High Magnetic Field Science
and Its Application in
the United States

CURRENT STATUS AND
FUTURE DIRECTIONS

Committee to Assess the Current Status and Future Direction of
High Magnetic Field Science in the United States

Board on Physics and Astronomy

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu



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Committee to Assess the Current Status and Future Direction of High Magnetic Field Science in the United States Board on Physics and Astronomy Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, NW  Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1108705 and by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-SC0006889. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Cover: Background image: Round wire Bi-2212, a new high field superconductor technology, courtesy of the Applied Superconductivity Center, National Magnetic Field Laboratory. Images from left to right: (1) Electronic band structure engineering, from B. Hunt, J.D. Sanchez-Yamagishi, A.F. Young, et al., 2013, Massive Dirac fermions and Hofstadter butterfly in a van der Waals heterostructure, Science 340:1427-1430; reprinted with permission from the American Association for the Advance- ment of Science (AAAS). (2) Superconducting thick film (Ytrium-123), courtesy of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. (3) A bismuth atom, positioned in silicon crystal, whose nuclear spin potentially can host quantum information; artwork from the London Centre for Nanotechnol- ogy by Manuel Vögtli. (4) Close-up view of fiber tracts in the retina, courtesy of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. International Standard Book Number-13:  978-0-309-28634-3 International Standard Book Number-10:  0-309-28634-4 Library of Congress Control Number:  2013951030 Copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu; and the Board on Physics and Astronomy, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001; http://www.national-academies.org/bpa. Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to asso- ciate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE TO ASSESS THE CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE DIRECTION OF HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD SCIENCE IN THE UNITED STATES BERTRAND I. HALPERIN, Harvard University, Chair GABRIEL AEPPLI, University College of London YOICHI ANDO, Osaka University MEIGAN ARONSON, Stony Brook University DIMITRI BASOV, University of California, San Diego THOMAS F. BUDINGER, University of California, Berkeley ROBERT DIMEO, National Institute of Standards and Technology JOHN C. GORE, Vanderbilt University FRANK HUNTE, North Carolina State University CHUNG NING (JEANIE) LAU, University of California, Riverside JAN CORNELIS MAAN, Radboud University Nijmegen ANN MCDERMOTT, Columbia University JOSEPH MINERVINI, Massachusetts Institute of Technology NAI PHUAN ONG,1 Princeton University ARTHUR P. RAMIREZ, University of California, Santa Cruz ZLATKO B. TESANOVIC,2 Johns Hopkins University ROBERT TYCKO, National Institutes of Health Staff JAMES C. LANCASTER, Director CARYN J. KNUTSEN, Associate Program Officer TERI G. THOROWGOOD, Administrative Coordinator 1  Nai Phuan Ong resigned from the committee on May 18, 2012. 2  Zlatko B. Tesanovic passed away on July 26, 2012. v

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BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY PHILIP H. BUCKSBAUM, Stanford University, Chair DEBRA M. ELMEGREEN, Vassar College, Vice Chair Riccardo Betti, University of Rochester ADAM S. BURROWS, Princeton University Todd Ditmire, University of Texas, Austin NATHANIEL J. FISCH, Princeton University PAUL FLEURY, Yale University STUART FREEDMAN, University of California, Berkeley S. JAMES GATES, University of Maryland LAURA H. GREENE, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University MARK B. KETCHEN, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center MONICA OLVERA DE LA CRUZ, Northwestern University PAUL SCHECHTER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology BORIS SHRAIMAN, Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics MICHAEL S. TURNER, University of Chicago ELLEN D. WILLIAMS, PB International MICHAEL S. WITHERELL, University of California, Santa Barbara Staff JAMES C. LANCASTER, Director DONALD C. SHAPERO, Senior Scholar DAVID B. LANG, Program Officer CARYN J. KNUTSEN, Associate Program Officer Teri G. Thorowgood, Administrative Coordinator BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate vi

