Health Impact
Assessment of

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SHALE GAS EXTRACTION

WORKSHOP SUMMARY

Christine Coussens and Rose Marie Martinez, Rapporteurs

Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine

Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE
           OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu



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Christine Coussens and Rose Marie Martinez, Rapporteurs Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The workshop that is the subject of this workshop summary was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, The Kresge Foundation, American Chemistry Council, Colgate-Palmolive Company, ExxonMobil Foundation, and Royal Dutch Shell. The views presented in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the activity. This summary is based on the proceedings of a workshop that was sponsored by the Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine. It is prepared in the form of a workshop summary by and in the name of the rapporteurs as an individually authored document. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-28791-3 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-28791-X Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at: www.iom.edu. Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin. Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2014. Health impact assessment of shale gas extraction: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR THE WORKSHOP ON THE HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NEW ENERGY SOURCES: SHALE GAS EXTRACTION1 ROB DONNELLY, Royal Dutch Shell, The Hague, Netherlands LYNN R. GOLDMAN, George Washington University, Washington, DC GEORGE M. GRAY, George Washington University, Washington, DC ANDREW MAGUIRE, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, DC LINDA A. MCCAULEY, Emory University, Atlanta, GA AUBREY MILLER, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD CHRISTOPHER J. PORTIER, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA SCOTT W. TINKER, University of Texas, Austin 1 Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. v

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ROUNDTABLE ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES, RESEARCH, AND MEDICINE1 FRANK LOY (Chair), Washington, DC LYNN R. GOLDMAN (Vice Chair), George Washington University, Washington, DC HENRY A. ANDERSON, Wisconsin Division of Public Health, Madison JOHN M. BALBUS, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD JAMES K. BARTRAM, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill LINDA S. BIRNBAUM, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC LUZ CLAUDIO, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY DENNIS J. DEVLIN, ExxonMobil Corporation, Irving, TX ROB DONNELLY, Royal Dutch Shell, The Hague, Netherlands RICHARD A. FENSKE, University of Washington, Seattle LUIZ A. GALVÃO, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC BERNARD D. GOLDSTEIN, University of Pittsburgh, PA RICHARD J. JACKSON, University of California, Los Angeles SUZETTE M. KIMBALL, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA JAY LEMERY, University of Colorado, Denver ANDREW MAGUIRE, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, DC LINDA A. MCCAULEY, Emory University, Atlanta, GA AL MCGARTLAND, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC DAVID M. MICHAELS, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC CANICE NOLAN, European Commission, Brussels, Belgium MARTIN A. PHILBERT, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor CHRISTOPHER J. PORTIER, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA PAUL SANDIFER, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Charleston, SC 1 Institute of Medicine forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. vii

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JOHN D. SPENGLER, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA LOUIS W. SULLIVAN, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA ANNE M. SWEENEY, Texas A&M University, College Station G. DAVID TILMAN, University of Minnesota, St. Paul PATRICIA VERDUIN, Colgate-Palmolive Company, Piscataway, NJ NSEDU OBOT WITHERSPOON, Children’s Environmental Health Network, Washington, DC HAROLD ZENICK, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC IOM Staff CHRISTINE COUSSENS, Study Director (until August 2013) ERIN RUSCH, Associate Program Officer ANDRÉS GAVIRIA, Research Associate SUZANNE LANDI, Research Associate ANDREW LEMERISE, Research Associate HOPE HARE, Administrative Assistant ROSE MARIE MARTINEZ, Director, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice viii

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Reviewers This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published workshop summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the workshop summary meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this workshop summary: Jerome Paulson, Mid-Atlantic Center for Children’s Health and the Environment Susan Santos, Rutgers School of Public Health Kyra Naumoff Shields, University of Pittsburgh Leonardo Trasande, New York University Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this workshop summary was overseen by Melvin Worth. Appointed by the Institute of Medicine, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this workshop summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this workshop summary rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the institution. ix

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Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 References, 3 2 OPENING SESSION 5 Opening Remarks, 5 Introducing the Workshop Theme, 6 Framing the Workshop, 7 Health Impact Assessment for Shale Gas Extraction, 9 Discussion, 14 References, 15 3 GEOGRAPHIC FOOTPRINT OF SHALE GAS EXTRACTION 17 Fracturing: Accessing Shale and Tight Gas, 17 Geographic Footprint, 22 References, 26 4 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND COMMUNITY IMPACTS 27 NIOSH Field Effort to Assess Chemical Exposures in Oil and Gas Workers: Health Hazards in Hydraulic Fracturing, 27 Community Impacts of Natural Gas Development and Human Health, 31 Economic and Community Impacts of Gas Shale in Pennsylvania, 33 Discussion, 35 References, 37 5 AIR QUALITY 39 Air Pollution Emissions from Shale Gas Development and Production, 39 Air Quality Impacts of Natural Gas Operations in Texas, 45 Air Pollution Exposure and Risk Near Unconventional Natural Gas Drill Sites: An Example from Garfield County, Colorado, 50 Air Quality Respondent, 55 Discussion, 57 References, 58 xi

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xii CONTENTS 6 WATER QUALITY 61 Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Water Resources, 61 Hydraulic Fracturing, Water Resources, and Human Health, 70 EPA Study Plan on the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources: Approach to Study Potential Health Impacts, 77 Discussion, 80 References, 80 7 SUSTAINABLE ENERGY 83 Sustainable Energy for All?, 83 Sustainable Energy for All: Ensuring Health Throughout the Energy Production and Use Life Cycle, 88 Discussion, 93 References, 95 8 RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES: RESEARCH COMMUNITY 97 Summary of Presentations, 97 Discussion, 102 Reference, 103 9 RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES: FEDERAL REPRESENTATIVES 105 Environmental Health and Hydraulic Fracturing, 105 Perspectives on Agency Research Activities, 108 Discussion, 114 References, 116 APPENDIXES A AGENDA 117 B SPEAKER BIOSKETCHES 127 C ACRONYMS 141