References

•Vannevar Bush, Science: The Endless Frontier (Washington, DC: A Report to the President, Office of Scientific Research and Development, July 1945).

•Carlyn Consulting “Process Evaluation of the Centers of Biomedical Research Excellence (COBRE) Program.” (Submitted to the National Center for Research Resources, National Institutes of Health. September 2008).

•COSMOS Corporation, A Report on the Evaluation of the National Science Foundation Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (Arlington, VA: NFS, 1999).

•Richard B. Freeman, “Does Globalization of the Scientific/Engineering Workforce Threaten U.S. Economic Leadership?” Innovation Policy and the Economy, vol. 6, Adam B. Jaffe, Josh Lerner, and Scott Stern, eds. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, www.nber.org/chapters/c0207, 2006).

Building on the Past, Preparing for the Future: Innovative Science Across America (Washington, DC: EPSCoR/IDeA Foundation, March 2008).

America COMPETES 2010 and the FY2013 Budget (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Heather B. Gonzalez, June 2012).

•J. Scott Hauger and Celia McEnaney, eds., Strategies for Competitiveness in Academic Research (Washington, DC: AAAS, http://www.aaas.org/spp/rcp/policy/strategies_book.shtml, 2000).

EPSCoR 2030: A Report to the National Science Foundation (prepared by Paul Hill, Principal Investigator: Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, 2012).

Assessment of the Defense Experimental Program To Stimulate Competitive Research (DEPSCoR): Final Report Volumes I and II, Oct. 2008 (Alexandria, VA: Institute for Defense Analyses, 2008).

Assessment of the Defense Experimental Program To Stimulate Competitive Research (DEPSCoR): Final Report Volume II—Supporting Material (FY 1995–FY 2008), (Alexandria, VA: Institute for Defense Analyses, 2008).

•W. Henry Lambright, “Building State Science: The EPSCoR Experience,” chapter 3 in J. Scott Hauger and Celia McEnaney, eds., Strategies for Competitiveness in Academic Research (Washington, DC: AAAS, http://www.aaas.org/spp/rcp/policy/strategies_book/str3.pdf, p. 2. 2000).

•John V. Lombardi et al., eds., The Top American Research Universities: 2011 Annual Report (Phoenix, AZ: The Center for Measuring University Performance at Arizona State University, 2011).



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References Vannevar Bush, Science: The Endless Frontier (Washington, DC: A Report to the President, Office of Scientific Research and Development, July 1945). Carlyn Consulting “Process Evaluation of the Centers of Biomedical Research Excellence (COBRE) Program.” (Submitted to the National Center for Research Resources, National Institutes of Health. September 2008). COSMOS Corporation, A Report on the Evaluation of the National Science Foundation Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (Arlington, VA: NFS, 1999). Richard B. Freeman, “Does Globalization of the Scientific/Engineering Workforce Threaten U.S. Economic Leadership?” Innovation Policy and the Economy, vol. 6, Adam B. Jaffe, Josh Lerner, and Scott Stern, eds. (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, www.nber.org/chapters/c0207, 2006). Building on the Past, Preparing for the Future: Innovative Science Across America (Washington, DC: EPSCoR/IDeA Foundation, March 2008). America COMPETES 2010 and the FY2013 Budget (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Heather B. Gonzalez, June 2012). J. Scott Hauger and Celia McEnaney, eds., Strategies for Competitiveness in Academic Research (Washington, DC: AAAS, http://www.aaas.org/spp/rcp/policy/strategies_book.shtml, 2000). EPSCoR 2030: A Report to the National Science Foundation (prepared by Paul Hill, Principal Investigator: Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, 2012). Assessment of the Defense Experimental Program To Stimulate Competitive Research (DEPSCoR): Final Report Volumes I and II, Oct. 2008 (Alexandria, VA: Institute for Defense Analyses, 2008). Assessment of the Defense Experimental Program To Stimulate Competitive Research (DEPSCoR): Final Report Volume II— Supporting Material (FY 1995–FY 2008), (Alexandria, VA: Institute for Defense Analyses, 2008). W. Henry Lambright, “Building State Science: The EPSCoR Experience,” chapter 3 in J. Scott Hauger and Celia McEnaney, eds., Strategies for Competitiveness in Academic Research (Washington, DC: AAAS, http://www.aaas.org/spp/rcp/policy/strategies_book/str3.pdf, p. 2. 2000). John V. Lombardi et al., eds., The Top American Research Universities: 2011 Annual Report (Phoenix, AZ: The Center for Measuring University Performance at Arizona State University, 2011). 55

