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Moderator and Speaker Biographical Sketches

Elizabeth M. Armstrong, Ph.D., M.P.A., is an Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology with joint affiliations in the Woodrow Wilson School and the Office of Population Research. Her research interests include public health, the history and sociology of medicine, risk in obstetrics, and medical ethics. She is currently conducting research on diseases and agenda-setting, and on fetal personhood and the evolution of obstetrical practice and ethics. She is the author or co-author of articles in Health Affairs, Social Science and Medicine, Journal of Marriage and the Family, International Family Planning Perspectives, and Studies in Family Planning and is the author of Conceiving Risk, Bearing Responsibility: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and the Diagnosis of Moral Disorder (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003). She was a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) Scholar in Health Policy Research at the University of Michigan from 1998 to 2000.

William H. Barth, Jr., M.D., is Chief of the Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Vincent Obstetrics and Gynecology Service at Massachusetts General Hospital and Associate Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology at Harvard Medical School. He is a past Chair of the Committee on Obstetric Practice at the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Before retiring as a Colonel in the United States Air Force in 2005, he served as Department Chair at Wilford Hall Medical Center, as Chief Consultant to the Surgeon General for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and as Commander of the 407th Expeditionary Medical Group in Iraq. He is an oral board examiner for the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology in both general obstetrics and gynecology and maternal-



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B Moderator and Speaker Biographical Sketches Elizabeth M. Armstrong, Ph.D., M.P.A., is an Associate Professor in the Depart­ ent of Sociology with joint affiliations in the Woodrow Wilson m School and the Office of Population Research. Her research interests in- clude public health, the history and sociology of medicine, risk in obstetrics, and medical ethics. She is currently conducting research on diseases and agenda-setting, and on fetal personhood and the evolution of obstetrical practice and ethics. She is the author or co-author of articles in Health ­Affairs, Social Science and Medicine, Journal of Marriage and the Family, International Family Planning Perspectives, and Studies in Family Planning and is the author of Conceiving Risk, Bearing Responsibility: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and the Diagnosis of Moral Disorder (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003). She was a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) Scholar in Health Policy Research at the University of Michigan from 1998 to 2000. William H. Barth, Jr., M.D., is Chief of the Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Vincent Obstetrics and Gynecology Service at Massachusetts General Hospital and Associate Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology at Harvard Medical School. He is a past Chair of the Committee on Obstetric Practice at the American College of Obstetri- cians and Gynecologists. Before retiring as a Colonel in the United States Air Force in 2005, he served as Department Chair at Wilford Hall Medi- cal Center, as Chief Consultant to the Surgeon General for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and as Commander of the 407th Expeditionary Medical Group in Iraq. He is an oral board examiner for the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology in both general obstetrics and gynecology and maternal- 173

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174 RESEARCH ISSUES IN THE ASSESSMENT OF BIRTH SETTINGS fetal medicine. His clinical practice and interests are in the areas of preterm birth, cervical insufficiency, multiple gestations, and intrapartum obstetrics. Debra Bingham, Dr.P.H., R.N., LCCE, is the Vice President of Research, Education, and Publications for the Association of Women’s Health, Ob- stetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN). Debra has more than 30 years’ experience in Maternal Child Health Nursing, a master’s degree in perinatal nursing from Columbia University, and a doctorate in Public Health from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Most of Dr. Bingham’s career has been spent working in hospital leadership positions at the front lines of health care. She has held the positions of Director of Maternal Child Health Nursing for two union hospitals in New York City and Man- ager of a large referral Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in New York City, a stand-alone birthing center in a small community hospital, and a fetal evaluation unit. Dr. Bingham has expertise in Quality Improvement (QI) and implementation science. She has led numerous QI inter-disciplinary ini- tiatives, co-developed measures of clinical quality that are endorsed by the National Quality Forum, and is an author of articles in peer reviewed jour- nals and of implementation toolkits. Dr. Bingham was the first Executive Director of the California Maternal Quality Care Collaborative where she helped form the California Pregnancy-Associated Mortality Review (CA- PAMR) committee, provided committee administrative oversight, helped devise the review methodology, performed data analysis, and served on the CA-PAMR committee. Laurie Cawthon, M.D., M.P.H., is a Public Health Epidemiologist in the Division of Research and Data Analysis (RDA), Washington State Depart- ment of Social and Health Services. She conducts research and program evaluation studies about the health and welfare of women and children in Washington state, with a focus on those receiving publicly funded medi- cal services. her specific areas of interest include maternity care and birth outcomes, health disparities, unintended pregnancy and family planning, early intervention, and chemical dependency during pregnancy. She has 20-plus years of experience in study design, data linkage, analysis, and op- erationalizing health measures with administrative data. She plays an active role on the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality–funded Center of Excellence on Quality of Care Measures for Children with Complex Needs (PI: Mangione-Smith). Dr. Cawthon is committed to improving the qual- ity of data used to evaluate health care services, and to improving medical care through multi-faceted quality improvement strategies. Prior to joining RDA, Dr. Cawthon worked in medical research in a variety of settings for more than 12 years. She received her M.D. and training in Public Health and Preventive Medicine from Oregon Health and Science University in

