Index

[Page numbers followed by b, f, t, and n refer to boxed text, figures, tables, and footnotes, respectively.]

A

Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act, 146

Administration for Children and Families, 382, 394b

Adverse Childhood Experiences Study, 67-68, 91

Affordable Care Act, 167

Allegation of harm, 238-239

American Bar Association, 162, 214

Amtrak, 329-330

Anxiety disorders, 118, 119

Area Health Education Centers, 376

Arrest records, 44

Asian Health Services, 277-278, 283, 284, 287b, 308

Awareness and understanding of CSE

among health care providers, 102-103, 273-274, 276, 290-291

among support service providers, 261-262

among victims and at-risk children, 2, 20, 49, 52-53, 64, 124, 202, 376-377

barriers to interagency or multisector collaborations, 358

in child welfare services, 239-240

commercial sector initiatives to increase, 328-330

current shortcomings in, 6, 16, 19, 20, 374, 376, 386-387b

in education system, 103-104

efforts by nongovernmental

organizations to improve, 247-248

fact sheet for schools to enhance, 152-153, 310-311

federal programs for increasing, 152-153

objectives of, 7-8, 376

obstacles to, 2, 20

recommendations for increasing, 6, 374, 386-387b

role of commercial sector in promoting, 15b

role of nongovernmental organizations in promoting, 15b

stereotypes and misperceptions in, 275-276

See also Identification of CSE victims; Training



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Index [Page numbers followed by b, f, t, and n refer barriers to interagency or multisector to boxed text, figures, tables, and footnotes, collaborations, 358 respectively.] in child welfare services, 239–240 commercial sector initiatives to increase, 328–330 A current shortcomings in, 6, 16, 19, 20, 374, 376, 386–387b Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety in education system, 103–104 Act, 146 efforts by nongovernmental Administration for Children and Families, organizations to improve, 247–248 382, 394b fact sheet for schools to enhance, Adverse Childhood Experiences Study, 152–153, 310–311 67–68, 91 federal programs for increasing, Affordable Care Act, 167 152–153 Allegation of harm, 238–239 objectives of, 7–8, 376 American Bar Association, 162, 214 obstacles to, 2, 20 Amtrak, 329–330 recommendations for increasing, 6, 374, Anxiety disorders, 118, 119 386–387b Area Health Education Centers, 376 role of commercial sector in promoting, Arrest records, 44 15b Asian Health Services, 277–278, 283, 284, role of nongovernmental organizations 287b, 308 in promoting, 15b Awareness and understanding of CSE stereotypes and misperceptions in, among health care providers, 102–103, 275–276 273–274, 276, 290–291 See also Identification of CSE victims; among support service providers, Training 261–262 among victims and at-risk children, 2, 20, 49, 52–53, 64, 124, 202, 376–377 449

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450 Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors B Child protective services, 239. See also Child protection system; Child Bar associations, 14b, 395b welfare services Boys as victims of CSE, 10, 92–93, 110, Child welfare services, 237–240, 278–279. 123, 144, 246–247, 261, 264, 380 See also Child protection system; Building Child Welfare Response to Child Child protective services Trafficking Handbook, 240 Children’s Health Care of Atlanta, 286 Bullying, 300–302 Children’s Health Insurance Program, Bureau of Justice Assistance, 45, 348–349, 167–168 376 Civil lawsuits, 151–152, 190, 388b, 390b Code of Conduct for the Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation C Travel and Tourism, 328, 329 Case management, 101, 238–239, 257–258, Cognitive-behavioral therapy, 256 258f, 264 Cognitive impairment, 78–80, 89–90 Center for the Human Rights of the Collaboration, interagency and multisector, Children, 240 38, 338, 363–364 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, barriers to communication in, 360–361 63, 382 child advocacy center model, 341–344, Chicago Alliance Against Sexual 345b Exploitation, 248–249, 263, communication among support service 310–311 providers, 262 Child abuse and maltreatment family justice center model for, 345 in childhood histories of CSE offenders, federal efforts and investments in, 109, 110 154–155, 346–351 CSE and, 32, 32f funding for, 359–360 as CSE risk factor, 80–84, 86, 91, 92, guidelines and technical assistance for, 93, 124, 381–382 11, 383–384 data collection on, 68–69 incentives for, 359 health care system model of care for, information sharing among law 281 enforcement agencies, 327–328 mandated reporting of CSE as, 278 information-sharing tools for, 12, mental health consequences of, 118 362–363, 384–385, 392–393b multisector and interagency approaches national strategy for, 187 to intervention with, 341–344 Operation Cross Country, 201b physical health consequences, 117 opportunities for improving current public health approach to, 283–284 efforts, 357–363 role of education sector in addressing, outcomes research, 342–343, 346, 364 299–305 President’s Interagency Task Force to state child welfare systems, 168–169 Monitor and Combat Trafficking, Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, 240–241 68, 151, 165 private sector in, 329 Child advocacy centers, 283, 342–344, in prosecution of sex trafficking cases, 345b 214, 218 Child Maltreatment Research, Policy, and range of potential participants in, 337, Practice for the Next Decade, 72 339–340, 340b Child Protection Act, 146 rationale for, 5, 11, 337–339, 364, 373, Child protection system, 99–101. See also 383 Child protective services; Child recommendations for, 11–12, 383–385, welfare services 391–393b in rural and tribal community areas, 362

