Preparing the
Next Generation
of Earth Scientists


Committee on Trends and Opportunities in Federal Earth Science Education and
Workforce Development

Board on Earth Sciences and Resources

Division on Earth and Life Studies



Washington, D.C.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

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Committee on Trends and Opportunities in Federal Earth Science Education and Workforce Development Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The project described in this publication was supported by Grant/Cooperative Agreement Number G11AP20216 from the U.S. Geological Survey. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the USGS. International Standard Book Number-13:  978-0-309-28747-0 International Standard Book Number-10:  0-309-28747-2 Cover: Photo strip: Students learning about geology in the field. (Left) Mammoth Cave National Park, National Association of Geoscience Teachers (; (Center and Right) Cedar Breaks National Monument, National Park Service. Background image: Copyright by Michael Dudzik. Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advis- ing the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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COMMITTEE ON TRENDS AND OPPORTUNITIES IN FEDERAL EARTH SCIENCE EDUCATION AND WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT ARTHUR GOLDSTEIN, Chair, Bridgewater State University, Bridgewater, Massachusetts PRANOTI ASHER, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C. SUSAN E. COZZENS, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta CATHRYN A. MANDUCA, Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota ERIC J. PYLE, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia ERIC M. RIGGS, Texas A&M University, College Station KARL TUREKIAN, emeritus, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (deceased March 2013) LISA D. WHITE, University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley National Research Council Staff ANNE M. LINN, Study Director, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Program Officer, Ocean Studies Board ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources v

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BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES CORALE L. BRIERLEY, Chair, Brierley Consultancy LLC, Highlands Ranch, Colorado WILLIAM E. DIETRICH, University of California, Berkeley WILLIAM. L. GRAF, University of South Carolina, Columbia RUSSELL J. HEMLEY, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C. MURRAY W. HITZMAN, Colorado School of Mines, Golden EDWARD KAVAZANJIAN, Jr., Arizona State University, Tempe DAVID R. MAIDMENT, The University of Texas, Austin ROBERT B. McMASTER, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis M. MEGHAN MILLER, UNAVCO, Inc., Boulder, Colorado ISABEL P. MONTAÑEZ, University of California, Davis CLAUDIA INÉS MORA, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico BRIJ M. MOUDGIL, University of Florida, Gainesville CLAYTON R. NICHOLS, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (retired), Ocean Park, Washington HENRY N. POLLACK, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor DAVID T. SANDWELL, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla PETER M. SHEARER, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla REGINAL SPILLER, Azimuth Investments LLC, Texas TERRY C. WALLACE, Jr., Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico National Research Council Staff ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Director ANNE M. LINN, Senior Program Officer SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Senior Program Officer MARK D. LANGE, Program Officer NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Financial and Research Associate COURTNEY R. GIBBS, Program Associate ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant CHANDA IJAMES, Senior Program Assistant vi

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Acknowledgments T his report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspec- tives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participa- tion in the review of this report: Matthew Dawson, The Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado Elizabeth Day-Miller, BridgeWater Education Consulting, LLC, Bridgewater, Virginia Lisa Grant Ludwig, University of California, Irvine Mitchell Leverette, Bureau of Land Management, Washington, D.C. Roger Levine, American Institutes of Research, retired, Redwood City, California R. Heather MacDonald, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia Camille McKayle, University of the Virgin Islands, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and sugges- tions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by George M. Horn- berger, Vanderbilt University, and Katherine H. Freeman, Pennsylvania State University. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. vii

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Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 9 Committee Approach, 11 Earth Science Knowledge and Skills Identified in NRC Workforce Reports, 11 Organization of the Report, 12 2 FEDERAL EARTH SCIENCE EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAMS 13 Legislative Authorities for STEM Education, 13 Federal Education Programs Considered in This Report, 14 Summary, 18 3 A PROGRAM FRAMEWORK 19 Framework Concept, 20 Developing a System Approach, 24 Critical Incidents and Pathways Through the Framework, 25 Summary and Conclusions, 27 4 PROGRAM EVALUATION 29 Using Logic Models for Evaluation, 29 Agency Program Evaluation, 31 Program Evaluation in the Context of the Framework, 32 System-Level Evaluation, 38 Summary and Conclusions, 38 5 BROADENING THE PARTICIPATION OF UNDERREPRESENTED GROUPS 41 Increasing the Participation of Underrepresented Minorities, 41 Improving the Success of Diversity Programs, 43 ix

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x CONTENTS Increasing the Participation of Women in Earth Science Education, 45 Leveraging Education Efforts to Improve Recruitment of Underrepresented Groups, 46 Summary and Conclusions, 48 REFERENCES 51 APPENDIXES A Legislative Authorities 55 B Workshop Agenda 61 C Workshop Participants 65 D Program Evaluation Information Provided by the Agencies 67 E Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 79 F Acronyms and Abbreviations 83