construction and that instructors can provide to support learning.
Science of learning: research that seeks to understand learning at many levels of scientific inquiry, including physiology, neurology, psychiatry, psychology, cognition, sociology, developmental biology and genetics.
Scientific teaching: the pedagogical approach to the teaching of science that uses active learning methods and aligned assessments to measure learning with the same rigor as scientific research.
Soft law: “In the context of international law, soft law refers to guidelines, policy declarations or codes of conduct which set standards of conduct. However, they are not directly enforceable” (http://definitions.uslegal. com/s/soft-law/).
STEM: acronym for fields of study in the categories of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.
Summative assessment: evaluation of student learning at the end of an instructional unit; such measures of accountability are generally used as part of the grading process.
Synthetic biology: “the design and re-design of biological parts, devices and systems” (http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/systemsbiology).
Synthetic DNA: artificially created strands of DNA made in the laboratory; the structure of the building blocks of DNA (4 bases with sugar and phosphates attached) are well understood and can be created de novo in the laboratory with increasing speed and lower cost.
Think, Pair, Share: activities that pose a question and allow students to consider the problem alone before discussing it with a classroom neighbor and then presenting conclusions to the class as a whole.
Transmissibility: the ability of an infectious agent to be passed from one host to another and cause disease.
Transmissionism: the tendency towards a more conventional, teacher-centered mode of instruction, with knowledge meant to be transmitted from teacher to pupil with little to no active learning methods involved.
UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, a body within the UN that encourages international peace and universal respect by promoting collaboration among nations.
WHO: World Health Organization, a specialized UN agency that is concerned with promoting international public health.