TABLE C-1 Glasgow Coma Scale

Response Type Response Points
Eye Opening Spontaneous: Eyes open, not necessarily aware 4
To speech: Nonspecific response, not necessarily to command 3
To pain: Pain from sternum/limb/supraorbital pressure 2
None: Even to supraorbital pressure 1
Motor Response Obeys commands: Follows simple commands 6
Localizes pain: Arm attempts to remove supraorbital/chest pressure 5
Withdrawal: Arm withdraws to pain, shoulder abducts 4
Flexor response: Withdrawal response or assumption of hemiplegic posture 3
Extension: Shoulder adducted and shoulder and forearm internally rotated 2
None: To any pain; limbs remain flaccid 1
Verbal Response Oriented: Converses and oriented 5
Confused: Converses but confused, disoriented 4
Inappropriate: Intelligible, no sustained sentences 3
Incomprehensible: Moans/groans, no speech 2
None: No verbalization of any type 1

mately 5 minutes to administer and does not require a neuropsychologist to evaluate test scores. The test is scored out of 30 with a mean score of 26.6 (McCrea et al., 1996).

Studies have found the SAC to have good sensitivity and specificity (McCrea, 2001; McCrea et al., 2003), making it a useful tool for identifying the presence of concussion (Giza et al., 2013). Significant differences in scores have been reported for males and females in healthy young athletes (9 to 14 years of age), suggesting the need for separate norms for males and females in this age group (Valovich McLeod et al., 2006) as well as in high school athletes (Barr, 2003).

Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3

The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3) is a concussion evaluation tool designed for individuals 13 years and older. Due to its demonstrated utility, the SAC has been incorporated into this tool, which also includes the GCS, modified Maddocks questions (Maddocks et al., 1995), a neck evaluation and balance assessment, and a yes/no symptom checklist as well as information on the mechanism of injury and background information, including learning disabilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,



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