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APPENDIX B 175 1982 and 1989, respectively. She completed her M.P.H. degree in Health Services Administration (Maternal and Child Health Data Analytic track) at the University of Washington in 1993. Frank A. Chervenak, M.D., currently serves as the Given Foundation Pro- fessor and Chairman of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, as well as Obstetrician and Gynecologist-in-Chief and the Director of Mater- nal Fetal Medicine at the New York Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Medical College of Cornell University. Previous appointments include Associate Pro- fessor of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Director of Obstetric Ultrasound and Ethics at New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, Director of Maternal Fetal Medicine and Director of Obstetrics, Vice Chairman of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Chairman and Obstetrician and Gynecologist-in-Chief. He received his B.S. degree from the Pennsyl- vania State University and his M.D. from Thomas Jefferson University. Dr. Chervenak served his internship in Internal Medicine at New York Medical College, residency in Obstetrics and Gynecology at New York Medical Col- lege in St. Luke’s Roosevelt Hospital Center, and a fellowship in Maternal Fetal Medicine at Yale University School of Medicine. He was Assistant Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Mt. Sinai Medical Center, where he was also Director of Perinatal Research and received the Dr. Solomon Silver Award for application of advances in research to the practice of Clini- cal Medicine. He received his Master in Medical Management degree from Carnegie Mellon University in 2002 and earned fellowship status from the American College of Physician Executives in 2008. Dr. Chervenak has pub- lished more than 260 papers in peer review literature and has co-authored or co-edited 28 textbooks. Research interests include ultrasound and eth- ics in obstetrics and gynecology and physician leadership. Currently, Dr. Chervenak serves as President of the International Society of the Fetus as a Patient, Vice-president of the International Academy of Perinatal Medicine, and Co-director of The Ian Donald Inter-University School of Medicine and Ultrasound. He serves on the March of Dimes Bioethics Committee and Prematurity Research Advisory Committee. He has been named a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies. Dr. Cher- venak has been awarded honorary doctorates from universities around the world, as well as being an honorary member of many international societ- ies. He has been admitted as a fellow ad eundem of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Great Britain. Caitlin Cross-Barnet, Ph.D., is a Social Science Research Analyst at the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (CMMI) and an Associate at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. After a career as an English teacher, Dr. Cross-Barnet earned a Ph.D. in sociology from

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176 RESEARCH ISSUES IN THE ASSESSMENT OF BIRTH SETTINGS Johns Hopkins University. Her research centers around poverty, social in- equalities, and families, with a particular emphasis on mothers with young children. She conducted the qualitative evaluation of the Maryland WIC breastfeeding peer counseling program and currently serves on the board of the Maryland Breastfeeding Coalition. At CMMI, she conducts research on maternal-child health and coordinates the evaluation of the Strong Start for Mothers and Newborns initiative, which is an initiative to test models of care to prevent preterm birth in the high risk Medicaid population. Sherin U. Devaskar, M.D., is professor of pediatrics and executive chair of the Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Dr. Devaskar’s research fo- cuses on the long-term outcome of premature and growth-restricted babies, the nutrition they receive while in the womb and soon after birth, and the propensity of these babies to develop adult-onset conditions, including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and Alzheimer’s disease. She is a member of the National Advisory Child Health and Human Development Council at the National Institutes of Health and was chair of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal and Child Health Com- mittee and member of the NIH-Human and Embryology Study Section. She also served as president of the Mid-West Society for Pediatric Research. Dr. Devaskar has a particular interest in academic development and serves on multiple UCLA, national, and international committees. She served as president of the American Pediatric Society and chair of the Program Com- mittee for the Pediatric Academic Societies, and the American Pediatric Society Council. She was a member of the Perinatal-Neonatal Subsection of the American Board of Pediatrics. Dr. Devaskar served as the editor in chief of the Pediatric Research journal and is the editorial board member of the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism. She received an M.D. from the University of Madras Medical College. Catherine Dower, J.D., is an Associate Director at the University of Califor- nia, San Franciso, Center for the Health Professions where for more than 15 years she has led health professions’ research and policy efforts. At the Center, she directs the national Innovative Workforce Models in Health Care project and co-directs the Health Workforce Tracking Collaborative, which assesses health care workforce challenges including maldistribution, shortages and scopes of practice. She has also directed studies on midwifery in the United States, emerging professions, health care personnel in the military, allied health professions and new practice models in primary care and medical specialties. She co-directed the Pew Health Professions Com- mission’s national Taskforce on Health Care Workforce Regulation and was a principal author of its reports on health professions regulation. She

