This text is taken from the letter report of the meeting (NRC. 2011e. Research in the Life Sciences with Dual Use Potential: An International Faculty Development Project on Education about the Responsible Conduct of Science. Washington: National Academies Press, pp. 14-19). The material has been lightly edited to ensure that references to boxes or tables or specific pages are appropriate for this report.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EGYPTIAN PROTOTYPE INSTITUTE (EPI)63
Advance planning. Since this is a new endeavor for the National Research Council (NRC), the preparations for the first workshop included the formal planning meeting and a site visit. If the program is successful, it is assumed that other countries in the MENA region will be able to participate in workshops hosted by the Egyptian network as the basis for launching their own projects. The NRC may have a supporting role but there will be less hands-on involvement as countries gain experience and take “ownership.” This is the model that the National Academies Summer Institutes (NASI) program has adopted as it expands from a single national institute to multiple regional ones (see Chapter 3). There may still be cases where an initial site visit would be helpful, for example when the program begins in a new region, but the intent is to build a largely self-sustaining endeavor.
The Workshop Itself
The success of the NASI program (Pfund et al., 2009), as well as of other programs for faculty development, have suggested some basic features for a workshop:
• In person. Although it is becoming increasingly feasible to create and sustain virtual networks using resources such as videoconferencing and web 2.0 communications, there is still substantial value in bringing people together to be immersed in a common experience. Personal interactions also allow for informal communication outside the defined schedule that can be valuable to the network-building process.
• Duration. Experience from 8 years of NASIs suggests that 4 to 5 day long workshops would be optimal, given the amount of new material that participants would be expected to absorb and the value of cumulative learning-by-doing (see Chapter 2). 3 Participants would be expected to do some advance preparation, but the main
63 This is the title adopted when it was assumed the focus would be on a single country. With the move to a regional approach, the title of the institute became Education in responsible research with infectious diseases: Ensuring safe science in the 21st century.
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Appendix C Detailed Results of the June 2011 Planning Meeting This text is taken from the letter report of the institute to multiple regional ones (see Chapter meeting (NRC. 2011e. Research in the Life 3). There may still be cases where an initial site Sciences with Dual Use Potential: An visit would be helpful, for example when the International Faculty Development Project on program begins in a new region, but the intent Education about the Responsible Conduct of is to build a largely self-sustaining endeavor. Science. Washington: National Academies Press, pp. 14-19). The material has been lightly edited to ensure that references to boxes or tables or The Workshop Itself specific pages are appropriate for this report. The success of the NASI program (Pfund et al., 2009), as well as of other programs for faculty GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE development, have suggested some basic EGYPTIAN PROTOTYPE INSTITUTE features for a workshop: (EPI)63 In person. Although it is becoming Advance planning. Since this is a new endeavor increasingly feasible to create and sustain for the National Research Council (NRC), the virtual networks using resources such as preparations for the first workshop included the videoconferencing and web 2.0 formal planning meeting and a site visit. If the communications, there is still substantial program is successful, it is assumed that other value in bringing people together to be countries in the MENA region will be able to immersed in a common experience. participate in workshops hosted by the Egyptian Personal interactions also allow for informal network as the basis for launching their own communication outside the defined projects. The NRC may have a supporting role schedule that can be valuable to the but there will be less hands-on involvement as network-building process. countries gain experience and take “ownership.” Duration. Experience from 8 years of NASIs This is the model that the National Academies suggests that 4 to 5 day long workshops Summer Institutes (NASI) program has would be optimal, given the amount of new adopted as it expands from a single national material that participants would be expected to absorb and the value of cumulative 63 This is the title adopted when it was assumed the focus learning-by-doing (see Chapter 2). would be on a single country. With the move to a regional 3Participants would be expected to do some approach, the title of the institute became Education in advance preparation, but the main responsible research with infectious diseases: Ensuring safe science in the 21st century. 109
