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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1108705 and by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-SC0006889. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

Cover: Background image: Round wire Bi-2212, a new high field superconductor technology, courtesy of the Applied Superconductivity Center, National Magnetic Field Laboratory. Images from left to right: (1) Electronic band structure engineering, from B. Hunt, J.D. Sanchez-Yamagishi, A.F. Young, et al., 2013, Massive Dirac fermions and Hofstadter butterfly in a van der Waals heterostructure, Science 340:1427-1430; reprinted with permission from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). (2) Superconducting thick film (Ytrium-123), courtesy of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. (3) A bismuth atom, positioned in silicon crystal, whose nuclear spin potentially can host quantum information; artwork from the London Centre for Nanotechnology by Manuel Vögtli. (4) Close-up view of fiber tracts in the retina, courtesy of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-28634-3
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-28634-4
Library of Congress Control Number: 2013951030

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