Click for next page ( R2


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Transportation Research Board Special Report 311 Effects of Diluted Bitumen on Crude Oil Transmission Pipelines Special Report 311 Bitumen is a dense and viscous form of petroleum that will flow through unheated pipe- lines only when diluted with lighter oils. The source of the bitumen processed in North American refineries is the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada. Legislation enacted in January 2012 called on the U.S. Department of Transportation to determine whether shipments of diluted bitumen increase the likelihood of releases from transmission pipelines as compared with shipments of other crude oils. This report examines whether shipments of diluted bitumen have chemical and physi- cal properties that would make pipelines more susceptible to failure. Data on reported Effects of Diluted Bitumen on Crude Oil Transmission Pipelines causes of pipeline failures are analyzed along with the potential for pipelines transport- ing diluted bitumen to experience more corrosion, cracking, and mechanical damage that can lead to releases. The committee that developed the report did not find any causes of pipeline failure unique to the transportation of diluted bitumen. Furthermore, it did not find evidence that diluted bitumen had properties that are outside the range of those of other crude oils or any other aspect of the transportation of diluted bitumen by pipeline that would make it more likely than other crude oils to cause releases. also of interest: Macondo Well–Deepwater Horizon Blowout: Lessons for Improving Offshore Drilling Safety National Academies Press, ISBN 978-0-309-22138-2, 196 pages, 6 x 9, paperback, 2011, $47.00 Policy Options for Reducing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Transportation TRB Special Report 307, ISBN 978-0-309-16742-0, 208 pages, 6 x 9, paperback, 2011, $38.00 Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use Effects of Diluted Bitumen National Academies Press, ISBN 978-0-309-14640-1, 506 pages, 6 x 9, paperback, 2010, $47.00 Risk of Vessel Accidents and Spills in the Aleutian Islands: Designing a Comprehensive Risk on Crude Oil Transmission Pipelines Assessment TRB Special Report 293, ISBN 978-0-309-11332-8, 225 pages, 6 x 9, paperback, 2008, $36.00 Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects National Academies Press, ISBN 978-0-309-09562-4, 400 pages, 6 x 9, paperback, 2005, $55.00 Transmission Pipelines and Land Use: A Risk-Informed Approach TRB Special Report 281, ISBN 0-309-09455-0, 122 pages, 6 x 9, paperback, 2004, $23.00 Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects National Academies Press, ISBN 978-0-309-08438-3, 280 pages, 8.5 x 11, paperback, 2003, $54.95 ISBN 978-0-309-28675-6 90000 9 780309 286756

OCR for page R1
transportation research board special report 311 Effects of Diluted Bitumen on Crude Oil Transmission Pipelines Committee for a Study of Pipeline Transportation of Diluted Bitumen Transportation Research Board Board on Energy and Environmental Systems Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Transportation Research Board Washington, D.C. 2013 www.TRB.org

OCR for page R1
Transportation Research Board Special Report 311 Subscriber Categories Energy; freight transportation; pipelines; policy; terminals and facilities Transportation Research Board publications are available by ordering individual publications directly from the TRB Business Office, through the Internet at www.TRB.org or national-academies.org/trb, or by annual subscription through organizational or individual affiliation with TRB. Affiliates and library subscribers are eligible for substantial discounts. For further information, contact the Transportation Research Board Business Office, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001 (telephone 202-334- 3213; fax 202-334-2519; or e-mail TRBsales@nas.edu). Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee respon- sible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to the procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This report was sponsored by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Cover and interior design by Beth Schlenoff, Beth Schlenoff Design Cover photos copyright © TransCanada Corporation. All rights reserved. Typesetting by Circle Graphics, Inc. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Effects of diluted bitumen on crude oil transmission pipelines/Committee for a Study of Pipeline Transportation of Diluted Bitumen, Transportation Research Board, Board on Energy and Environ- mental Systems, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology.   pages cm—(Special report/Transportation Research Board ; 311)   Summary: “Effects of Diluted Bitumen on Crude Oil Transmission Pipelines TRB Special Report 311: Effects of Diluted Bitumen on Crude Oil Transmission Pipelines analyzes whether shipments of diluted bitumen have a greater likelihood of release from pipelines than shipments of other crude oils. The oil sands region of Canada is the source of diluted bitumen shipped by pipeline to the United States. The committee that produced the report did not find any pipeline failures unique to the transportation of diluted bitumen or evidence of physical or chem- ical properties of diluted bitumen shipments that are outside the range of those of other crude oil shipments. The committee’s comprehensive review did not find evidence of any specific aspect of the transportation of diluted bitumen that would make it more likely than other crude oils to cause pipelines releases”—Provided by publisher.   Includes bibliographical references and index.   ISBN 978-0-309-28675-6 (alk. paper) 1.  Petroleum pipelines. 2.  Bitumen—Transportation. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee for a Study of Pipeline Transportation of Diluted Bitumen. II. National Reseach Council (U.S.). Board on Energy and Environmental System. III. National Research Council (U.S.). Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology. IV. Series: Special report (National Research Council (U.S.). Transportation Research Board) ; 311.   TN879.5.E32 2013  665.5'44—dc23 2013029097

