Developing Capacities for Teaching
Responsible Science in the MENA Region:
Refashioning Scientific Dialogue

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

In cooperation with

Bibliotheca Alexandrina
and
The World Academy of Sciences (TWAS)



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Developing Capacities for Teaching Responsible Science in the MENA Region: Refashioning Scientific Dialogue In cooperation with Bibliotheca Alexandrina and The World Academy of Sciences (TWAS)    

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Committee on Developing a Framework for an International Faculty Development Project on Education About Research in the Life Sciences with Dual Use Potential Board on Life Sciences Division on Earth and Life Studies In cooperation with Bibliotheca Alexandrina and The World Academy of Sciences (TWAS) THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu  

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Grant No. S-LMAQM-10-GR-087 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of State. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-28639-8 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-28639-5 Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; www.nap.edu/. Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org  

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COMMITTEE ON DEVELOPING A FRAMEWORK FOR AN INTERNATIONAL FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT ON EDUCATION ABOUT RESEARCH IN THE LIFE SCIENCES WITH DUAL USE POTENTIAL RITA R. COLWELL (Chair), Distinguished University Professor, University of Maryland & Johns Hopkins University; Honorary Chairperson and Senior Advisor, Canon U.S. Life Sciences, Inc. ENRIQUETA C. BOND, President Emeritus, Burroughs Wellcome Fund JOHN D. CLEMENTS, Professor and Chair, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine; Director, Center for Infectious Diseases, Tulane University NANCY D. CONNELL, Professor of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ); Director, UMDNJ Center for Biodefense CLARISSA DIRKS, Associate Professor of Biology, The Evergreen State College MOHAMED El-FAHAM, Director, Center for Special Studies and Programs (CSSP), Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt ALASTAIR W.M. HAY, Professor of Environmental Toxicology and Epidemiology, University of Leeds, United Kingdom ELIZABETH HEITMAN, Associate Professor of Medical Ethics, Center for Biomedical Ethics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center ADEL A.F. MAHMOUD, Professor, Woodrow Wilson School, Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University MONA MOSTAFA MOHAMED, Professor of Cell Biology, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt JAMES H. STITH, Vice President Emeritus, Physics Resources Center, American Institute of Physics STAFF LIDA ANESTIDOU, Study Director and Senior Program Officer, Institute for Laboratory Animal Research JO L. HUSBANDS, Scholar and Senior Project Director, Board on Life Sciences JAY B. LABOV, Senior Scientist, Board on Life Sciences SAYYEDA AYESHA AHMED, Senior Program Assistant CARL-GUSTAV ANDERSON, Program Associate, Board on Life Sciences FRANCES E. SHARPLES, Director, Board on Life Sciences; Acting Director, Institute for Laboratory Animal Research v

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BOARD ON LIFE SCIENCES JO HANDELSMAN (Chair), Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut VICKI L. CHANDLER, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Palo Alto, California SEAN EDDY, HHMI Janelia Farm Research Campus, Ashburn, Virginia SARAH C.R. ELGIN, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri DAVID R. FRANZ, Former Cdr USAMRIID, Consultant, Frederick, Maryland LOUIS J. GROSS, University of Tennessee, Knoxville RICHARD A. JOHNSON, Arnold & Porter, LLC, Washington, D.C. JUDITH KIMBLE, University of Wisconsin, Madison CATO T. LAURENCIN, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut ALAN I. LESHNER, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C. BERNARD LO, University of California, San Francisco, KAREN E. NELSON, J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, Maryland ROBERT M. NEREM, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta CAMILLE PARMESAN, University of Texas, Austin ALISON G. POWER, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York MARGARET RILEY, University of Massachusetts, Amherst BRUCE W. STILLMAN, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York JANIS C. WEEKS, University of Oregon, Eugene CYNTHIA WOLBERGER, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland MARY WOOLLEY, Research!America, Alexandria, Virginia STAFF FRANCES E. SHARPLES, Director JO L. HUSBANDS, Scholar/Senior Project Director JAY B. LABOV, Senior Scientist/Program Director for Biology Education KATHERINE W. BOWMAN, Senior Program Officer INDIA HOOK-BARNARD, Senior Program Officer MARILEE K. SHELTON-DAVENPORT, Senior Program Officer KEEGAN SAWYER, Program Officer BETHELHEM M. BANJAW, Financial Associate CARL G. ANDERSON, Program Associate SAYYEDA AYESHA AHMED, Senior Program Assistant ORIN E. LUKE, Senior Program Assistant vi

