Appendix D

Active Learning Toolkit and Images

This appendix contains materials intended to illustrate and supplement the discussions of active learning in the text of the report. It includes:

    •  Images, including cartoons, that illustrate active learning concepts and applications;

    •  Projects and resources devoted to promoting active learning in science education; and

    •  References to research on the science of learning, expanded from the references cited in the text.



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Appendix D Active Learning Toolkit and Images This appendix contains materials intended to active learning concepts and applications; illustrate and supplement the discussions of  Projects and resources devoted to promoting active learning in the text of the report. It active learning in science education; and includes:  References to research on the science of learning, expanded from the references cited  Images, including cartoons, that illustrate in the text. USEFUL IMAGES The transmissionist view of learning • Learners are empty  vessels to be filled  with knowledge • Instructor‐centered From Smith et al. 2005. Journal of Engineering Education. Used with permission. 115

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116 Appendix D The typical outcome… Adapted from Smith et al. 2005. Journal of Engineering Education. Used with permission. The constructivist view of learning • People must grow their own knowledge structure from  experience – we cannot put knowledge into students’ heads Learner‐centered!

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Appendix D 117 Moving from an instructor‐centered  to a learner‐centered classroom Begin with this  As a table, sketch what  drawing . . .  it would look like if it  were learner‐centered 5 minutes! Adapted from Smith et al. 2005. Journal of Engineering Education. Used with permission.  

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PROJECTS AND RESOURCES TO IMPROVE Center for Learning and Teaching in higher SCIENCE EDUCATION education. CIRTL uses graduate education as the leverage point to develop a national STEM BEN faculty committed to implementing and advancing effective teaching practices for diverse BiosciEdNet (BEN) Collaborative was student audiences as part of successful established in 1999 by the American Association professional careers. The goal of CIRTL is to for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) with 11 improve the STEM learning of all students at other professional societies and coalitions. The every college and university, and thereby to BEN Collaborative mission is not only to increase the diversity in STEM fields and the provide seamless access to e-resources but to STEM literacy of the nation. also serve as a catalyst for strengthening teaching To prepare the future STEM faculty of the and learning in the biological sciences. BEN nation, CIRTL influences graduate-through- resources have been reviewed by the individual faculty preparation in teaching and learning at a societies for standards of quality and accuracy; significant number of research universities. the collaborative establishment of its metadata Building on the CIRTL Core ideas, the project structure permits the user to easily conduct proposes to achieve this goal through a learning productive interdisciplinary searches across the community of diverse research universities diverse biological sciences topics. mutually engaged in teaching-as-research activities. Established in fall 2006, the CIRTL Network BioQuest was comprised of Howard University, Michigan State University, Texas A&M University, The BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium University of Colorado at Boulder, University of (BQCC) is a community of scientists, teachers, Wisconsin-Madison, and Vanderbilt University. and learners who are interested in supporting After a substantial expansion in 2011, the biology education that reflects realistic scientific Network now includes 25 research universities practices. The efforts in science education build across the nation. The diversity of these on a commitment to engaging learners in a full institutions—private/public; large/moderate spectrum of biological inquiry from problem size; majority-/minority-serving; geographic posing to problem solving and peer persuasion. location—is by design aligned with CIRTL’s Many of the projects involve coordinating mission. faculty development workshops that focus on strategies for bringing realistic scientific experiences into their classrooms and MicrobeWorld collaboratively developing curriculum projects. Established in 2003, MicrobeWorld is an interactive multimedia educational outreach Center for the Integration of Research, initiative from the American Society for Teaching, and Learning (CIRTL) Microbiology (ASM) that promotes awareness and understanding of key microbiological issues The Center for the Integration of Research, to adult and youth audiences and showcases the Teaching, and Learning (CIRTL) is an NSF significance of microbes in our lives. The various 118