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Index 451 sexual assault response team model, 346 Continuum of care, 263 shared understanding of CSE issues for, Cook County Human Trafficking Task 358 Force, 347–348 state and local efforts, 351–357 Coordinated community response, 346 structure and process for, 339, 340–341, Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice 355f and Delinquency Prevention, 11, for training, 357–358 383–384, 391–392b Collective efficacy, 97 County-based interventions, 353–356 Colorado Network to End Human Courtney’s House, 245–246, 250 Trafficking, 250 Crime statistics, 49–51, 56–63, 73, 210 Commerce Clause, 144 Crimes Against Children Unit, FBI, 199 Commercial sector Criminal justice system CSE offenders in, 324–326, 333 allegation of harm for CSE in child current efforts to combat CSE in, welfare services, 238–239 323–324 barriers to prosecution of trafficking definition, 323 cases, 214–215 laws to combat CSE applicable to, challenges for law enforcement 330–333 responding to CSE, 205–207 research needs, 333 civil remedy provisions, 151–152, 388b, role in combating CSE, 15b, 37–38, 323, 390b 326–330, 333–334, 396b collaborative partnerships to prosecute Commercial sexual exploitation of minors CSE, 352–353 (CSE) CSE case law, 215 conceptual approach to study of, 3, current efforts for CSE prevention and 25–28, 371 response, 37 consequences of, 1, 5, 19, 36–37, 77, current law enforcement practices with 115–123, 372 offenders, 210–213, 227–228 crimes associated with, 1–2, 31 data on CSE, 44, 56–63 data sources on, 28–29, 41–47, 57–69, deterrents to solicitation, 115 72–73, 371–372, 372n evolution of CSE law enforcement in, definitions and terminology for study of, 208–209 29–35, 48–49, 73 evolution of CSE law in, 37, 144–146 revenue generated by, 324–325 federal law enforcement interaction with salient issues in study of, 4b victims in, 198–201 See also Awareness and understanding federal law enforcement practices with of CSE; Offenders, CSE; Prevalence offenders in, 210–212 and incidence; Prevention of CSE; federal laws and regulations addressing Response to CSE; Sex trafficking of CSE, 143, 144–145, 146–155, minors; Victims and survivors 183–184, 185, 332–333 Community-level risk factors, 96–99 frequency of CSE prosecutions, 214, 215 Community Preventive Services Task Force, identification of CSE victims in, 216 298 information-sharing tools, 362–363 Confidentiality, 166–167, 168 interpretation and use of CSE laws, barriers to interagency or multisector 172–183 collaboration, 358–359 judiciary programs for juveniles arrested challenges to CSE interventions in for prostitution, 224–226 schools, 311–312 juvenile justice system, 162–163, 197, Congress, recommendations for, 13b, 394b 221–223 Consent law enforcement in commercial sector, medical, 168 330–333 for sex, 145–146, 164 legal consequences of CSE, 122–123