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56 THE EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM TO STIMULATE COMPETITIVE RESEARCH U.S. National Science Foundation Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, prepared by Christine Mathews, February 28, 2012). Federal Support for Academic Research (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, prepared by Christine M. Mathews, Aug. 15, 2012). Julia Melkers and Yonghong Wu, “Evaluating the Improved Research Capacity of EPSCoR States: R&D Funding and Collaborative Networks in the NSF EPSCoR Program,” Review of Policy Research, vol. 26, no. 6 (2009). Evaluating Alaska EPSCoR Phase III: Resilience and Vulnerability in a Rapidly Changing North: The Integration of Physical, Biological, and Social Processes: Supplemental Evaluation Report (prepared by Julia Melkers and Eric Welch: Alaska EPSCoR). Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2006). A Data Based Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2011). Measuring the Impacts of Federal Investments in Research: A Workshop Summary. (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2011). Research Universities and the Future of America: Ten Breakthrough Actions Vital to Our Nation’s Prosperity and Security (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2012). Institutional Development Award Program (IDeA), NIH Guide, vol. 22, no. 44, (Dec. 10, 1993). Research and Development, Innovation, and the Science and Engineering Workforce: A Companion Piece to Science and Engineering Indicators 2012 (Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation National Science Board, 2012). Science and Engineering Indicators 2012 (Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation National Science Board, 2012). EPSCoR 2020 Workshop: Expanding State Participation in Research in the 21st Century – A New Vision for the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, August 2006). Empowering the Nation Through Discovery and Innovation: NSF Strategic Plan for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011–2016 (Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, April 2011). Abigal Payne, “Earmarks and EPSCoR: Shaping the Distribution, Quality, and Quantity of University Research”, in Shaping Science and Technology Policy, edited by David Guston and Daniel Sarewitz (149- 172, Madison,WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 2006).

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FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 57 Yonghong Wu, “Tackling Undue Concentration of Federal Research Funding: An Empirical Assessment on NSF’s Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR),” Research Policy 39(6), 835-841. (2010). Yonghong Wu, “NSF’s Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR): Subsidizing Academic Research or State Budgets?” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 28 (2009). Albert Teich, ed., Competitiveness in Academic Research (Washington, DC: AAAS, 1996). Robin Wilson and Jeffrey Brainard, “The Research Drain,” The Chronicle of Higher Education, (May 8, 2011). Legislation, Memoranda, and Hearings America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010, 111th Congress, 2009– 2010, http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/111/hr5116, April 22, 2010. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), “Memorandum for the Heads of Departments and Agencies,” M-10-01, Executive Office of the President, OMB, Oct. 7, 2009. P.L. 95-392 (H. Rept. 95-1265), Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)-Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1979 House Committee on Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Science, National Science Board: Science Policy and Management for the NSF, 1968–1980, Rpt. 98th Congress, 1st Session, Jan. 1983. NSF Memorandum to Members of the National Science Board, Office of the Director, “Program Plan for Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research,” January 4, 1978. “1979 National Science Foundation Authorization Hearings Before Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology of the Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives 95th Congress 2nd Session on H.R. 1068,” January 24, 25, 26, and 31, 1978. National Science Foundation (NSF) Act of 1950 (Pub. L. 507-81st Congress, as amended) 51 USC §40903 Submitted to The Committee to Evaluate EPSCoR… Denise M. Barnes, Acting Head, NSF EPSCoR, presentation at the NAS EPSCoR Evaluation Committee, Washington, DC, May 24, 2012. Richard-Duane Chambers, presentation, NAS 3rd EPSCoR Evaluation Committee, Washington, DC, Dec. 10, 2012. Michael Khonsari NSF EPSCoR Project Director and Associate Commissioner for Sponsored Programs Research and Development in Louisiana, correspondence sent to the NAS Evaluation Committee, October 2012.

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58 THE EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM TO STIMULATE COMPETITIVE RESEARCH IDeA Program 2012 Report: Submitted to the National Academy of Sciences. Capacity Building Branch, Division of Training, Workforce Development, and Diversity, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health (2012). W. Frederick Taylor, Program Director for the Division of Training, Workforce Development, and Diversity, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, presentation, 1st NAS EPSCoR Evaluation Committee Meeting, Washington, DC, May 24–25, 2012. Presentations at 2nd NAS EPSCoR Evaluation Committee Meeting, Washington, DC, September 12-13, 2012.