Glossary

Active learning instruction: combination of methods of instruction in which students are actively engaged in learning.

Alignment: ensuring that methods of active learning – including activities and assessments -will help students meet learning goals.

Assessments: methods and tools for gauging progress toward and achievement of the learning goals. Often categorized as formative and summative (see definitions below).

ALLEA: All European Academies, is a network of national academies of sciences and of humanities from Western, Central, and Eastern Europe. The current membership comprises 53 academiese from 40 countries; for more information see http://www.interacademies.net/File.aspx?id=21281.

Baby-boomers: people born between 1946 and 1964.

Backward design (reverse design): design of instructional materials and plans by first setting the learning goals, then determining what outcomes would reflect the attainment of those goals, and finally designing the aligned activities and assessments that will enable the accomplishment of the learning goals.

Bioethics: the discussion of controversial ethical practices brought about by advances in biology and medicine.

Biological containment: the combination of safety and security measures used to ensure that microorganisms capable of infection do not escape the research laboratory.

Biological Weapons Convention (BWC): disarmament treaty signed in 1972 that prohibits the development and stockpiling of biological and toxin weapons, along with the means of their weaponization and delivery. The BWC was the first international agreement to ban an entire class of weapons.

Biosafety: “the containment principles, technologies and practices that are implemented to prevent unintentional exposure to pathogens and toxins or their accidental release” (WHO, 2006:iii).

Biosecurity: “the protection, control and accountability for valuable biological materials[including information] … within laboratories in order to prevent their unauthorized access, loss, theft, misuse, diversion or intentional release” (WHO, 2006:iii).

Biosecurity Engagement Program (BEP): U.S. State Department Program “committed to developing cooperative international programs that promote the safe, secure and responsible use of biological materials that are at risk of accidental release or intentional misuse” (http://www.bepstate.net/).

Bloom’s taxonomy: the six levels of cognition that represent a continuum of increasingly more conceptual learning tasks: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.

Code of Conduct: scientific organizations as well as governments have or support codes of conduct as one way to establish and promote responsible conduct, “thereby reducing threats



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Glossary Active learning instruction: combination of Biological Weapons Convention (BWC): methods of instruction in which students are disarmament treaty signed in 1972 that prohibits actively engaged in learning. the development and stockpiling of biological Alignment: ensuring that methods of active and toxin weapons, along with the means of learning – including activities and assessments - their weaponization and delivery. The BWC was will help students meet learning goals. the first international agreement to ban an entire class of weapons. Assessments: methods and tools for gauging progress toward and achievement of the learning Biosafety: “the containment principles, goals. Often categorized as formative and technologies and practices that are implemented summative (see definitions below). to prevent unintentional exposure to pathogens and toxins or their accidental release” (WHO, ALLEA: All European Academies, is a network 2006:iii). of national academies of sciences and of humanities from Western, Central, and Eastern Biosecurity: “the protection, control and Europe. The current membership comprises 53 accountability for valuable biological academiese from 40 countries; for more materials[including information] … within information see laboratories in order to prevent their http://www.interacademies.net/File.aspx?id=2128 unauthorized access, loss, theft, misuse, 1. diversion or intentional release” (WHO, 2006:iii). Baby-boomers: people born between 1946 and 1964. Biosecurity Engagement Program (BEP): U.S. State Department Program “committed to Backward design (reverse design): design of developing cooperative international programs instructional materials and plans by first setting that promote the safe, secure and responsible use the learning goals, then determining what of biological materials that are at risk of outcomes would reflect the attainment of those accidental release or intentional misuse” goals, and finally designing the aligned activities (http://www.bepstate.net/). and assessments that will enable the accomplishment of the learning goals. Bloom’s taxonomy: the six levels of cognition that represent a continuum of increasingly more Bioethics: the discussion of controversial ethical conceptual learning tasks: knowledge, practices brought about by advances in biology comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and medicine. and evaluation. Biological containment: the combination of Code of Conduct: scientific organizations as safety and security measures used to ensure that well as governments have or support codes of microorganisms capable of infection do not conduct as one way to establish and promote escape the research laboratory. responsible conduct, “thereby reducing threats 97

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98 Developing Capacities for Teaching Responsible Science in the MENA Region associated with malign misuse of science, Formative assessment: ongoing informal, low- particularly areas associated with modern stakes methods to provide information to both biotechnology” (Rappert, 2003). learners and instructors about next steps during Cognition: mechanisms that the brain uses to the learning process. acquire and process knowledge and analyze Generation X: people born between early 1960s information. and the early 1990s. Cognitive science: the scientific discipline of the Higher order cognitive skills (HOCS): complex study of cognition. judgment skills involving analysis, evaluation Data fabrication: the presentation or and creation of new knowledge (i.e., synthesis) publication of data that have not been generated as opposed to lower order cognitive skills through legitimate scientific processes or that (LOCS), or the learning of facts and concepts. are not supported by experimental results. LOCS typically correspond to the levels 1 -3 of Bloom's Taxonomy while HOCS correspond to Data falsification: manipulation of data in any levels 4-6 of Bloom's Taxonomy. way that changes or omits data. Human Genome Project: international DBER: discipline-based education research, a scientific project with the primary goal of collection of related research fields that study determining the entire DNA sequence (specific how students learn the knowledge, concepts, and base pairs) and the estimated 20,000-25,000 practices of a particular discipline. genes encoded by those base pairs, on the 23 Dual use dilemma: The problem that arises in chromosomes of a human genome. the life and other sciences because the same line IAC: The InterAcademy Council, representing of research could have the potential for great all of the world’s science academies, “reports on benefits but also for yielding knowledge, tools, scientific, technological, and health issues related or techniques that could be used to cause to the great global challenges of our time, deliberate harm. providing knowledge and advice to national Dual use research: research intended for governments and international organizations” beneficial purposes that could nonetheless be (IAC in Brief [online]. Available at: misused for malevolent purposes. http://www.interacademycouncil.net/23450/2779 Dual use research of concern: “Research that, 9.aspx). based on current understanding, can be IAP—The Global Network of Sciences reasonably anticipated to provide knowledge, Academies: as one of its core activities IAP, products, or technologies that could be directly which now includes over 105 national science misapplied to pose a threat to public health and academies, “works closely with its member safety, agricultural crops and other plants, academies to strengthen the role that science animals, the environment, or materiel” (NSABB, plays in society and to advise public officials on 2007). the scientific aspects of critical global issues” European Science Foundation (ESF): 72 (About IAP [online] Available at: member organizations dedicated to scientific http://www.interacademies.net/About.aspx). research from 30 European countries comprise International Committee of Medical Journal’s the European Science Foundation; for more (ICJME) Uniform Requirements for information, see http://www.esf.org/. Manuscripts: set of guidelines produced by the ICJME for standardizing the ethics, preparation