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452 Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors legal dependency, 168–169 D legal representation for victims/survivors, 214–216 Dallas High-Risk Victims Working Group, mandatory reporting laws, 25, 26–27b, 345b, 360 173–182, 278–279 Data collection and information “mistake of age” defense, 215–216 management, 13b, 14–15b mistreatment of CSE victims in, 2, 8, 20, barriers to interagency or multisector 24, 101–102, 120, 170, 184, 190, collaboration, 12, 358–359, 384 202–203, 206–207 complications of mandated reporting, national strategy for CSE, 187 278–279 need for comprehensive resource for current shortcomings, 12, 184–185, 380, CSE laws and programs, 149–150, 384 182–183, 188 evaluation of support services, 253–254 obstacles to effective prevention and on federal training efforts, 185 intervention in, 101 to identify financial behavior of opportunities for improving interactions offenders, 327 with CSE victims, 207–209 Innocence Lost database, 200–201 origins of CSE investigations, 205 mandatory reporting, 25, 26–27b, promising interventions in, 186–187 165–167, 173–182, 239 prosecution of CSE crimes, 8–9, offender database for law enforcement 216–221, 220b, 348, 378–379 agencies, 327–328 prosecution of minors under prostitution private efforts to help anti-trafficking laws, 8, 161–162, 190, 202, organizations, 251 206–207, 222–223, 224, 377–378, recommendations for information- 387–388 sharing platform, 12, 384–385, recommendations for, 8–9, 13b, 392–393b 377–379, 387–389b tools for multisector collaboration, review of CSE laws and policies in, 14b 362–363 role of, in responding to CSE, 143, 189, See also Prevalence and incidence 197 Dating violence, 302–305 scope of, 197 Definitions of key terms, 29–35 sources of evidence in CSE prosecutions, Demand for CSE, 5, 9, 10, 14b, 373, 378, 206–207, 213, 218, 348, 378–379 382 specialized units for CSE investigation, Department of Agriculture, 240 203–204 Department of Defense, 154, 240 state law enforcement interaction with Department of Education, 154, 240, 310 victims in, 202–205 recommendations for, 6, 9, 374, 380, state laws and regulations addressing 386b, 389b CSE, 143, 145–146, 155–172 research activities in, 9 strengths and limitations of current legal role in training and increasing awareness, framework, 183–186, 187–190 7, 152–153, 375, 376, 377 training of personnel in, 101, 185, 204, Department of Health and Human Services, 207–208, 212, 216, 217b, 228 9, 240, 289, 382 CSE. See Commercial sexual exploitation recommendations for, 6, 9, 374, 380, of minors 386b, 389b Cultural and societal norms, 104–105, role in training and increasing 112–113 awareness, 7, 8, 152, 375, 376, 377 sexualization of young girls, 325–326 support programs of, 150, 151, Cyber Tipline, 200b 153–154, 241, 242, 249 Department of Homeland Security, 154, 208, 240, 329–330, 363, 382

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Index 453 Department of Interior, 240 Education sector Department of Justice, 152, 154–155, alternative schools and programs, 211–212, 240, 252, 339, 376, 382 314–316 Office for Victims of Crime, 150, 184, challenges in addressing CSE in, 242, 254, 339, 348–350, 376 311–312 Office of Justice Programs, 348–349 CSE training for employees of, 104, recommendations for, 6, 9, 374, 380, 312–314, 317 386b, 389b current programs for CSE recognition research activities in, 9 and intervention in, 103–104, 157, task forces funded by, 347–350 298, 307–311 See also Office of Juvenile Justice and health care delivery in, 298, 313–314 Delinquency Prevention opportunities for CSE prevention and Department of Labor, 154, 240, 243 intervention in, 297–298, 312–316 Department of State, 152, 154, 240 prevention of CSE in, 306, 307b Department of Transportation, 240, role in combating CSE, 14b, 37, 329–330 305–306, 317 Dependency, legal, 168–169 role in preventing and addressing child Depression, 89, 118 abuse and violence, 299–305 Deterrence, 9, 226–227, 229, 378, 388b safe practice in, 104 Development, child and adolescent school policies and protocols to combat adversity experiences in, 91–92 CSE, 306 cognitive, 89–90 sexual health education programs, 311 consequences of CSE in, 119 student role in CSE intervention in, 316 considerations of, in juvenile justice Empowering Young Men to End Sexual system, 162–163 Exploitation, 310–311 cultural and societal influences in, End Child Prostitution and Trafficking- 104–105 United States of America, 328. See early pubertal maturation, 90–91 also ECPAT-USA effects of trauma exposure, 255–256 Enhanced Collaborative Model to Combat life course approach to CSE Human Trafficking, 348 interventions in schools, 312 Evidence-based Mental Health Treatment onset of sexual activity, 82 for Victims of Human Trafficking, risk factors for CSE in, 78, 84–85, 124 289 sexualization of young girls, 104–105, Executive Orders regarding CSE, 146, 153, 124, 325–326 155, 332 Directory of Technical Assistance for Anti- Human Trafficking Task Forces and Service Providers, 376 F Disability, 90 Facilitators of CSE, 35 Disrupted transitions/development, 84–85 Family and Youth Services Bureau, 154 Domestic Minor Demonstration Project, Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, 350 358–359 Domestic Trafficking in Persons, 13b Family justice centers, 345 Domestic violence, 94, 109, 121, 208–209, Family-level risk factors, 93–95, 109 255–256, 277–278, 281, 345 Family Planning Program, 166–167, 168 Federal Bureau of Investigation, 44, 45, 58, 198–201 E Federal Education Records Protection Act, ECPAT-USA, 248. See also End Child 311–312 Prostitution and Trafficking-United Federal Trade Commission, 154 States of America