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110 Appendix C experiences would be obtained during the The Network meeting itself. Team-based. A key element for ensuring Fostering successful and sustainable networks of success and enhancing sustainability in the faculty able to teach about dual use issues and NASIs is the participation of teams from broader problems of responsible conduct in institutions, preferably including a range of science and research depends on several key junior to senior members on each team. elements, some of which have already been Gaining buy-in from administrators is discussed earlier in this report. critical and it has proved useful to have them among the participants. The NASI model From the beginning. Given the emphasis on has shown added success and commitment forward planning, strategies for building and by participants if their home institute sustaining the network of faculty will be part provides at least modest resources to help of the earliest discussions of the workshop. implement what faculty learn. As previously presented, networks will be Hands-on. As the design of the planning influenced by the local/national context, for meeting suggested, the workshop would be example with regard to the degree of faculty built around extensive, direct participation. autonomy in course design. Participants would have the opportunity to Resources. As mentioned above, whenever be both “students” and “teachers,” to possible participants in the workshop will be practice the methods they are learning, and provided with materials and other resources to develop “teachable tidbits” and other to help them implement what they have materials (e.g., appropriate assessments) to learned. Modest resources from their home help them implement their new courses or institution to show its commitment and modules at their home institutions. obligation may be particularly desirable in Implementation and Assessment. An the project’s initial stages. It is the existence important feature of the workshop’s hands- and ready availability of these resources on approach is the commitment to assist rather than their amount that matters most; participants in implementing what they have in many situations modest resources can learned. In addition to implementing new have a significant impact. ideas or courses, they will acquire experience Continuing connections. Another way to and resources to plan and carry out effective help build a network is to have project staff assessments of whether the learning goals of from the sponsoring organization available their new activities are being met. As already for consultation to participants after the mentioned in the context of sustainability, workshop as they implement their new ideas thinking about assessment from the outset is (courses, modules, etc.). These connections helpful on multiple levels. Examples of would reinforce rather than substitute for useful assessment techniques include local commitment. observation of the participants, collecting Appraisal. The NASI arranges for at least and analyzing work samples, introducing some of the team members to get together checklists of skills, use of quizzes and/or self- approximately six months after the Institute assessment tools, interviews, etc. to share experiences and challenges, reinforce ties, and make plans and adjustments. This is always important but is
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Appendix C 111 particularly critical in the early days of a It also reflects the sensitivities to concepts such long-term project, i.e., the first years of as dual use and biosecurity under current implementation. The anticipation of a conditions in Egypt; it is unclear whether other reunion may also encourage participants to workshops in other settings would experience persevere with applying their new skills, the same concerns as strongly.64 since it should be expected that, in spite of resources and support, at least some of them Goals of the EPI would encounter barriers or become discouraged. Expanding on the themes previously discussed, the following three are the goals to achieve by the faculty workshop: DETAILS OF THE EGYPTIAN PROTOTYPE INSTITUTE GOALS AND LEARNING 1. Understand the ethical and legal OBJECTIVES responsibilities of physical and life scientists. The existence of multinational and The syllabus (e.g., content and pedagogy) of the multidisciplinary perspectives on what institute is developed in close consultation with constitutes responsible life sciences research the faculty in whose country it will take place. makes a discussion on the various norms The elements described below have been and cultures of the practice of science very adapted to the needs identified by the faculty valuable. It would also foster the idea of a from research institutions in Egypt. global science and research community, Consequently, these may have to be modified to although the amount of legal information best fit the characteristics of each country. necessary is a matter of discussion. At the During the planning meeting in Trieste, the end of the workshop the participants will general themes of the EPI were identified but the have a clearer appreciation of responsible detailed content was not discussed. This is one conduct in research and science. of the tasks that the Committee overseeing this 2. Educate participants in the conduct of project is working on in close collaboration with responsible science. The workshop will foster the experts from Egypt who took part in the good practice in teaching life and physical planning meeting. sciences and teach participants to adapt these to their own subject matters. At the The Importance of the Workshop’s Title end of the workshop the participants will have an appreciation for active learning In the planning meeting a substantial amount of techniques as these apply to responsible time was devoted to selecting an appropriate title scientific practices, they will be able to utilize for the future Institute. While the chosen title the teaching methods of the workshop, and reflects the core interests of the planners, it was to incorporate the workshop materials into mostly shaped by the Egyptian experts. It is existing programs in their own institutions. aspirational and evokes the notions of education; 3. Cultivate future leaders in responsible science responsible research; infectious diseases (or and research integrity. In order to sustain the other life science); and safety in science: Education in responsible research with infectious 64 See NRC (2011c) and Rappert (2010) for accounts of the diseases ensuring safe science in the 21st century. experiences of programs on dual use issues in other countries.