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APPENDIX B 177 served on the Committee of the RWJF Initiative on the Future of Nursing at the IOM and on the National Commission for Certifying Agencies. She received her undergraduate and law degrees from the University of Cali- fornia, Berkeley, and is licensed to practice law in the state of California. Kimberly D. Gregory, M.D., M.P.H., is Vice Chair of Women’s Healthcare Quality and Performance Improvement at Cedars-Sinai. She has been af- filiated with the Medical Center since 1992. Dr. Gregory is also a Profes- sor at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Department of Community Health Sciences. Board-certified in obstetrics and gynecology and maternal-fetal medicine, Dr. Gregory has received grants to investigate her research interests in measuring maternal health care quality, developing maternal quality indicators, patient safety, obstetrical healthcare utilization, cesarean section rates and appropriate- ness, and complications of labor and delivery, such as maternal mortality and other morbidities such as uterine rupture and shoulder dystocia. Dr. Gregory has written articles for numerous peer-reviewed publications, such as the American Journal of Public Health, Obstetrics & Gynecology, and the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. She is a member of several professional organizations, including the National Medical Associa- tion, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), and the Society of Maternal Fetal Medicine. Dr. Gregory has served or been appointed to various leadership positions including but not limited to the U.S. Public Health Services Prevention Task Force, the IOM Committee on Preventive Services for Women, the Board of Directors for the Society of Maternal Fetal Medicine, regional Section Chair ACOG, and numerous health and public policy committees at both the state and national level including California Department Health Services Maternal Quality of Care Collaborative (CMQCC) Maternal Mortality Review, the Maternal Quality Indicator Working Group, and the American Medical Association Physi- cian Consortium Performance Indicator Work Group, and the National Quality Forum. Dr. Gregory received her bachelor’s degree from UCLA and her medical degree from Charles Drew University School of Medicine and Science. She completed her internship and residency in Obstetrics and Gynecology at Beth Israel Hospital in Boston and her fellowship in Maternal-Fetal Medicine at Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center. Dr. Gregory received her M.P.H. from Harvard School of Public Health. Brady E. Hamilton, Ph.D., is a statistician (demographer) in the Repro- ductive Statistics Branch at National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). He is part of a team

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178 RESEARCH ISSUES IN THE ASSESSMENT OF BIRTH SETTINGS responsible for the production and analysis of NCHS’ national dataset of births and has authored reports on an extensive number of fertility-related topics, including childbearing patterns by maternal age, sex ratio at birth, delayed childbearing, and cohort fertility patterns. Isadora Hare, M.S.W., LCSW, is the Perinatal Health Specialist in the M­ ternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Admin- a istration (HRSA), where she has worked for the last 13 years. Since 2008 she has been the project officer for the HRSA comprehensive resource kit The Business Case for Breastfeeding: Steps for Creating a Breastfeeding- Friendly Worksite, and provided oversight for a 3-year training and techni- cal assistance project in 30 states to equip state breastfeeding coalitions and Healthy Start sites to introduce the kit to businesses. Subsequently, she was part of the Steering Committee for the Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding. She has also worked on perinatal issues such as perinatal mental health problems and community-based doula programs in rural areas, and worked for many years for the National Association of Social Workers and the American Psychological Association. An M.S.W. graduate from South Africa, she is a member of the National Association of Social Workers Foundation’s Social Work Pioneers and has served on the Board of Social Work Examiners for the state of Maryland. She has more than 40 publications and has made numerous presentations on social policy and children’s health issues both across the United States and inter- nationally, including several at conferences of the International Federation of Social Workers. Maxine Hayes, M.D., M.P.H., is the state health officer for the Washing- ton State Department of Health. A native of Jackson, Mississippi, she has resided in Washington State for nearly 30 years. As the state’s top public health doctor, her role includes advising the governor and the secretary of health on issues ranging from health promotion and chronic disease prevention to emergency response. A board certified pediatrician with a master’s in public health, her passion and main interest is assuring every child has a healthy start in life. Dr. Hayes is considered one of our nation’s top maternal child health experts and is the recipient of many awards and honors for her work in this field. She is a clinical professor of pediatrics at the University of Washington School of Medicine, member of the faculty at the University of Washington School of Public Health, fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics, and member of the IOM. Zsakeba Henderson, M.D., is a Medical Officer in the Maternal and Infant Health Branch in the Division of Reproductive Health at the CDC. She is an obstetrician-gynecologist and leads the Division’s activities in support of