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Appendix D 119 outreach methods feature the process of pedagogical tools, the national context, and discovery, historical changes in research, and a twenty-first century student education. variety of scientific careers in industry, academia, and government. SENCER MERLOT Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibilities (SENCER) was initiated in Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning 2001 under the National Science Foundation’s and Online Teaching (MERLOT) is a free and CCLI national dissemination track. Since then, open online community of resources designed SENCER has established and supported an ever- primarily for faculty, staff and students of higher growing community of faculty, students, education from around the world to share their academic leaders, and others to improve learning materials and pedagogy. MERLOT is a undergraduate STEM (science, technology, leading edge, user-centered, collection of peer- engineering, and mathematics) education by reviewed higher-education online learning connecting learning to critical civic questions. materials, catalogued by registered members and SENCER’s goals are to: (1) get more students a set of faculty development support services. interested and engaged in learning in science, MERLOT’s strategic goal is to improve the technology, engineering, and mathematics effectiveness of teaching and learning by (STEM) courses, (2) help students connect increasing the quantity and quality of peer- STEM learning to their other studies, and (3) reviewed online learning materials that can be strengthen students’ understanding of science easily incorporated into faculty-designed and their capacity for responsible work and courses. citizenship. PKAL Workshop for New Physics and Astronomy Faculty Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) is one of the leading advocates in the United States for what Since 1996, the American Association of Physics works in building and sustaining strong Teachers has sponsored workshops designed to undergraduate programs in the fields of science, help new faculty at research and four-year technology, engineering, and mathematics institutions understand how to become more (STEM). As an intelligence broker within the effective educators and support their quest to undergraduate STEM community, PKAL gain tenure. Because of the pressure to establish disseminates resources that advance the work of their credentials in research or other scholarly academic leaders tackling the challenging work activities, new faculty may be tempted to of ensuring that the undergraduate STEM postpone or ignore the development of teaching learning environment serves 21st century proficiency. They may receive direct or subtle students, science, and society most effectively, messages suggesting that only a focus on efficiently, and creatively. PKAL themes include research will result in career advancement, and institutional transformation, human and there is often a lack of mentors or role models physical infrastructure, the academic program,  

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120 Appendix D who demonstrate dedication and enthusiasm Teacher Education Beyond 2000, R. Pinto for teaching. and S. Surinach, eds. Paris: Elsevier. Similar signals are transmitted to graduate Brewer, C., and D. Smith, eds. 2011. Vision and students who may be in training for academic Change in Undergraduate Biology careers. Moreover, because the research Education. Washington: American universities include many of our large public Association for the Advancement of Science. institutions, a large number of undergraduates Handelsman, J., S. Miller, and C. Pfund. 2006. may suffer as a result of inadequate preparation Scientific Teaching. San Francisco: Freeman of new faculty for teaching. and Sons. Data suggest that this inadequate attention Knight, J.K., and W.B. Wood. 2005. Teaching to teaching, especially in introductory science more by lecturing less. Cell Biology and math courses, is responsible for driving Education 4:298-310. students away from undergraduate majors in Michael, J. 2006. Where’s the evidence that science, mathematics and engineering. active learning works? Advances in To improve the quality of physics teaching Physiology Education 30:159-167. on a national scale, AAPT created the New Meltzer, D., and R. Thornton. 2012. Resource Faculty Workshop. Each workshop presents a Letter ALIP-1: Active-Learning Instruction small number of techniques that have proven to in Physics. American Journal of Physics be effective in a variety of environments. These 80(6):478. tactics can be implemented with minimal time NRC (National Research Council). 2000. How and effort, thus allowing new faculty to devote People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and more of their attention to research and School (Expanded Edition). Washington: scholarship. National Academy Press. Each spring and fall, department chairs at NRC. 2003. BIO2010: Transforming research and four-year institutions are asked to Undergraduate Education for Future nominate tenure-track faculty in the first few Research Biologists. Washington: National years of their initial appointment. The ideal Academies Press. candidate would have a year or two of teaching NRC. 2004. Biotechnology Research in an Age of experience so that they are aware of the Terrorism. Washington: National challenges of the first year of teaching. Academies Press. In 2002, the American Physical Society and NRC. 2006b. America’s Lab Report: the American Astronomical Society joined with Investigations in High School Science. AAPT to expand the reach of this program. Washington: National Academies Press. Financial support is provided by the National NRC. 2007b. Taking Science to School. Science Foundation. Washington: National Academies Press. NRC. 2008. Ready, Set, Science! Washington: National Academies Press. NRC. 2009c. On Being a Scientist. Washington: REFERENCES National Academies Press. NRC. 2011d. Promising Practices in Bernhard, J. 2001. Does active engagement Undergraduate Science, Technology, curricula give long-lived conceptual Engineering, and Mathematics Education: understanding? pp. 749-752. In: Physics

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Appendix D 121 Summary of Two Workshops. Washington: Measuring the Success of Small-Group National Academies Press. Learning in College-Level SMET Teaching: NRC. 2011e. Research in the Life Sciences with A Meta-Analysis. Madison: National Dual Use Potential: An International Faculty Institute for Science Education, University Development Project on Education about of Wisconsin. Available at http://www.wcer. the Responsible Conduct of Science. Washington: National Academies Press.;  NRC. 2012b. A Framework for K-12 Science accessed June 17, 2013. Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, Springer, L., M. Stanne, and S. Donovan. 1999. and Core Ideas. Washington: National Effects of small-group learning on Academies Press. undergraduates in science, mathematics, Prince, M. 2004 Does active learning work? A engineering, and technology: A meta- review of the research. Journal of analysis. Review of Educational Research Engineering Education 93(3):223-231. 69(1):21-51. Springer, L., M. Stanne, S. Donovan. 1999.  

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