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Zlatko B. Tesanovic 1956-2012 The Committee to Assess the Current Status and Future Direction of High Mag- netic Field Science in the United States dedicates this report to a dear friend and valued colleague, Zlatko Tesanovic, who served as a member of this committee, and contributed strongly to it, until his untimely death on July 26, 2012. Zlatko was a condensed matter theorist, with particular research interests in the areas of superconductivity and strongly correlated electron materials. However, his broad knowledge of condensed matter physics, his deep understanding of the effects of strong magnetic fields, and his talent for exposition were influential throughout this report. vii

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Preface High-field magnets have become an important research tool in many scientific disciplines. Originally developed for studying the characteristics of materials under extreme conditions, they have increasingly been used by other disciplines, including biology, chemistry, and geology, and have found applications beyond basic science, serving many applied fields from medicine to the petroleum industry. In the United States, high-magnetic-field research principally takes place at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), operated under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). In the more than 20 years that it has been in existence, NHMFL has emerged as the leading facility in the world for providing research- ers, and others, access to the highest magnetic fields available while working at the forefront of developing magnet technology for future users. In line with this investment, the U.S. government has periodically commis- sioned a review of the current status and future prospects of the field. The most recent previous review was commissioned in 2003 and its conclusions were pub- lished in the National Research Council report Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science (The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2005). At the request of NSF, the National Research Council established the current committee in the spring of 2012 to provide an updated review. The Committee to Assess the Current Status and Future Direction of High Magnetic Field Science in the United States was asked to assess the needs of the U.S. research community for high magnetic fields and to determine the status and identify trends in the use of high magnetic fields throughout science and technology. Based on its assessment, the committee was asked to provide guidance for the future of magnetic-field research and technology ix

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x Preface development in the United States, taking into account worldwide capabilities and any potential for international collaborations or cooperative arrangements. A full statement of the charge to the committee may be found in Appendix A of this report. This report is the work of that committee in response to its charge. In the course of its efforts, the committee heard from a number of people who either are responsible for providing the capabilities offered through the NHMFL or are among the scientists and agents of federally funded programs relying on those facilities to conduct their research or to meet their programmatic needs. The committee is grateful to those individuals for their information and insights—their presentations and the discussions that followed served as a valuable resource for the committee. The committee is also grateful to the NHMFL staff in Tallahassee and at Los Alamos National Laboratory for their hospitality when members of the committee visited. Finally, I thank the members of this committee and the NRC staff for their diligent efforts in producing this report. Bertrand I. Halperin, Chair Committee to Assess the Current Status and Future Direction of    High Magnetic Field Science in the United States

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Commit- tee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical com- ments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Amy Andreotti, Iowa State University, Helene Benveniste, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Collin Broholm, Johns Hopkins University; Laura Greene, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Neil Kelleher, Northwestern University, Robert Lindeman, Northrop Grumman (retired), D. Bruce Montgomery, Magplane Technology, Andrew Sessler, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Mansour Shayegan, Princeton University. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recom- mendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The xi

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xii Acknowledgment of Reviewers review of this report was overseen by John F. Ahearne, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 OVERVIEW 5 Magnets and Magnetic Fields, 5 Importance of Strong Magnetic Fields, 6 Magnets for High Magnetic Fields, 8 Facilities and Stewardship Issues, 9 Science Drivers, 13 Principal Conclusions and Recommendations, 14 Centralized and Distributed Facilities, 14 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Facilities, 15 Combining Magnetic Fields with Scattering Facilities and Terahertz Radiation, 16 Specific Magnet Goals, 17 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Magnet Development, 17 Stewardship, 18 International Cooperation, 19 2 SCIENCE DRIVERS—CONDENSED MATTER AND MATERIALS 20 PHYSICS Overview, 20 Quantum Critical Matter, 22 xiii