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APPENDIX B 179 state-based perinatal quality improvement collaboratives, which currently provides support to statewide collaboratives in California, New York, and Ohio. In this position she also provides clinical input into the develop- ment of the research agenda for the Maternal and Infant Health Branch, including activities in preterm birth, breastfeeding, and pregnancy-related mortality. She also serves as the Division’s Liaison to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Health Care for Under- served Women, and a breastfeeding advocate and educator for the Georgia Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Dr. Henderson received her B.S. degree in biochemistry from Oakwood University in Huntsville, Alabama, and her medical degree from Harvard Medical School in Bos- ton, Massachusetts. She then completed her internship and residency at Brigham and Women’s Hospital/Massachusetts General Hospital Integrated Residency Program in Obstetrics and Gynecology, also in Boston. She sub- sequently entered the Epidemic Intelligence Service at the CDC, where she worked in the Division of STD Prevention in the Health Services Research and Evaluation Branch. Her interests include prevention of preterm birth, perinatal care quality improvement, and the role of the obstetrician-gyne- cologist in promoting and supporting breastfeeding. Ellen Hodnett, R.N., Ph.D., FCAHS, is a full professor in the Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing at the University of Toronto. Dr. Hodnett’s research program focuses on rigorous evaluations of forms of care for child- bearing women and on the effects of the health care environment on health outcomes. She was an editor for the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group of the Cochrane Collaboration, and a member of the Scientific and Technical Advisory Group of the World Health Organization (WHO) Maternal and Reproductive Health Research Program. Dr. Hodnett is a fellow of the Ca- nadian Academy of Health Sciences. She received a Ph.D. in medical science from the University of Toronto. Holly Powell Kennedy, Ph.D., CNM, FACNM, FAAN, is the current Presi- dent of the American College of Nurse-Midwives and is the inaugural Helen Varney Professor of Midwifery at Yale University School of Nursing. Her research includes numerous studies exploring specific maternity care models and their relationship to health outcomes. She completed a clinical trial of Centering Pregnancy, a group model of prenatal care, in two military settings. She is on the faculty of King’s College London where she was a Fulbright Distinguished Scholar during 2008 studying the National Health Service (NHS) efforts to decrease the national cesarean rate, specifically examining place of birth and models of care. She received her midwifery education from the Frontier School of Midwifery & Family Nursing, her master’s degree from the Medical College of Georgia as a family nurse

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180 RESEARCH ISSUES IN THE ASSESSMENT OF BIRTH SETTINGS practitioner, and her doctoral degree from the University of Rhode Island. She is a retired Colonel in the U.S. Army Reserve. She has practiced in nu- merous settings, including rural health, community and tertiary hospitals, and in academic practices. Marian MacDorman, Ph.D., is a senior statistician and researcher in the Reproductive Statistics Branch at the NCHS, CDC. Her research interests include home and out-of-hospital birth, cesarean section, induction of labor, preterm birth, infant, fetal and perinatal mortality, race and ethnic differences, and international comparisons. Elliott Main, M.D., has been the Director of the California Maternal Qual- ity Care Collaborative since its formation in 2005 and has chaired the Cali- fornia Maternal Mortality Review Committee since its inception in 2006. Dr. Main currently serves on multiple national committees on Maternal Quality Measurement including National Quality Forum, ACOG, Ameri- can Medical Association–convened Physician Consortium for Performance Improvement and the Joint Commission. He also co-chairs the national ACOG and NCHS project-“reVITALize” to standardize maternity defini- tions for quality measurement and birth certificates. He has co-authored two national Maternity Quality Improvement Toolkits on Obstetric Hem- orrhage and Elective Delivery Less than 39 Weeks Gestation. Dr. Main is a Clinical Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology both at the University of California, San Francisco, and at Stanford University. He has authored numerous peer reviewed articles and textbook chapters focused on medical complications in pregnancy, quality measurement in maternity care, and maternal mortality. Since 1998, he has been the Chairman of the Depart- ment of Obstetrics and Gynecology of California Pacific Medical Center in San Francisco. Over the past 10 years he has also chaired Obstetric Quality for Sutter Health’s 20 hospitals and led quality improvement projects. M. Kathryn Menard, M.D., M.P.H., is UpJohn Distinguished Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vice Chair for Obstetrics and Director of the Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine at the University of North Carolina’s ­ School of Medicine, appointed in 2006. Dr. Menard completed her resi- dency training in Obstetrics and Gynecology at the Hospital of the Univer- sity of Pennsylvania before pursuing fellowship at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill. She was the first OB/GYN at UNC to be selected as an RWJF Clinical Scholar. While a fellow and RWJF Clinical Scholar she completed a master’s degree in public health, focusing on clinical epidemiology, preconception health, and fetal and infant mortality review. After completing fellowship training, she served on faculty at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC). Dr. Menard was a consultant to the