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454 Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors Financial sector interventions, 327, 329 models of care relevant to CSE in, Foster care, 86, 87–88, 100, 167, 169. See 281–285, 291 also Systems-involved youth nondisclosure by CSE victims in, Foundations and philanthropic 277–278 organizations, 251–252, 396b policies and protocols for responding to CSE, 279–280 research needs, 291 G risk factors for CSE victims in, 102–103 screening for CSE in, 279–280, 282, Gangs, 96, 97, 109, 325 287b, 288 Georgia Care Connection, 243, 357 shortcomings of current CSE response Georgia Demand Study, 114 in, 290–291 Girls Educational and Mentoring Services telemedicine technology, 285 (GEMS), 225, 245, 249, 259 trauma-informed approaches, 255–257, Global Business Coalition Against 288, 289 Trafficking, 330 treatment of CSE victims in, 288–290 Global Oversight Analysis Linking Systems, See also Health care professionals 308 Health Insurance Portability and Google, 251 Accountability Act, 168, 358–359 Grossmont Union High School District, Health Resources and Services 307–308, 309f Administration, 376 H.E.A.T. (Human Exploitation and Trafficking) Watch Program, 218, H 352–353, 360–361 Health care professionals Helping Women Recover, 256–257 barriers to CSE training for, 276–277 HIV, 117–118 barriers to reporting of CSE by, 274–275 Homeless youth, 10, 66–67, 78, 85–87, 88, current training programs for, 285–286, 120, 121–122, 153–154, 164, 380. 376 See also Vulnerable populations mandatory reporting laws for, 166–167, Hotels, 323, 325, 328 278–279 Hotlines, 249–251, 329 misperceptions of CSE victims by, Houston Rescue and Restore Coalition, 286 275–276 Human trafficking opportunities for intervention with CSE data collection on, 58, 60 victims, 271–273 specialized law enforcement units for recognition of CSE in health care investigating, 203–204 settings, 103, 273–277 state laws against, 157–160 in school system, 298, 313–314 Human Trafficking Initiative (Chicago), 218 tools for CSE victim identification, Human Trafficking Reporting System, 287–288, 287b 45–46 training needs of, 273–275, 290–291 See also Health care system Health care system, 37 I barriers to access and utilization, 120, Identification of CSE victims, 44–45 166, 167 avoidance of harm in, 3, 26 confidentiality in, 166–167, 168 in health care system, 273–276, 279–280 current CSE victim utilization of, 272 lack of disclosure by CSE victims and, medical consequences of CSE, 116–118, 277–278 288, 289 law enforcement practices in, 206, 208 minor consent considerations in, 168