OCR for page R1
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. (Dan) Mote, Jr., is president of the National Acad- emy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examina- tion of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Insti- tute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Acad- emy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Func- tioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the pub- lic, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. (Dan) Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide lead- ership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and aca- demia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is sup- ported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

OCR for page R1
Transportation Research Board Executive Committee* Chair: Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, Virginia Vice Chair: Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan Department of Transportation, Lansing Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board Victoria A. Arroyo, Executive Director, Georgetown Climate Center, and Visiting Professor, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, D.C. Scott E. Bennett, Director, Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department, Little Rock William A. V. Clark, Professor of Geography (emeritus) and Professor of Statistics (emeritus), Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas–Fort Worth International Airport, Texas Malcolm Dougherty, Director, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento John S. Halikowski, Director, Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix Michael W. Hancock, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort Susan Hanson, Distinguished University Professor Emerita, School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts Steve Heminger, Executive Director, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, Oakland, California Chris T. Hendrickson, Duquesne Light Professor of Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Jeffrey D. Holt, Managing Director, Bank of Montreal Capital Markets, and Chairman, Utah Transportation Commission, Huntsville, Utah Gary P. LaGrange, President and CEO, Port of New Orleans, Louisiana Michael P. Lewis, Director, Rhode Island Department of Transportation, Providence Joan McDonald, Commissioner, New York State Department of Transportation, Albany Donald A. Osterberg, Senior Vice President, Safety and Security, Schneider National, Inc., Green Bay, Wisconsin Steve Palmer, Vice President of Transportation, Lowe’s Companies, Inc., Mooresville, North Carolina Sandra Rosenbloom, Director, Innovation in Infrastructure, The Urban Institute, Washington, D.C. (Past Chair, 2012) Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; University of California, Davis Gary C. Thomas, President and Executive Director, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, Dallas, Texas Paul Trombino III, Director, Iowa Department of Transportation, Ames Phillip A. Washington, General Manager, Regional Transportation District, Denver, Colorado

OCR for page R1
Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Marietta, Georgia (ex officio) Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) John T. Gray II, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, D.C. (ex officio) Michael P. Huerta, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Paul N. Jaenichen, Sr., Acting Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Michael P. Melaniphy, President and CEO, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, D.C. (ex officio) Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security (ex officio) Lucy Phillips Priddy, Research Civil Engineer, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, Mississippi, and Chair, TRB Young Members Council (ex officio) Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Craig A. Rutland, U.S. Air Force Pavement Engineer, Air Force Civil Engineer Center, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida (ex officio) David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Polly Trottenberg, Under Secretary for Policy, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. General, U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. (ex officio) Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, California (ex officio) Gregory D. Winfree, Acting Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio) Frederick G. (Bud) Wright, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C. (ex officio) * Membership as of September 2013.