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APPENDIX B 181 SC Department of Health and was instrumental in strengthening the system for perinatal regionalization in the state, to ensure risk appropriate care for mothers and neonates. Dr. Menard’s interest in health systems and service efficiency led her to serve for 4 years as MUSC’s Chief Medical Officer and Associate Dean for faculty practice prior to returning to UNC in 2006. Dr. Menard is recognized for her inclusive leadership style with an unusual ability to bring diverse perspectives together, promote collaboration, and find synergy. She serves on the Executive Committee of the Society for Maternal Fetal Medicine as the immediate past president. She provides the clinical leadership for development and implementation of North Carolina’s Pregnancy Medical Home initiative, a program designed to provide compre- hensive, coordinated maternity care for pregnant Medicaid recipients. She ­ is a co-lead for Maternal Child Health Bureau’s Collaborative Innovation Network (COIN) to reduce infant mortality through strengthening region- alization, including an emphasis on risk appropriate maternal care. She is also co-chair of the ACOG’s ReVITALize initiative to develop and help gain adoption of standardized clinical data definitions in obstetrics. She serves an examiner for the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ABOG). Kathleen Nolan, M.P.H., joined the staff of the National Association of Medicaid Directors (NAMD) within 6 months of that organization’s launch. At NAMD, Ms. Nolan manages a growing portfolio of state tech- nical assistance on a range of policy and programmatic issues relevant to Medicaid directors. Prior to NAMD, Ms. Nolan worked for 7 years as Director of the Health Division in the National Governors Association’s Center for Best Practices. As Division Director, Ms. Nolan led efforts to support implementation of best practices on health care issues facing states, including health care reform, Medicaid, health information technology, and public health programs. Ms. Nolan also held health policy positions with the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials and the IOM. Before moving to Washington, Ms. Nolan served as a Program Specialist in the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. Kathleen received her M.P.H. from the George Washington University, and her B.A. in psychology from Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. Nigel Paneth, M.D., M.P.H., is a pediatrician and perinatal and child health epidemiologist with a particular interest in the causes and prevention of childhood neurodevelopmental handicap, especially cerebral palsy. After training in pediatrics at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York City from 1972 to 1976, and receiving his M.P.H. in epidemiology from Columbia University in 1978, he began his academic career at Co- lumbia in 1978 with a joint appointment in Epidemiology and Pediatrics centered in the newly established Sergievsky Center, a research unit created

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182 RESEARCH ISSUES IN THE ASSESSMENT OF BIRTH SETTINGS to examine the etiology of epilepsy and other brain disorders. There he con- ducted studies of the relationship of perinatal medical care to patterns of fe- tal and infant mortality, particularly in premature infants. Dr. Paneth came to the College of Human Medicine at Michigan State University in 1989 to develop a Program in Epidemiology. The program became a department in 1997, with Dr. Paneth serving from 1997 to 2002 as its first chair. He also served as Associate Dean for Research of the College from 2000 to 2006. From 1996 to 1999, Dr. Paneth led an AHRQ-funded international study of low-birth-weight outcomes (Canada, Germany, Holland, Jamaica, and the United States). Dr. Paneth currently serves as principal investigator of the Michigan Alliance for the National Children Study (NCS), a consor- tium of Michigan institutions (Michigan State University, the University of Michigan, Wayne State University, the Henry Ford Health Center, and the Michigan Department of Community Health) that will conduct the NCS in the five Michigan counties that are among 105 NCS locations around the nation. Karen Pelote, M.S.N., CNM, offers the perfect blend of experience and passion to the Family Health and Birth Center in Washington, DC, as the Clinical Manager. Her education at the University of Maryland for both Bachelors of Science in Nursing and Certified Nurse Midwife (CNM) as well as her nearly two decades of as a labor and delivery nurse and 7 years as a CNM have prepared her well. As a former staff member at Washington Hospital Center, she developed lasting relationships which will advance the partnership between the hospital and the birth center. She understands the most important things to the families who place their faith and trust in her and her staff. They count on getting the best advice and care pos- sible because every decision that they bring to the Birth Center can have a profound impact for a lifetime. A dedicated mother of 6 children, she has experienced births in both hospitals and birth centers. She strives every day to make the clinic a place where others can be cared for with excellence and compassion. Her mission is to grow Community of Hope’s Family Health and Birth Center in its reputation for providing quality and caring health services to the entire Washington, DC community, including many who are often overlooked in the area of specialized women’s health care services. Brynne Potter, CPM, has worked in the field of midwifery since 1991 and has attended home births as a primary midwife for more than 10 years. She is also a member of the North American Registry of Midwives (NARM) Board of Directors, the credentialing agency that oversees the Certified Pro- fessional Midwife (CPM) credential through setting of standards for testing, accountability, and recertification. She is a member of the U.S.-Midwifery Education Regulation and Association (U.S.-MERA) workgroup, an effort