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xiv Contents High Magnetic Field Studies of Low-Dimensional, Frustrated, and Quantum Magnets, 30 Low-Dimensional Magnets, 31 Organic Magnets, 34 Frustrated Magnets, 36 High Fields for Frustrated Multifunctional Materials, 38 Quantum Matter Probed by High Magnetic Fields, 39 Superconductors in High Magnetic Fields: An Expanding Frontier, 42 High-Temperature Superconductivity in Copper Oxides, 43 High-Temperature Superconductivity in Iron Pnictides and Chalcogenides, 46 Organic Superconductors, 47 Topological Superconductors, 47 The Next Ten Years for High-Temperature Superconductors, 47 Semiconductors and Semimetals, 49 Low-Dimensional Semiconductor or Semimetal Systems, 49 Graphene, 51 Carbon Nanotubes, 54 Three-Dimensional Semimetals, 54 Topological Phases, 55 High Magnetic Fields in Soft Matter Research, 58 Magnetic Alignment, 59 Magnetic Levitation, 61 Concluding Comments, 62 References, 63 3 HIGH MAGNETIC FIELDS IN CHEMISTRY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND 67 BIOLOGY Principles of NMR and Importance of High Fields in NMR, 68 Recent Trends and Achievements in NMR, 71 Future Prospects and International Perspective on NMR, 74 FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry, 75 Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, 77 Conclusion and Recommendation, 77 References, 78 4 MEDICAL AND LIFE SCIENCE STUDIES (MRI, fMRI, MRS) 80 ENABLED BY 20 TESLA Introduction, 80 Development of Human Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy, 80

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Contents xv Chronology of High-Field Developments Leading to High-Field MRI and MRS, 81 Medical Science and Mammalian Physiology, 85 Potentials for Studies of Eleven Species Other Than Protons, 85 Selected Horizons for Proton Studies at 20 T, 88 Enhanced Contrast from Susceptibility Differences, 92 Potentials for Traveling Wave MRI at Short-Wavelength Proton Magnetic Resonance, 94 Anticipated Problems from Interactions Between High Magnetic Fields and MRI Hardware and Human Subjects, 94 Interactions of High Magnetic Fields with Imaging Gradients, 94 Dielectric Effects, 94 Gradient Amplitude Requirements for Low γ Nuclei, 95 Shielding, 95 Safety and Health Effects, 95 Finding, Conclusion, and Recommendation, 95 References, 97 5 OTHER HIGH-FIELD MAGNET APPLICATIONS 100 Introduction, 100 High-Energy Physics, 101 Particle Astrophysics, 102 Controlled Nuclear Fusion, 103 Radiotherapy Using Charged Particles, 103 References, 103 6 COMBINING HIGH MAGNETIC FIELDS WITH SCATTERING 105 AND OPTICAL PROBES Bringing High Magnetic Fields to Neutron and X-ray Scattering Facilities, 105 Planning for the Future, 110 Combining Optical Probes and High Magnetic Fields, 113 Magneto-Optical Experiments in the Far Infrared, 116 References, 120 7 MAGNET TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT 122 Technology Challenges, 123 Materials Properties, 123 Iron-Based Superconductors, 126 Technology Status, 131 Resistive Magnets, 131

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xvi Contents Pulsed-Field Magnets, 131 Superconducting Magnets, 132 Hybrid Magnets, 133 Other High-Field Magnet Applications, 133 High-Energy Physics, 133 Magnetic Confinement Fusion, 135 Charged Particle Radiotherapy and Radionuclide Production Medical Applications, 138 Specific Magnet Goals, 144 References, 147 8 INTERNATIONAL LANDSCAPE OF HIGH-MAGNETIC-FIELD 151 FACILITIES Scale of High-Magnetic-Field Facilities, 151 Technical Challenges in Making the Highest Magnetic Fields, 152 Opportunities for Collaboration, 153 Perspectives, 155 Recommendations and Conclusion, 156 9 STEWARDSHIP AND RELATED ISSUES 157 Centralization Versus De-centralization, 158 Stewardship of High-Magnetic-Field Science in the United States, 159 Workforce Education and Training, 164 References, 166 APPENDIXES A Charge to the Committee 169 B Input from the Community 171 C Committee Meeting Agendas 174 D Committee Member Biographies 178 E Glossary 185 F Mri—Safety and Potential Health Effects 196 G Short Description of Large Research Facilities for High Magnetic Fields 207