OCR for page R1
Board on Energy and Environmental Systems Members Andrew Brown, Jr., NAE, Delphi Corporation, Troy, Michigan, Chair William F. Banholzer, NAE, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan William Cavanaugh III, NAE, Progress Energy (retired), Raleigh, North Carolina Paul A. DeCotis, Long Island Power Authority, Albany, New York Christine Ehlig-Economides, NAE, Texas A&M University, College Station Sherri Goodman, CNA, Alexandria, Virginia Narain G. Hingorani, NAE, Independent Consultant, San Mateo, California Robert Huggett, Independent Consultant, Seaford, Virginia Debbie Niemeier, University of California, Davis Daniel Nocera, NAS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Margo Oge, Environmental Protection Agency (retired), McLean, Virginia Michael Oppenheimer, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey Jackalyne Pfannenstiel, Independent Consultant, Piedmont, California Dan Reicher, Stanford University, Stanford, California Bernard Robertson, NAE, Daimler-Chrysler (retired), Bloomfield Hills, Michigan Gary Rogers, FEV, Inc., Auburn Hills, Michigan Alison Silverstein, Consultant, Pflugerville, Texas Mark Thiemens, NAS, University of California, San Diego Richard White, Oppenheimer & Company, New York City Adrian Zaccaria, NAE, Bechtel Group (retired), Frederick, Maryland Staff James Zucchetto, Senior Board–Program Director Dana Caines, Financial Associate David W. Cooke, Associate Program Officer Alan Crane, Senior Scientist K. John Holmes, Senior Program Officer–Associate Director LaNita Jones, Administrative Coordinator Alice V. Williams, Senior Program Assistant Jonathan Yanger, Senior Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Members Pablo G. Debenedetti, NAS–NAE, Princeton University, New Jersey, Cochair Timothy Swager, NAS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Cochair David Bem, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan Robert G. Bergman, NAS, University of California, Berkeley Joan Brennecke, NAE, University of Notre Dame, Indiana Henry E. Bryndza, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware David W. Christianson, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Richard Eisenberg, NAS, University of Rochester, New York Mary Jane Hagenson, Chevron Phillips Chemical Company LLC (retired), The Woodlands, Texas Carol J. Henry, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C. Jill Hruby, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico Michael Kerby, ExxonMobil Chemical Company, Baytown, Texas Charles E. Kolb, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts Sander G. Mills, Merck, Sharp, & Dohme Corporation, Kenilworth, New Jersey David Morse, NAE, Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York Robert E. Roberts, Institute for Defense Analyses, Alexandria, Virginia Darlene Solomon, Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, California Jean Tom, Bristol-Myers Squibb, West Windsor, New Jersey David Walt, NAE, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts Staff Dorothy Zolandz, Director Kathryn Hughes, Senior Program Officer Douglas Friedman, Program Officer Amanda Khu, Administrative Assistant Rachel Yancey, Senior Program Assistant

OCR for page R1
Committee for a Study of Pipeline Transportation of Diluted Bitumen Mark A. Barteau, NAE, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Chair Y. Frank Cheng, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada James F. Dante, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas H. Scott Fogler, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor O. B. Harris, O. B. Harris, LLC, Missouri City, Texas Brenda J. Little, Naval Research Laboratory, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi Mohammad Modarres, University of Maryland, College Park W. Kent Muhlbauer, WKM Consultancy, LLC, Austin, Texas Srdjan Nešić, Ohio University, Athens Joe H. Payer, University of Akron, Ohio Richard A. Rabinow, Rabinow Consortium, LLC, Houston, Texas George W. Tenley, Jr., Hedgesville, West Virginia National Research Council Staff Thomas R. Menzies, Jr., Study Director, Transportation Research Board Douglas Friedman, Program Officer, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Claudia Sauls, Senior Program Assistant, Transportation Research Board