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APPENDIX B 183 to align professional strategies for education and regulation of U.S. mid- wives. She served as a member of the Steering Committee for the Midwives and Mothers in Action Campaign, a coalition effort to pass federal recogni- tion of the CPM. She was a midwife delegate to the Home Birth Consensus Summit (HBCS) in 2011 and is the Chair of the Legislation and Regulation Task Force of the HBCS. She is co-author on a paper in draft that describes the demographic, education, and practice characteristics of CPMs in the United States in 2011. In 2010, she founded Private Practice, an award- winning, patient-centered technology platform for charting and commu- nication utilized by more than 20 percent of out of hospital providers in the United States. She was one of a few electronic health record vendors to participate as a delegate at the 2012 ACOG-sponsored Revitalize confer- ence on Maternity Data Definitions. She also presented Private Practice’s patient engagement and data integration features at the IOM-sponsored Health Data Initiative Forum as one of the top Health Information Tech- nology Innovations of 2012. Thomas C. Ricketts, Ph.D., M.P.H., is professor of health policy and administration at the School of Global Public Health, professor of social medicine in the School of Medicine, and deputy director of the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Research at UNC at Chapel Hill. He is currently a commissioner of the National Health Care Workforce Commission. From 2001 to 2010, Dr. Ricketts chaired the Scientific Advisory Committee for the United Health Foundation’s America’s Health Rankings. In 2008 he was appointed to the Secretary of Veterans’ Affairs Rural Advisory Committee. He works with the American College of Surgeons Health Policy Research Institute focusing on the future supply of surgeons and access to surgical care. Dr. Ricketts served as editor of the North Carolina Medical Journal from 2006 until 2012, having previously served as editor of the Journal of Rural Health from 1990 until 1996. He received an M.P.H. and Ph.D. from UNC at Chapel Hill where he was a Morehead Scholar. Jeannette A. Rogowski, Ph.D., is university professor in health economics in the Department of Health Systems and Policy at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey School of Public Health. She is also a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. Dr. Rogowski has extensive experience studying the economics of the health care system. She has published numerous peer-reviewed articles on health care use and expenditures by vulnerable populations, health insurance, and health care financing issues. Her published work has appeared in leading professional journals such as the Journal of the American Medical Association, Pedi- atrics, the Journal of Health Economics, and Health Services Research. She has served on numerous national advisory committees, including the

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184 RESEARCH ISSUES IN THE ASSESSMENT OF BIRTH SETTINGS IOM Committee on Understanding Premature Birth and Assuring Healthy Outcomes and the National Advisory Committee for the RWJF Investiga- tor Awards in Health Policy. She received a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Diane L. Rowley, M.D., M.P.H., is a professor of the practice of public health in the Department of Maternal and Child Health, Gillings School of Global Public Health at UNC at Chapel Hill. Dr. Rowley has a history of addressing health disparities in maternal and child health—first as a leader of key programs at the CDC and later as the director of the Research Cen- ter in Health Disparities at Morehouse College. Her current work is with existing community-based organizations and women in the community to develop a workgroup that will generate a strategy for delivering intercon- ceptional care. The workgroup combines the results of EDIC (Eliminating Disparities in Interconceptional Care) with community knowledge of the local health care delivery system and community assets into a model for intervening on the underlying social factors that inhibit participation in interconceptional care. Her work uses community participatory research methods to test the model. She received an M.D. from Meharry Medical College and an M.P.H. from the Harvard School of Public Health. Benjamin P. Sachs, M.D., B.S., DPH, FACOG, is professor of obstetrics and gynecology at Tulane University. Dr. Sachs served as senior vice president and dean of the School of Medicine at Tulane University from 2007 to July 2013. Before joining Tulane in November 2007, Dr. Sachs held several s ­enior administrative positions at Harvard Medical School and the Beth I ­srael Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), including chief of the Depart- ment of Obstetrics and Gynecology; Harold H. Rosenfield professor of ob- stetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology; and president of the BIDMC Physician Organization, an organization of 1,500 physicians for three terms. While at Harvard, Dr. Sachs helped create the research team that discovered the probable cause of preeclampsia, one of the leading causes of maternal and infant mortality and morbidity worldwide. The team also developed a new diagnostic test that is currently being evaluated in the United States and internationally by WHO. This research has been widely published, including in the Journal of the American Medical Association, the New England Journal of Medicine, the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Nature Medicine, and the New Yorker. Known internationally for his work in improving patient care and reducing medical errors, Dr. Sachs’ team at BIDMC received the John M. Eisenberg Patient Safety and Quality award from the National Quality Forum and the Joint Commission in 2007. He received a bachelor of medicine/­ achelor of surgery degree from St. Mary’s b