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Preface This project merits attention for its success in because the Academies’ activities are linking two areas of important work of the U.S. demonstrating that the foundation for effectively National Academies to advance contributions of engaging the scientific community to address the life sciences to health, economic potential risk of misuse is education within a development, and the environment globally. broader framework of the responsible conduct of First, the Academies’ path-breaking work has science. I believe this approach offers the best focused on how people learn, how effective promise of achieving both security and scientific approaches to teaching can be applied to engage progress available to all. and prepare a new generation of scientists, and Sincere thanks are owed to all members of how to put that knowledge into practice to the committee because their commitment and transform teaching of undergraduate biology in engagement with the project have been the United States. Second, influential reports of extraordinary. Each worked incredibly hard and the National Research Council and the Institute several continue to engage with participants in of Medicine published since the late 1980s have the project to assist in implementing what has helped establish the norms and standards in the been learned in the course of this activity. United States and internationally for responsible TheNational Academies staff deserve special conduct of science. Nevertheless, engagement of recognition, especially Lida Anestidou and Jay the National Academies in responding to Labov, an amazing team. They brought their concerns that the rapid advances in the life formidable skills in responsible conduct and sciences, with their potential for significant scientific teaching, respectively, to the design benefits, might be misused to cause deliberate and implementation of this project. Jo Husbands harm has provided an important component of provided invaluable assistance with planning this report. and oversight of the final report process, and During the last few decades the scientific Ayesha Ahmed and Carl-Gustav Anderson were community has made remarkable progress in truly remarkable in their research work and developing and promulgating the culture of administrative support. responsibility that has kept the number of Meetings were held in Jordan and Trieste, laboratory accidents and cases of deliberate Italy, and to our hosts in both of those countries misuse to vanishingly small numbers. But as a debt of gratitude is acknowledged for their research capacity extends globally, we need to hospitality and professional assistance. The take advantage of all that is known about how engagement and enthusiasm of participants in best to instill those standards so that the research the meetings provided encouragement to enterprise continues to advance knowledge to continue vigorously promoting both scientific serve the public and sustain its trust. The project teaching and responsible conduct. I wish to described in this report is, in part, a response to acknowledge their essential contributions. I these concerns but it also draws on other work extend my personal thanks, as well as those of vii

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viii Developing Capacities for Teaching Responsible Science in the MENA Region the committee, to the Bibliotheca Alexandrina responsible research in science continues and and to The World Academy of Sciences our hope is that this report will help light the (TWAS), our partners in this project. Their way for global understanding and participation. extensive knowledge of the region informed our work and their commitment to scientific excellence made them ideal partners. The task of —Rita R. Colwell, Chair

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Acknowledgments This report was reviewed in draft form by James Revill, University of Sussex, United individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives Kingdom and technical expertise, in accordance with Henry J. Silverman, University of Maryland procedures approved by the National Michelle Withers, West Virginia University Academies’ Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide Although these reviewers provided many candid and critical comments that will assist the constructive comments and suggestions, they institution in making its published report as were not asked to endorse the conclusions or sound as possible and to ensure that the report recommendations, nor did they see the final meets institutional standards for objectivity, draft of the report before its release. The review evidence, and responsiveness to the study of this report was overseen by Diane Ebert-May, charge. The review comments and draft Michigan State University. Appointed by the manuscript remain confidential to protect the National Academies, she was responsible for integrity of the process. making certain that an independent examination We thank the following individuals for their of the report was carried out in accordance with review of this report: institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Eiman Aleem, University of Arizona and Responsibility for the final content of this report University of Alexandria, Egypt rests entirely with the authoring committee and Rosemary Chalk, Washington, DC the institution. Michael Imperiale, University of Michigan Peter Mahaffy, The King’s University College, Canada ix

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Contents Summary 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 9 Chapter 2 Responsible Conduct and Integrity in Science 23 Chapter 3 The Science of Learning 29 Chapter 4 The Institute 39 Chapter 5 Post-Institute Activities 65 Chapter 6 Evaluation, Insights, and Realities 73 References 87 Glossary 97 Appendices Appendix A Recommendations from the Warsaw Workshop Report 101 Appendix B Background on The World Academy of Sciences and the Bibliotheca Alexandrina 105 Appendix C Details from the Results of the Planning Meeting 109 Appendix D Active Learning Toolkit and Images 115 Appendix E Biographies of Committee Members and Staff 123 Appendix F Institute Participants 129 Appendix G Documents from the Institute 131 xi

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