OCR for page R1
Preface T his National Research Council (NRC) study was sponsored by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) of the U.S. Department of Transportation.1 The study charge and ori- gins are explained in Chapter 1. The contents and findings of the report represent the consensus effort of a committee of technical experts, who served uncompensated in the public interest. Drawn from multiple dis- ciplines, the members brought expertise from chemistry and chemical engineering; corrosion and materials science; risk analysis; and pipe- line operations, research, and safety regulation. Committee member biographical information is provided at the end of the report. The study committee convened five times over 10 months, including a visit by several members to a pipeline terminal and energy research laboratory in the Edmonton and Fort McMurray areas of Alberta, Canada. Data-gathering activities during and between meetings were extensive. All but the final meeting contained sessions open to the pub- lic. During meetings, the committee heard from speakers from the oil and pipeline industries, environmental interest groups, research and standards organizations, oil testing companies, and government agen- cies from the United States and Canada. The committee also provided a forum for private individuals to contribute information relevant to the study. In sum, more than 40 people spoke before the committee during public meetings and site visits. To obtain additional informa- tion on the practice of transporting diluted bitumen by pipeline, the committee provided the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association with a questionnaire for distribution to pipeline operators with experience transporting diluted bitumen and other crude oils in North America.   The contract was awarded on March 12, 2012. 1 ix

OCR for page R1
x Preface The questionnaire responses and agendas for the public meetings are provided in appendices to this report. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The committee thanks the many individuals who contributed to its work. During data-gathering sessions open to the public, the committee met with the following officials from PHMSA: Jeffrey Wiese, Associate Administrator; Linda Daugherty, Deputy Associate Administrator for Policy and Programs; Alan Mayberry, Deputy Associate Administrator for Field Operations; Blaine Keener, National Field Coordinator; and Jeffery Gilliam, Senior Engineer and Project Manager. The contribu- tions of all were appreciated, especially those of Mr. Gilliam, who served as PHMSA’s technical representative for the project. Several officials and researchers from government agencies and labora- tories in Canada briefed the committee during meetings: Iain Colquhoun, National Energy Board; John Zhou, Alberta Innovates Energy and Envi- ronment Solutions; Haralampos Tsaprailis and Michael Mosher, Alberta Innovates Technology Futures; and Parviz Rahimi, Heather Dettman, and Sankara Papavinasam, Natural Resources Canada. The committee thanks them all, especially Dr. Papavinasam, who twice briefed the committee, and Dr. Tsaprailis, who arranged a tour of the Alberta Innovates and Natu- ral Resources Canada energy laboratory in Devon, Alberta. Early in its deliberations, the committee invited several nationally recognized experts to provide briefings on pipeline design, operations, and maintenance; corrosion evaluation and control; and developments in the North American petroleum market. The committee is indebted to Thomas O. Miesner, Pipeline Knowledge and Development; Arthur Diefenbach, Westpac Energy Group; Oliver Moghissi, DNV Columbus, Inc.; and Geoffrey Houlton, IHS Global Insight. Their uncompensated briefings provided essential background for the committee’s work. The committee met with and received information from the follow- ing individuals representing the oil production and pipeline industries: Dale McIntyre, ConocoPhillips; Randy Segato, Suncor Energy, Inc.; Dennis Sutton, Marathon Petroleum Company; Bruce Dupuis, Jenny Been, and Bruce Wascherol, TransCanada Corporation; Colin Brown, Kinder Morgan Canada; Terri Funk and Shoaib Nasin, Inter Pipeline;