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Index 455 opportunities in education sector for, L 297 research needs, 382 La Strada International, 251 screening policies and protocols for, Labor trafficking, 24 279–280, 287b, 288 Larkin Street Youth Services, 246–247 shortcomings of current efforts, 5, 372 Law enforcement. See Criminal justice software for identifying pornography, system 326–327 Learning disabilities, 90 stereotyped thinking as barrier to, LexisNexis, 327–328 275–276 LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and tools for health care professionals, transgender) youth, 10, 78, 88–89, 287–288, 287b 246–247, 380. See also Vulnerable training of school nurses for, 313–314 populations Illinois Safe Children Act, 238, 240, 348, Liberty Asia, 251 378 LIFESKILLS, 253 Information management. See Data Locus of control, 89 collection and information Los Angeles County STAR Court, 225–226 management Innocence Lost National Initiative, 45, 199–201, 201b M Innocent Images National Initiative Unit, Mail order bride trade, 31 199 Mandatory reporting, 25, 26–27b, Innovation Awards to Stop Human 165–167, 173–182, 239 Trafficking, 252 complications of, 278–279 Institute of Education Sciences, 14b, 395b Mann Act. See White Slave Traffic (Mann) Interfaith Center on Corporate Act Responsibility, 329 Measurement, 47–55, 70–71, 73, 380 International Organization for Adolescents, Measuring Rape and Sexual Assault 240, 287b, 347 in Bureau of Justice Statistics International sex trafficking, 24 Household Surveys, 72 Internet. See Online and digital technologies Media portrayals of sex and violence, 105, Internet Crimes Against Children Task 323, 325–326, 330 Force Program, 153, 199, 211–212 Medicaid, 167–168 Interpersonal relationships, consequences of Memorandum on Steps to Combat Violence CSE in, 119 against Women and Trafficking in Intervention. See Response to CSE Women and Girls, 144 Mental health consequences of adolescent dating J violence, 303 Johns, 34 consequences of CSE, 116, 118–119, JPMorgan Chase, 327 288, 289–290 Justice Appropriations Act, 211 risk factors for CSE, 81–82, 89–90 Juvenile delinquency laws, 162–163 trauma-informed approaches to care, Juvenile justice system, 162–163, 197, 255–257 221–223, 223b Microsoft, 326–327 Midtown Community Court Services to Access Resources and Safety (STARS) K Program, 224–225 Minority youth, 10, 105, 206, 380. See also Kristi House, 344, 360 Vulnerable populations

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456 Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors Motivating, Inspiring, Supporting, and Offenders, CSE, 5 Serving Sexually Exploited Youth, characteristics of solicitors, 111–115 245 civil lawsuits against, 151–152, 190 Mount Sinai Sexual Assault and Violence in commercial sector, 324–326 Intervention, 259–260, 282 criminal statues targeting, 147–149 Multnomah County, Oregon, 353–354, current law enforcement practice with, 354f, 360 210–213 My Life, My Choice, 244, 249 definitions and terminology for study of, 34–35 demographic characteristics, 108 N deterrence, 226–227, 229 facilitators and, 35 National Association of Attorneys General, financial footprints of, 327 214 frequency of prosecution of, 214 National Center for Missing and Exploited peer relationships among, 96 Children, 104, 199, 200b, 327 penalties, 1, 145, 147, 158–159, 161, 165, National Child Abuse and Neglect Data 186, 210, 219–220, 226, 331, 379 System, 68–69 percentage of men purchasing sex, 111 National Crime Survey, 52 preventive interventions with, 111 National Crime Victimization Survey, 50, prosecution of, 216–221, 220b 51, 52, 56, 62–63, 73 recommendations for legal treatment of, National District Attorneys Association, 8–9, 378–379, 388–389b 214 research needs, 190 National Human Trafficking Resource review of laws and policies applicable to, Center, 153, 247–248, 249–250, 14b, 389b 287b, 329 sources of evidence against, 213, National ICAC Task Force Program, 378–379 211–212 wiretapping of, 213 National Incident-Based Reporting System, women as, 108 50n, 59–60, 61–62, 73 See also Risk factors for offenders National Institute of Child Health and Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Human Development, 13b, 382, Prevention, 3, 15b, 21, 185, 211, 394b 382, 385, 392–393b National Institute of Justice, 14b, 253, 395b role in information management, 12, 385 National Institute of Mental Health, 13b, role in training and increasing 382, 394b awareness, 7, 245, 375, 377 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Office of Safe and Healthy Schools, 14b, Health, 64–66 395b National Strategy for Child Exploitation Office of Safe and Healthy Students, 310 Prevention and Interdiction, 155, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking, 185, 187 152 Native Americans, 156, 361–362 Online and digital technologies Neighborhood-level risk factors for CSE, Internet-facilitated CSE, 47, 106b 96–99 law enforcement efforts in, 199, 200b, Nongovernmental organizations, 15b, 210, 211–212 243–251, 396b risk and protective factors in, 105, 106–107b, 125, 325 software for identifying pornography, O 326–327 Oakland High School Wellness Center, training for law enforcement on, 208 308–310 Operation Cross Country, 201b