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APPENDIX B 185 Hospital Medical School (now known as Imperial College London) and the Diploma of Public Health degree from the University of Toronto. Dr. Sachs is a Fellow of ACOG. Carol Sakala, Ph.D., M.S.P.H., is director of programs at Childbirth Con- nection, which works to improve the quality and value of maternity care through consumer engagement and health system transformation. She works across the continuum of clinical effectiveness activities, including pri- mary data research, systematic reviews, performance measurement, clinical practice guidelines, and consumer decision aids. Dr. Sakala is the lead au- thor of the Milbank Report Evidence-Based Maternity Care: What It Is and What It Can Achieve and of a forthcoming report on Maternity Care and Liability. She is a co-investigator of the continuing series of national Listen- ing to Mothers surveys. Engaging stakeholders from across the health care system, Dr. Sakala helped create two direction-setting consensus reports: “2020 Vision for a High-Quality, High-Value Maternity Care System” and “Blueprint for Action.” Her current work focuses on implementing priority Blueprint recommendations within Childbirth Connection’s Transforming Maternity Care project to improve the system that provides maternity care to the nation’s women, newborns, and families. She was a Pew Health Policy Fellow at Boston University, which awarded her doctorate, and she received an M.S.P.H. degree from the University of Utah. Jane Sandall, Ph.D., M.Sc., B.Sc., RM, HV, RN, is Professor of Social Science and Women’s Health in the Division of Women’s Health, King’s C ­ ollege, London. She leads the Maternal Health Services and Policy Re- search Group, has a clinical background in Midwifery and is a trained Social Scientist. She is Associate Editor of Midwifery and Adjunct Profes- sor University of Technology, Sydney and of the University of Iceland. She has led a work programme in the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) King’s Patient Safety and Service Quality Research Centre, which looked at (a) the exploration of the management of escalation of care in medical and maternity settings, and the implementation of rapid response systems; (b) compared measures of organisational and safety culture with quality of care in perinatal care; and (c) the contribution of women and families to patient safety. Her research programme on the organization and delivery of maternal health care includes cohort and qualitative case s ­tudies on the organisation, delivery and outcome of birth in different settings (Birthplace in England Research Programme), the efficient use of the maternity workforce and the implications for safety and quality in ­ maternity care in England, and Cochrane Reviews on Midwife-led care and antenatal preparation. Her research has been funded by the Economic

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186 RESEARCH ISSUES IN THE ASSESSMENT OF BIRTH SETTINGS and Social Research Council, Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, NIHR, and a range of charitable sources. Research findings have informed the UK government commission on Nursing and Midwifery, House of Com- mons Health Committee on Inequalities, NHS London, and U.S., Brazilian, and Australian reviews of maternity services. William Shrank, M.D., M.S.H.S., is the Director of Rapid-Cycle Evalua- tion at the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation at the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). He leads the evaluation of all payment and health-system delivery reform programs supported by the Innovation Center as well as all congressionally mandated demonstration programs. He developed the rapid-cycle strategy to promote continuous quality improvement and rapid spread of effective programs while main- taining scientific rigor. He also oversees the intramural research enterprise for CMS. Dr. Shrank is serving as part-time faculty in the Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics at Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH). At BWH, Dr. Shrank’s research is focused on evaluating quality in pharmacologic care, enhancing adherence to chronic medications, and improving prescription drug labels. He was the founder and principal investigator of the CVS Caremark Harvard Partnership for Improving Medication Adherence, a multi-disciplinary research initiative to improve how patients take medication, as well as the Pharmacy Care Research In- stitute, also funded by CVS Caremark. He received a career development award from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health to evaluate interventions to improve rational prescrib- ing in cardiovascular disease, and a Pioneer Award from the RWJF to study the effect of labeling on medication use. He has published more than 100 articles in the peer-reviewed literature focusing on prescription drug use. Dr. Shrank serves or has served on national advisory committees for the FDA, CMS, HHS, AHRQ, the Society of General Internal Medicine, the American College of Physicians Foundation, and the U.S. Pharmacopeia. He attended Brown University, received his M.D. from Cornell University, and did his residency training in Internal Medicine at Georgetown Uni- versity. He served on the clinical faculty in General Internal Medicine at University of Colorado Health Sciences Center before finishing a health services research fellowship at UCLA, Rand, and the West Los Angeles VA Hospital where he earned an M.S. in Health Services from UCLA. Until 2011, he practiced general internal medicine at BWH. Patrick Simpson, M.P.H., is a program officer at the W.K. Kellogg Foun- dation in Battle Creek, Michigan. As a member of the Food, Health, and Well-Being team, Patrick serves as a convener, collaborator, and catalyst, re- sponsible for nurturing opportunities for affecting positive systemic change