OCR for page R1
Preface xi and Trevor Place, Ashok Anand, Martin DiBlasi, and Scott Ironside, Enbridge Pipelines, Inc. The committee expresses its gratitude to all, especially to Mr. Ironside, who assisted in arranging presentations and the tour of a pipeline terminal in Alberta. In seeking information on the properties of diluted bitumen and other crude oils, the committee received valuable information from the following individuals and organizations: Harry Giles, Crude Oil Qual- ity Association; Bill Lywood, Crude Quality, Inc.; and Andre Lemieux, Canadian Crude Quality Technical Association. The information received on the chemical and physical properties of diluted bitumen and other crude oils was critical to many of the analyses in the study. The committee thanks each of them and their organizations for this assistance. Finally, the committee thanks several individuals who briefed it or were otherwise helpful in identifying issues and providing relevant sources of data and other information. They are Anthony Swift, Natural Resources Defense Council; Peter Lidiak, American Petroleum Institute; Cheryl Trench, Allegro Energy Consulting; and Ziad Saad, Canadian Energy Pipeline Association. Mr. Saad was instrumental in distributing and collecting responses to the pipeline operator questionnaire. Thomas R. Menzies and Douglas Friedman were the principal project staff. Menzies managed the study and drafted much of the report under the guidance of the committee and the supervision of Stephen R. Godwin, Director, Studies and Special Programs, Transportation Research Board (TRB). Additional technical assistance and oversight were provided by James Zucchetto, Director of the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, and Dorothy Zolandz, Director of the Board on Chemical Sci- ences and Technology. Norman Solomon edited the report; Janet M. McNaughton handled the editorial production; Juanita L. Green man- aged the book design, production, and printing; and Jennifer J. Weeks prepared the edited manuscript for prepublication web posting, under the supervision of Javy Awan, Director of Publications, TRB. Claudia Sauls provided extensive support to the committee in arranging its meet- ings and managing documents. The report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose

OCR for page R1
xii Preface of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectiv- ity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review com- ments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. NRC thanks the following individuals for their review of this re­ ort: Khalid Aziz (NAE), Stanford University (professor emeritus); p John Beavers, DNV Columbus, Inc.; Jos Derksen, University of Alberta; Melvin F. Kanninen (NAE), MFK Consulting Services; John Kiefner, Kiefner & Associates, Inc.; Thomas Miesner, Pipeline Knowledge & Development; Gene Nemanich, Chevron Technology Ventures (re­tired); Stephen Pollock (NAE), University of Michigan (professor emeritus); Massoud Tahamtani, Commonwealth of Virginia State Corporation Commission; and Patrick Vieth, Dynamic Risk USA, Inc. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the committee’s con- clusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Elisabeth Drake (NAE), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Susan Hanson (NAS), Clark University. Appointed by NRC, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review com- ments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests solely with the authoring committee and the institu- tion. Karen Febey managed the report review process under the super- vision of Suzanne Schneider, Associate Executive Director, TRB.

OCR for page R1
Contents Executive Summary............................................................................................................. 1 1 Introduction.................................................................................................................... 4 Study Charge...................................................................................................................... 4 Study Scope......................................................................................................................... 5 Analytic Approach............................................................................................................. 7 Report Organization......................................................................................................... 9 2 Crude Oil Pipelines in the United States............................................................. 10 National Pipeline Network............................................................................................ 10 Pipeline System Components....................................................................................... 12 Operations and Control................................................................................................. 14 Maintenance..................................................................................................................... 17 Summary.......................................................................................................................... 20 3 Bitumen Properties, Production, and Transportation by Pipeline......... 22 Bitumen Composition and Properties....................................................................... 22 Bitumen Production...................................................................................................... 26 Pipeline Transportation of Diluted Bitumen............................................................ 31 Summary.......................................................................................................................... 47 4 Review of Pipeline Incident Data........................................................................... 51 U.S. and Canadian Incident Data.................................................................................. 51 State and Provincial Incident Data.............................................................................. 61 Summary.......................................................................................................................... 64 5 Assessing the Effects of Diluted Bitumen on Pipelines................................ 67 Sources of Internal Degradation................................................................................. 67 Sources of External Degradation................................................................................ 83 Sources of Mechanical Damage................................................................................... 89 Effects on Operations and Maintenance Procedures............................................ 92 Summary.......................................................................................................................... 95

OCR for page R1
6 Summary of Results.................................................................................................... 99 Recap of Study Charge and Approach........................................................................ 99 Main Points from Chapter Discussions.................................................................... 101 Study Results................................................................................................................. 105 Appendices A Questionnaire to Pipeline Operators on Transporting Diluted Bitumen..................................................................................................... 108 B Federal Pipeline Safety Regulatory Framework.............................................. 115 C Data-Gathering Sessions..................................................................................... 122 Study Committee Biographical Information........................................................ 126