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Index 457 P recommendations for research on, 9, 13b research needs in, 9, 10 Partnership for Freedom, 252 rewards for innovation in, 252 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, role of commercial sector in, 326 167 role of education system in, 306, 307b Peer relationships as risk factors for CSE, role of legal system in, 143 95–96 state laws and programs for, 155–172 Phoenix Project, 362 See also Deterrence PhotoDNA, 326–327 Private sector. See Commercial sector Pimp, 34, 109–110 Project Safe Childhood Initiative, 199, Polaris Project, 153, 208, 245, 247–248, 211–212 251, 286 Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools Pornography, 24, 145 to End the Exploitation of Children software for identifying, 326–327 Today Act, 146 Postal Inspection Office, 154 Prostitution and sex work, 24, 31, 34, 41 Posttraumatic stress disorder, 81, 118 characteristics of solicitors, 111–113 Poverty, 97–98 health consequences of, 116, 120 President’s Interagency Task Force to judiciary programs for juveniles arrested Monitor and Combat Trafficking, for, 224–226 240–242, 350–351 prosecution of minors for, 8, 33–34, President’s Interagency Trafficking Task 146, 161–162, 190, 202, 206–207, Force, 155 222–223, 224, 377–378, 387–388b Prevalence and incidence, 25, 36 risk factors for, 80, 83, 93, 95, 99 challenges in estimating, 2, 41, 47–57, state laws on, 145, 146, 160–162, 189 71 Protective factors, 10, 83–84 current data on, 41–47, 57–69, 72–73, family-level, 94 184–185 neighborhood-level, 96, 97, 98 need for data on, 10, 71–72, 74, 380 online and digital technologies as, 107b percentage of men purchasing sex, 111 peer-level, 95 perceptions of police agencies on, 203, in schools, 103 206 Providing Resources, Officers, and strategies for working with current data Technology to Eradicate Cyber on, 70–71 Threats (PROTECT) Our Children Prevention of CSE Act, 145, 146, 155, 211–212 adaptation of child advocacy center Psychosocial functioning. See Mental health model for, 345b Public health approach to CSE, 283–284 current efforts for, 37, 147, 188 current shortcomings of efforts for, 5, 372 Q curriculum for at-risk individuals, 244 federal programs for, 152–154 Queens County Prostitution Diversion intervention with potential offenders for, Court, 225 111, 113–114, 115 monitoring of effectiveness of efforts for, 14–15b R multiagency and interagency Race/ethnicity. See Minority youth coordination for, 5, 154–155 Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt nongovernmental organizations in, Organization (RICO) Act, 219–220 248–249 Rape, 25, 145–146, 164–165, 303 opportunities in health care settings for, Readiness and Emergency Management for 271–273 Schools, 310

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458 Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors Recommendations Response to CSE for collaboration in response to CSE, complications of mandated reporting, 11–12, 383–385, 391–393b 278–279 goals of, 5, 373 current shortcomings in, 5, 372, 373 implementation strategies for, 13–15b, federal programs for early intervention, 394–396b 153 to increase awareness and understanding in health care system, 102–103, 281–291 of CSE, 6, 374 monitoring of effectiveness of, 14–15b, for information-sharing platform, 12, 185 385, 393b national strategy for, 187 for legal treatment of offenders, 8–9, need for collaborative approaches in, 5, 378–379, 388–389b 11–12, 154–155, 373 for research, 9, 380–382, 389–391b need for information-sharing platforms resources for implementation of, 5–6, in, 12 373–374 promising legal interventions, 186–187 scope of, 4b, 22b, 38, 372 recommendations for research on, 9, 10, for treatment of victims and survivors, 8, 380, 381 387–388b research needs in, 9, 10, 20–21, 189, Reconnecting Homeless Youth Act, 66 380, 381–382 Regional Information Sharing systems strategies for implementing Program, 363 recommendations to enhance, 13b Reproductive health, 117–118 underserved areas, 361–362 Rescue and Restore Campaign, 152, 185, See also Collaboration, interagency and 287b multisector; Criminal justice system; Research Education sector; Support services on causes and prevention of CSE, 13b Risk factors for offenders on commercial-sector initiatives, 333 characteristics of solicitors, 111–115 with CSE offenders, 108, 111, 113, 115 in cultural and societal norms, 112–113 on CSE reporting laws, 173–182 purchasers/solicitors, 107–108, 111–115 on current prevention and response research challenges, 108 system, 189 traffickers, 106–107, 108–111 current shortcomings in CSE knowledge Risk factors for victims, 123–125 base, 9, 10, 20–21, 28, 29, 123, 371 chronic CSE involvement, 120–122 on demand reduction, 14b in cultural and societal norms, 104–105 on deterrents to CSE offenders, 227, 229 early adversity experiences as, 91–92 goals for, 2–3, 19–20, 21, 22b ecological model of, 78, 79f on health care role in CSE prevention family-level, 93–95 and treatment, 291 individual-level, 78–93 on health consequences of CSE, 288–290 interaction among, 78 institutional support for, 395b minority status as, 105 priority areas for, 10, 381 neighborhood-level, 96–99 publication and dissemination of, 10, 382 online and digital technologies as, recommendations for, 9, 380–382, 106–107b 389–391b peer- and extrafamilial-level, 95–96 on risk factors for minority youth, 105 research needs on, 381–382 on safe harbor laws, 186–187 scope of, 77–78 on support services, 189, 265 socioeconomic, 94–95, 97–98 terminology for, 29–35 systems-level, 99–103 on training initiatives, 185 See also Vulnerable populations on vulnerable populations, 10, 380 Risk-taking behavior, 81 Reservations and tribal lands, 156 Role models, 96