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112 Appendix C impetus for this project and foster a sense of A new course on responsible conduct achievement and dignity the workshop of research (this may take a long time participants will be encouraged to not only for approval, depending on the develop good research practices but to national structure of education identify the necessary support system to curricula in a country) facilitate such changes. In the formative Incorporation of new teaching years of the project, the accomplishments of methods within existing courses in the the site visit and the guidance of the NRC life sciences adding the elements of Committee members will be crucial to RCR/RI teaching identify champions and to foster the exchange of scientists around the world to At the end of the project a meeting of the sustain this effort. EPI participants, Committee members and project staff will take place to measure success, An example of how to structure the activities at discuss challenges and new activities to be the institute using a learning outcomes approach undertaken (this also happens with the NASI). is shown in Table C-1. While no specific assessment tool has been designed, oral deliberations –especially during Activities and Assessments the formative years of the project- between participants are thought to be the most helpful There are numerous activities to choose from to assessment tool. It is possible that, following the implement what was learned at the EPI at each completion of the EPI and the debriefing participant’s home institution. The choices meeting a few months later, the Committee will could be influenced by what integrates well formulate guidelines on data to be collected within a laboratory, a department or an from participants and analyzed in the footsteps institution and what is commonly used and of the NASI. accepted in a country’s educational system. Pfund and colleagues have described a number Costs and Implementation Issues of activities originating from the 6 years of Summer Institutes (Pfund et al. 2009), and Although these are important issues, they can below are some additional examples: only be addressed after the EPI has taken place. Brown bag seminars
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Appendix C 113 TABLE C-1 Example of a “Learning Outcomes” approach. Activity that General goals Specific learning Types of assessments accomplishes that addressed objectives/outcomes that measure objective specific objective Participants will be Develop a teaching module Develop an assessment Present your advocates for teaching to illustrate the use of the instrument that will approach to your responsible conduct of concepts of responsible demonstrate the colleagues in the research and practice conduct of research. student’s ability to use Institute and obtain of science. the concepts you have their feedback. discussed to solve practical problems. Use a historical case study to engage students and deepen their awareness of the various issues. Participants will have Identify the difference Tested knowledge; pre- Group activities, small an awareness of between chemical and and postassessment. group discussions, hazards in the biological hazards. clicker questions. Offer a problem and ask laboratory and know Be able to describe students to describe any Expertise sharing how to bring that biosafety guidelines and obvious hazardous (own experiences of awareness to others. standards of practice to situations. best practice; own prospective trainees stories of not-so-best practices). Appreciate the ethical, Indentify polices and Convey these policies to Locate and legal, and social guidelines and regulatory the workers/students in read/discuss these responsibilities of life statements of both their native language. guidelines with the scientists. international and local group. Critique and discuss bodies and critique the how these apply to Discuss cases from applicability of these participants’ own historical examples statements. experience, laboratory, (e.g., Thomas Butler). Able to write standards of institution, or country. Discuss case studies practice for their own specific to the group institution, department, or itself, e.g., based on laboratory. personal experience.
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