location. For example, Andam et al. (2008) used reduced-form econometric methods to evaluate the effectiveness of protected areas in reducing deforestation globally by estimating the effects of the protected areas on deforestation rates in comparison with those found in areas in close proximity to protected areas.

Understanding the underlying structures, assumptions, and data requirements of different modeling approaches is critical to understanding their applicability for various scientific and decision-making purposes. This review provides a framework for comparison of multiple modeling approaches in relation to specific objectives. The next section of this report outlines opportunities and needs for advances that will improve modeling capabilities into the future.

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