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Index 459 Runaway and Homeless Youth Management collaborative partnerships sponsored by, Information System, 66–67, 71 356–357 Runaway youth, 81, 85–86, 93, 96, 121, data collection on CSE by, 46–47 163–164 federal support for law enforcement Rural youth, 10, 361–362, 380. See also efforts of, 211–212 Vulnerable populations health care provisions for CSE youth in, 167–168 juvenile delinquency laws of, 162–163 S law enforcement practices with CSE offenders, 212–213 Safe harbor laws, 146, 170–172, 174–183t, law enforcement practices with CSE 184, 186–187 victims, 202–205 Safe Horizon, 350 laws and regulations addressing CSE, Safer Choices, 316 143, 145–146, 155–156, 188–189 Salvation Army, 212–213, 246, 250, 347, mandatory reporting laws, 165–167, 350 174–183t Sampling, 53–55 model antitrafficking law, 155 Screening for CSE, 279–280, 282, 287b, 288 prosecution of cross-border CSE, 173 Self-esteem, 89, 118 recommendations for, 13b, 394b Series victimization, 51 safe harbor provisions in CSE laws, Services to Access Resources and Safety 170–172, 174–183t, 184, 186–187 (STARS) program, 224–225 status offenses, 163–164 Sex tourism, 31, 144, 328 strengths and limitations of current legal Sex trafficking of minors framework, 184, 185–186 data sources, 58–59, 60 victim and support services in, 243 terminology for study of, 30 Status offenses, 163–164 See also Commercial sexual exploitation Statutory rape, 145–146, 164–165 of minors Stereotyped thinking, 275–276 Sexual assault interagency councils, 346 Stockholm syndrome, 288 Sexual assault multidisciplinary response STOP-IT Program, 212–213, 246, 250, 347 teams, 346 Street Outreach Program, 153–154 Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner, 281–282 Stripping, 31 Sexual assault response teams, 283, 346 Substance use and abuse, 82, 86, 89, 92, Sexual Exploitation of Children Community 118, 119, 124 Intervention Project, 245 Succeed Through Achievement and Sexual health education, 311 Resilience (STAR) Court, 225–226 Sexualization of young girls, 104–105, 124, Suffolk County, Massachusetts, 354–356, 325–326 355f Sexually-transmitted disease, 103, 117–118, Suicidal ideation and behavior, 118–119 122 Summary Reporting System, 57 Shared Hope International, 245, 247 Supplemental Homicide Reports, 59, 61 Social-ecological approach, 78, 79f, 381 Support services, 37 Socially responsible investing, 329 awareness of CSE among providers of, Socioeconomic status, 94–95, 97–98 261–262 Standing Against Global Exploitation, 245, case management, 101, 238–239, 350 257–258, 258f, 264 States, U.S. challenges for professionals in, 235–236 anti-human trafficking laws of, 157–160 challenges in conducting research in, anti-prostitution laws of, 160–162 253–254 child welfare agencies in, 168–169, challenges in delivery of, 185 237–240 child welfare, 237–240

