbial natural products. His research is focused on diversifying the marine microbial natu- ral product library; screening for synergistic medicines in a high-throughput manner; and increasing the production of drugable secondary metabolites from microbial producers by synthetic biology (as chief principal investi- gator for a 973 program). Dr. Zhang’s Avermectin project won an award for “Excellence to Improve Science and Technologies,” and the paper was published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Dr. Zhang was recognized as an awardee for the National Distinguished Young Scholar Program, China. Wenhong Zhang, M.D., Ph.D., is Professor of Medicine and Director, Division of Infectious Diseases, Shanghai Huashan Hospital of Fudan Uni- versity. Dr. Zhang graduated from Shanghai Medical University and was appointed as a tenured professor of Fudan University in 2007 and as the Director of the Department of Infectious Diseases of Huashan Hospi- tal, affiliated with Fudan University, in 2010. In 2001, Dr. Zhang began postdoctoral training in the Department of Microbiology at Hong Kong University. In 2003, he was appointed to the position of research fellow at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, affiliated with Harvard Medical ­ School. In 2006, he worked as Senior Visiting Scholar in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Illinois, Chicago. ­ He has been engaged in clinical, educational, and research work relating to infectious diseases for more than 20 years and is an expert in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases, especially HIV and TB co-infection. Dr. Zhang’s team focuses its research on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of MDR TB and latent TB as well as HIV and TB co-infection. Yaping Zhang is the Vice President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Dr. Zhang graduated from Fudan University with a bachelor’s degree in 1986 and from Kunming Institute of Zoology (KIZ) of the Chinese Acad- emy of Science with a doctorate in 1991. He then became a postdoctoral fellow at the Zoological Society of San Diego’s Center for Reproduction of

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APPENDIX B 195 Endangered Species for 4 years. Following this, he returned to China and worked as Professor and Director of Laboratory of Cellular and Molecu- lar Evolution at KIZ. In 2002, Dr. Zhang was appointed Professor and Head of the Laboratory of Genetics, Yunnan University. From 2005 to 2012, he was Director of KIZ and Director of the State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, KIZ. He was nominated as Vice President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2012. As a Research Pro- fessor at KIZ, he has been focusing on molecular evolution and genome biodiversity. His investigations involve five correlated areas: (1) molecular phylo­ enetics; (2) molecular ecology and conservation genetics; (3) human g genetics and evolution; (4) origin of domestic animals and artificial selec- tion; and (5) genome diversity and evolution. Dr. Zhang has published more than 300 publications in Science Citation Information journals and is the author and co-author of 5 books. He was elected as a member of the Ameri- can Society of Human Genetics in 1996, the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution in 1997, and the American Genetic Association in 1998. He was elected Vice President of the Chinese Society of Genetics in 2004, Vice President of the Chinese Society of Zoology in 2005, and President of the Yunnan Association for Science and Technology in 2008. Dr. Zhang sits on the editorial boards for several international periodicals, including Genome Biology and Evolution and Animal Genetics. Dr. Zhang has won dozens of natural science prizes in China, including the Ho Leung Ho Lee Prize for Science and Technology from the Ho Leung Ho Lee Foundation in 2004. He was elected as a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2003 and as a fellow of the Third World Academy of Sciences in 2007. Yanlin Zhao, M.D., Ph.D., is Vice Director, National Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and Director, National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, China CDC. His research areas include TB, molecular epi- demiology, drug resistance surveillance, and new diagnostics. His activi- ties include serving as principal investigator for the study of the Chinese TB prevalence mechanism (National Key Research Project 2008–2010); the new diagnostic evaluation in China (BMGF Project, 2009–2014); and the laboratory new diagnostics validation program (Fondation Mérieux, 2007–2011). He also served as principal investigator of a nationwide anti- TB drug resistance baseline survey in China (2005–2008) and as principal investigator of five projects (Beijing Natural Scientific Research Fund/­ eijing B Scientific Research Star projects, etc. [2005–2008]).

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