URBAN FORESTRY

Toward an Ecosystem Services Research Agenda

A WORKSHOP SUMMARY

Katie Thomas and Laurie Geller, Rapporteurs

Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
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UR AN F RESTRY RBA FOR Y Towa an Ecosystem Services Resear Agend ard m s rch da A WORKS SUMM SHOP MARY Kat Thom and Laurie Ge tie mas L eller, Rap pporteurs s Board on Atmosphe Sciences and C eric Climate Division on Ea and L Studie arth Life es THE NATIONA ACADEM E AL MIES PRESS S Wash hington, D.C C. ww ww.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the United States Forest Service under Grant # 11-DG- 11132650-325 and the National Science Foundation under Award # DEB-1238526. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsoring agency or any of its subagencies. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-28758-6 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-28758-8 Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334- 3313; http://www.nap.edu/ . Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The Natio onal Academy of Science is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetua es ating society of distinguish hed scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, de d g edicated to tthe furtheranc of science and technolo and to the use for the general welfare. Upon t ce ogy eir e the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congr o r ress in 1863, the Academy has a manda y ate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. D t c Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is pre C esident of the National Acaddemy of Scien nces. The Natio onal Academy of Engineering was estab y blished in 19 64, under the charter of t e the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel org A S ganization of outstanding e engineers. It is t autonomo in its adm ous ministration and in the selection of its members, sh a haring with tthe National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising t federal go A S r the overnment. TThe National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aim A a med at meeting national needs, enco ourages educ cation and research, and recognizes the superi r d s ior achievemeents of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the Nation Academy of nal Engineerin ng. The Institu of Medicin was established in 1970 by the Natio ute ne 0 onal Academy of Sciences to y secure the services of eminent mem e mbers of appropriate professsions in the examination of policy ma atters pertainning to the health of the public. T he Institute acts under t h e the responsibiility given to the National Academy of Sciences by it congression charter to be t A S ts nal an advise to the fede er eral governme and, upon its own in itiative, to id ent dentify issues of medical care, research, and educatio Dr. Harv V. Fineber is president of the Institu c , on. vey rg t ute of Medicinne. The Natio onal Research Council wa organized by the Nation Academy of Sciences in h as b nal y 1916 to associate the broad comm a munity of science and tech hnology with the Academy y’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal g a government. Functioning in accordanc with genera policies det ce al termined by the Academy, the Council has become t t the principal operating age ency of both the National Academy of Sciences an the Nation l f nd nal Academy of Engineering in providing services to the gover rnment, the ppublic, and tthe scientific and engineering commun nities. The Council is ad dministered j jointly by booth Academie and the Inst es titute of Medic cine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D Mote, Jr., a e D. are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Couuncil. www.nati onal-academies.o org

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COMMITTEE ON ESTIMATING THE ECOSYSTEM BENEFITS OF URBAN FORESTRY: A WORKSHOP GARY G. ALLEN (Chair), Center for Chesapeake Communities, Annapolis, Maryland MARINA ALBERTI, University of Washington, Seattle MOLLY BROWN, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland MARIE O’NEILL, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor S. T. RAO, North Carolina State University, Raleigh KENNETH POTTER, University of Wisconsin, Madison NRC Staff: LAURIE GELLER, Senior Program Officer KATIE THOMAS, Associate Program Officer DANIEL MUTH, Postdoctoral Fellow (until December 2012) SHELLY FREELAND, Senior Program Assistant v

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BOARD ON ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES AND CLIMATE ANTONIO J. BUSALACCHI, JR. (Chair), University of Maryland GERALD A. MEEHL (Vice Chair), National Center for Atmospheric Research LANCE F. BOSART, State University of New York RICHARD (RIT) CARBONE, National Center for Atmospheric Research SHUYI S. CHEN, University of Miami KIRSTIN DOW, University of South Carolina PAMELA EMCH, Northrup Grumman Aerospace Systems LISA GODDARD, Columbia University ISAAC HELD, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ANTHONY JANETOS, University of Maryland JOHN E. KUTZBACH, University of Wisconsin-Madison ARTHUR LEE, Chevron ROBERT J. LEMPERT, The RAND Corporation STEPHEN W. PACALA, Princeton University ARISTIDES A.N. PATRINOS, New York University RAYMOND T. PIERREHUMBERT, The University of Chicago KIMBERLY PRATHER, University of California, San Diego RICH RICHELS, Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. DAVID A. ROBINSON, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey JOHN T. SNOW, The University of Oklahoma CLAUDIA TEBALDI, Climate Central XUBIN ZENG, University of Arizona NRC Staff SUSAN ROBERTS, Acting Director EDWARD DUNLEA, Senior Program Officer LAURIE GELLER, Senior Program Officer MAGGIE WALSER, Program Officer KATIE THOMAS, Associate Program Officer LAUREN BROWN, Research Associate RITA GASKINS, Administrative Coordinator ROB GREENWAY, Program Associate SHELLY FREELAND, Senior Program Assistant AMANDA PURCELL, Research and Financial Associate ELIZABETH FINKLEMAN, Senior Program Assistant vi

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This summary was written by rapporteurs to summarize the discussions at a community workshop held February 25-26, 2013. The successful completion of this summary would not have been possible without the high quality presentations by workshop speakers and the insightful comments of participants during the workshop. Finally, we thank the planning committee for their diligent efforts and enthusiasm in organizing the workshop. Each brought a unique set of insights, experiences, and perspectives to the project and helped shape its content. This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the summary meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this workshop summary: GARY ALLEN, Center for Chesapeake Communities, Annapolis, MD MICHAEL GALVIN, SavATree Consulting Group, Bedford Hills, NY STEPHANIE PINCETL, University of California, Los Angeles KATLEEN L. WOLF, University of Washington, Seattle Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this summary was overseen by George Frederick, Falcon Consultants, LLC. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the authors and the institution. vii

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CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 URBAN FORESTRY: SERVICES, TOOLS, AND MANAGEMENT 7 Setting Goals and Developing Strategies in Urban Forestry, 7 Urban Forestry within the Greater Urban Ecosystem, 8 Biophysical Services of the Urban Forest, 16 Tools for Ecosystem Service Evaluation: Models and Metrics, 24 Closing Remarks, 35 3 NEXT STEPS FOR THE FUTURE 37 Conclusion, 40 REFERENCES 41 Appendixes: A OUTPUT FROM THE BREAKOUT GROUP DISCUSSION 45 B WORKSHOP AGENDA 53 C PARTICIPANT LIST 57 D ACRONYM LIST 61 E STATEMENT OF TASK 63 F BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS 65 ix

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