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460 Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors comprehensive continuum of care, 263 Survivor-led/-informed approaches to service comprehensive listing of resources for, delivery, 258–259 12, 149–150, 182–183, 188, 241, Systems-involved youth, 10, 78, 87–88, 380 384 systems-level risk factors for CSE, CSE risk factors in, 99–101 99–102 current performance evaluations, See also Vulnerable populations 253–254 data sources, 237 effects of CSE on access and utilization T of, 120 Telehealth, 285 federal requirements and resources for, Tourism Child-Protection Code of Conduct, 149–152, 240–243 248 foundations and philanthropic Tourism industry, 328 organizations in, 251–252, 396b Trafficking in Persons Report, 152 hotlines and help lines, 249–251 Trafficking Victims Protection Act, 42, 122, information sharing and communication 144–145, 146, 151, 155, 172, 211, among providers of, 262 219, 226, 228, 240, 242, 243, 346, lessons from related fields, 259–260 389b monitoring of effectiveness of, 14–15b, Trafficking Victims Protection 185 Reauthorization Act, 57, 60, needs of special populations, 261 332–333, 350, 351 nongovernmental organizations Training providing, 243–251 audiences for, 7, 375 provisions in state CSE laws for, for child welfare professionals, 240 159–160 current efforts at, 6, 187, 374 research needs, 189, 265, 390–391b current health care system, 285–286 research on approaches to service for health care professionals, 273–275, delivery, 254–260 276–277, 290–291, 376 risk of vicarious victimization among implementation strategies for, 7, providers of, 262, 265 375–376 scope of providers and programs, 235, interagency or multisector collaboration 236 for, 357–358 shelter and housing, 260–261, 264 for law enforcement and criminal justice shortcomings of current system of, personnel, 101, 185, 204, 207–208, 183–186, 188–189, 260–263, 264, 212, 216, 217b, 228 265 leadership and oversight of, 7 social welfare services for CSE youth, opportunities for improving, in law 170, 245–247 enforcement, 207–208 state child welfare agencies, 168–169 rationale, 6, 374 statewide coordinated care approach to, to recognize victims of CSE, 216 243 recommendations for, 6, 374 survivor-led/-informed approaches, research needs, 185 258–259 resources for, in health care system, training programs for professionals in, 276–277 245, 261–262 for school personnel, 104, 312–314, 317 trauma-informed care, 255–257, 264 for support service professionals, 245, underserved areas, 361–362 261–262 Support to End Exploitation Now (SEEN) Transparency in Supply Chains Act Coalition, 216, 218, 354–356, 355f, (California), 331 360–361 Transportation industry, 329–330, 331–332 Survival sex, 31–32, 86, 120

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Index 461 Trauma-informed care, 255, 264, 288, 289 recommendations for treatment of, 8, Truckers Against Human Trafficking, 329 377–378, 386b, 387b Trucking industry, 329 self-awareness of, as victim, 2, 20, 49, 52–53, 64, 124, 202, 376–377 special challenges for, 2 U terminology in study of, 30, 33–34, 49 trauma research with, 20 Undocumented residents, 23, 149 treatment in juvenile justice system, 164, Uniform Crime Reporting, 44, 50–51, 387–388b 57–59, 61, 73 See also Prevalence and incidence; Risk U.S. Domestic Notification Pilot Program, factors for victims; Support services 150 Violence Against Women Act, 122 U.S. Probation Office, 154 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, 144 Vulnerable populations, 13b V estimates of, 42–43 Vicarious trauma/victimization, 262, 265 federal programs for intervention with, Victim, Survivor, Leader™, 245 153–154 Victim services. See Support services research needs, 10, 380 Victims and survivors supportive service providers for, age classification in research on, 23–24, 246–247 33, 64 types of, 2, 10, 20, 78–80, 124 boys as, 10, 92–93, 110, 123, 144, 246–247, 261, 264, 380 citizenship classification in research on, W 21–23 Washington State Domestic Minor Sex civil remedies available to, 151–152 Trafficking protocol, 356–357 cooperation with authorities, 49, 56–57, White Slave Traffic (Mann) Act, 144, 148, 101, 202, 204, 206 149, 219 fear of disclosure in health care settings, William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims 277–278 Protection Reauthorization Act. federal protection of and assistance to, See Trafficking Victims Protection 149–152 Reauthorization Act hotlines and help lines for, 249–251 Wiretapping, 213, 378 legal representation for, in prosecution Women’s Foundation of Minnesota, of offenders, 214–216 251–252 opportunities for improving law World Congress Against Commercial Sexual enforcement interaction with, Exploitation of Children, 115 207–209 perception and treatment of, in criminal justice system, 2, 8, 20, 24, 101–102, Y 120, 170, 186, 188, 190, 202–203 protections in state laws for, 159–160 Youth Risk Behavior Study, 63–64, 71

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