such as awareness raising, information sharing, resource sharing, and coordinated response to real-time situations. According to the Department of Justice’s Office for Victims of Crime:

The advantage of multidisciplinary anti-trafficking Task Forces is in the maintenance of a strategic, well-planned, and continuously fostered collaborative relationship among law enforcement, victim service providers, and other key stakeholders. A multidisciplinary response to human trafficking raises the likelihood of the crime being discovered, provides comprehensive protection of the victim, and increases coordinated investigative and prosecutorial efforts against the perpetrator. (OVC and BJA, 2011, Sec. 3.2)

Noting the promise of multisector and interagency collaboration, the Department of Justice has provided funding for communities to establish anti-human trafficking task forces, which include “state and local law enforcement, investigators, victim service providers, and other key stakeholders” (Office of Justice Programs, 2013, p. 1). Other multisector and interagency efforts to address commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors have been established without direct federal funding. As a result of the influence and goals of different funding sources, as well as the needs and strengths of communities, different sectors take lead roles in organizing and catalyzing action in collaborative networks. Thus, one task force might be led by law enforcement, while another might be more NGO driven. Also variable is the extent to which a particular task force includes representatives from multiple sectors. And in addition to multisector collaborations, intrasector and specific cross-sector collaborations are possible.

In some cases, information and communication technologies facilitate connectedness and information sharing among collaborators (Stoll et al., 2012), although sharing of information is complicated by trust, privacy, legal, and data security concerns. In other cases, a formal MOU is helpful to designate the roles and parameters for collaboration and partnership (Piening and Cross, 2012). While this chapter focuses on a few models of multisector and interagency collaboration, the committee does not advocate a one-size-fits-all approach to collaboration and acknowledges a variety of formulations, strategies, and mechanisms that support collaboration. As noted, few of these approaches have been evaluated, so the committee does not intend to endorse or promote any particular model of practice. It merely notes that communities that have established channels for collaboration among people who work in diverse sectors appear to have had some success in addressing commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors.

Ideally, multisector and interagency approaches to commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States would include all groups necessary to adequately address the needs of victims and the prosecution of exploiters, traffickers, and purchasers. A robust litera-

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