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APPENDIX B 187 in communities, and executing programming efforts aligned with the foun- dation’s mission. He focuses on funding opportunities that enable the founda­ion to make progress in ensuring that all children can grow and t thrive by having love, good parenting, high-quality food, physical activ- ity, interaction with nature and access to healthcare. Prior to joining the F ­ oundation in 2010, Patrick spent nearly 15 years with CityMatCH in Omaha, Nebraska, an organization focusing on maternal and child health needs in U.S. urban areas. He held positions including executive direc- tor (2007-2010); director of operations (2002-2007); program and policy manager (1998-2002); and project coordinator, policy and research (1996- 1998). Since 2007, he has also been an instructor of child health policy at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics. He holds a bachelor’s degree in biology from University of Nebraska-Omaha and a master’s in public health from the University of Alabama at Birming- ham. The W.K. Kellogg Foundation, established in 1930, supports children, f ­amilies, and communities as they strengthen and create conditions that propel vulnerable children to achieve success as individuals and as contribu- tors to the larger community and society. Grants are concentrated in the United States, southern Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Catherine Spong, M.D., is the Director, Division of Extramural Research at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), NIH, a position she was appointed to in September 2012. Prior to this she was the Chief of the Pregnancy and Perinatology Branch at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver NICHD, NIH, a position she held since January 2001. Dr. Spong oversees the Institute’s extramural research programs and manages scientific activities in maternal and child health, family health and well-being, and medical rehabilitation. The Institute’s extramural research activities include more than 3,100 projects and involve 130 staff members. In addition to serving as the NICHD Director’s prin- cipal advisor on extramural scientific and policy issues, Dr. Spong will be the Executive Secretary of the National Advisory Child Health and Human Development Council. Dr. Spong received B.A.s in biology and chemistry and her M.D. from the University of Missouri-Kansas City medical School’s Six Year Medical Program in 1991. Her research interests focus on mater- nal and child health, emphasizing prematurity and fetal complications. In her position as Program Scientist for the NICHD Maternal Fetal Medicine Units Network, a network of 14 sites in the United States that performs clinical trials in high-risk pregnancies and for the Management of Myelo- meningocele Study, the maternal-fetal surgery trial on the management of Myelomeningocele, Dr. Spong oversaw many advances that resulted in changes in clinical practice. In addition, Dr. Spong is interested in the de-

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188 RESEARCH ISSUES IN THE ASSESSMENT OF BIRTH SETTINGS veloping fetus and neuroprotective agents to prevent fetal injury for which she is the holder of several patents. Susan Rutledge Stapleton, D.N.P., CNM, FACNM, founded the Reading Birth & Women’s Center in Reading, Pennsylvania, and was director of that practice for 25 years, attending births in a freestanding birth center, the hospital and mothers’ homes. She is President of the Commission for the Accreditation of Birth Centers, the national accrediting body for birth centers in the United States. She is also Chair of the Research Committee of the American Association of Birth Centers (AABC), and headed the task force to develop the online AABC Perinatal Data Registry. She was primary investigator for a recently published multicenter, prospective study of the midwifery-led collaborative model of maternity care in U.S. birth centers. Esther M. Sternberg, M.D., is a major force in mind-body-stress-wellness and environment inter-relationships. Author of best-selling Healing Spaces: The Science of Place and Well-Being (2009) and The Balance Within: The Science Connecting Health and Emotions (2000), creator and host of PBS television’s The Science of Healing, Dr. Sternberg is recognized by the Na- tional Library of Medicine as 1 of 300 women physicians who changed the face of medicine, and by NIH as Anita B. Roberts “Distinguished Women Scientists at NIH” lecturer. In 2011 Trinity College, Dublin awarded her a Doctorate Honoris Causa (Honorary Doctorate) in Medicine for her contributions to medicine, on the occasion of the 300th Anniversary of the founding of Trinity College School of Medicine. Currently Research Director for the Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine at the University of Arizona, at Tucson, Dr. Sternberg was previously Section Chief of Neu- roendocrine Immunology and Behavior at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH); Director of the Integrative Neural Immune Program, NIMH/NIH; and Co-Chair of the NIH Intramural Program on Research on Women’s Health. Kristi Watterberg, M.D., is a Professor of Pediatrics at the University of New Mexico (UNM). She served as Chief of the Division of Neonatol- ogy from 2006 to 2011, and is now the Director of the UNM Signature Program in Child Health Research. Dr. Watterberg completed her Pediatric and Neonatology training at UNM in 1985 and served on the UNM fac- ulty until 1988. Subsequently, she was a faculty member at the Hershey Medical Center of The Pennsylvania State University, returning to UNM in 2000. Her primary research interests are adrenal function in the fetus and newborn infant and the pathogenesis and prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Pursuing these interests, Dr. Watterberg has received fed- eral funding for observational and interventional studies exploring the re-

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APPENDIX B 189 lationships between prenatal and postnatal inflammation, adrenal function and the development of BPD. In 2001, she received funding from NICHD for a multicenter trial entitled, Prophylaxis of early adrenal insufficiency to prevent BPD. Dr. Watterberg is the Principal Investigator at New Mexico for the NICHD Neonatal Research Network, which has multiple ongoing observational and interventional studies. She was a member of the Com- mittee on Fetus and Newborn of the American Academy of Pediatrics from 2006 to 2012, and was lead author for the committee statements on the use of postnatal steroids to prevent or treat BPD (published) and planned home birth (in process). Dr. Watterberg is an author on more than 60 peer- reviewed publications, serves on NIH peer review panels, and is a member of the Society for Pediatric Research and the American Pediatric Society.

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