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Glossary 99 and formatting of manuscripts submitted to NIH: The National Institutes of Health, agency biomedical journals. of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Jigsaw exercise: cooperative learning strategy Services and the primary U.S. government that enables each student of a “home” group to agency responsible for biomedical and health- specialize in one aspect of a learning unit and related research. then instruct and guide the other members of National Science Advisory Board for the home group. Each member of the group is Biosecurity (NSABB): “a US. Federal essential to the completion of the unit. government advisory committee chartered to Knowledge construction: learning theory provide advice, guidance, and leadership developed by the education philosopher David regarding biosecurity oversight of dual use Ausubel that proposes that learning builds upon research” (http://oba.od.nih.gov/biosecurity/ and accommodates the experience of the learner, about_nsabb.html). who integrates new knowledge into a personal NSF: The National Science Foundation, a U.S. framework or scaffold based upon those government agency that supports fundamental experiences. research and education in all the non-medical Learning gains: “the percentage (or fraction) of fields of science and engineering. the possible improvement that was actually OECD: Organization for Economic Cooperation achieved by students from pre to post-test, i.e., and Development, an international organization = (Post - Pre)/(Perfect Score - Pre) x 100” dedicated to helping governments tackle the (Thornton, 2008). economic, social, and governance challenges of a Learning goals: what students will know, globalised economy. understand and be able to do by the end of an ORI: Office of Research Integrity, one of the instructional unit. bodies concerned with research integrity in the Lower order cognitive skills (LOCS): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. knowledge questions that require simple recall Plagiarism: appropriation of the ideas, language of information or simple application of known or expression of another. The precise theory or concept; problems that can be solved delineation of an act of plagiarism is unclear and without necessarily being understood. is considered culturally defined by some, MENA region: Middle East—North Africa although scientific standards with respect to region. publications and data do exist. Meta-analysis: systematic method of integrating Recombinant DNA (rDNA): the transfer of data from a number of studies addressing the DNA sequences from one organism to another same problem. by splicing or transplantation Metacognition: the process by which learners Reverse-design: see backward design. are aware of their levels of learning and, through Risk: the potential that an activity or action may that recognition, set learning goals, design lead to a loss or some undesirable outcome. approaches to achieve them, and monitor and Risk/benefit: the comparison of the risk of an evaluate progress towards the goals. action, activity or situation with its benefit. Millennial generation: people born between late Scaffolding: the framework of experience that 1970s and the early 2000s. learners use to organize and integrate new information in the process of knowledge  

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100 Developing Capacities for Teaching Responsible Science in the MENA Region construction and that instructors can provide to Transmissibility: the ability of an infectious support learning. agent to be passed from one host to another and Science of learning: research that seeks to cause disease. understand learning at many levels of scientific Transmissionism: the tendency towards a more inquiry, including physiology, neurology, conventional, teacher-centered mode of psychiatry, psychology, cognition, sociology, instruction, with knowledge meant to be developmental biology and genetics. transmitted from teacher to pupil with little to Scientific teaching: the pedagogical approach to no active learning methods involved. the teaching of science that uses active learning UNESCO: United Nations Educational, methods and aligned assessments to measure Scientific and Cultural Organization, a body learning with the same rigor as scientific within the UN that encourages international research. peace and universal respect by promoting Soft law: “In the context of international law, collaboration among nations. soft law refers to guidelines, policy declarations WHO: World Health Organization, a specialized or codes of conduct which set standards of UN agency that is concerned with promoting conduct. However, they are not directly international public health. enforceable” (http://definitions.uslegal. com/s/soft-law/). STEM: acronym for fields of study in the categories of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Summative assessment: evaluation of student learning at the end of an instructional unit; such measures of accountability are generally used as part of the grading process. Synthetic biology: “the design and re-design of biological parts, devices and systems” (http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/systemsbiology). Synthetic DNA: artificially created strands of DNA made in the laboratory; the structure of the building blocks of DNA (4 bases with sugar and phosphates attached) are well understood and can be created de novo in the laboratory with increasing speed and lower cost. Think, Pair, Share: activities that pose a question and allow students to consider the problem alone before discussing it with a classroom neighbor and then presenting conclusions to the class as a whole.