capacity to take full advantage of webbased materials.

    •  Providing widespread access to materials that could be adapted for specific contexts or applications through open access repositories or resource centers would be important to implementing and sustaining education about dual use issues.

    •  Given current technology, it would be feasible to create the capacity to develop materials through online collaborations, as part of or in partnership with repositories or resource centers. Online collaborative tools can be a key mechanism to facilitate global participation in the development of materials, although again issues of access to the Internet will need to be considered in designing any arrangements.

    •  Developing methods and capacity for the life sciences and educational communities to comment on and vet education materials, such as an appropriately monitored Wikipedia model, would be important. Another important capacity would be the ability to share lessons learned and best practices about materials and teaching strategies as experience with education about dual use issues expands. If appropriate resources are available, both this and the previous conclusion should be well within the capacity of current online technologies.

    •  Teaching strategies need to focus on active learning and clear learning objectives, while allowing for local adaptation and application.

Implementing Education about Dual Use Issues: Practical Considerations

A recurring theme during the workshop was the variety of settings in which content about dual use issues could be introduced. This reflected the diversity of the participants and the conditions in which education about dual use issues is currently taking place. It also led to discussions of a range of needs and challenges that are reflected in the committee’s conclusions.

    •  Incorporating education about dual use issues into the channels through which life scientists already receive their exposure to issues of responsible conduct—biosafety, bioethics and research ethics, and RCR—offers the greatest opportunity to reach the largest and most diverse range of students and professionals. Biosafety training reaches those with the most capabilities, knowledge, and motivation relevant to dual use. In addition, biosafety may be of particular interest for developing countries that are attempting to raise their overall standards of laboratory practices. Ethics and RCR are more general and may reach more people. The available evidence suggests that the use of multiple channels is already the most common approach.

    •  If the approach above is taken, then growing interest in expanding education about dual use issues, such as a proposal under consideration with the U.S. government to require such education for all federally funded life scientists, might also be an



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