An Ecosystem Services Approach to
Assessing the Impacts of the

DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

in the Gulf of Mexico

Committee on the Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Mississippi
Canyon-252 Oil Spill on Ecosystem Services in the Gulf of Mexico

Ocean Studies Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                         OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu



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Committee on the Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon-252 Oil Spill on Ecosystem Services in the Gulf of Mexico Ocean Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  •  500 Fifth Street, NW  •  Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special compe- tences and with regard to appropriate balance. This study was supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration under contract number 10-DELS-294-01. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13:  978-0-309-28845-3 International Standard Book Number-10:  0-309-28845-2 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 2013952269 Cover photograph by Andy Levin, “BP Oil Spill” © 2010. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; Internet, http:// www.nap.edu. Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distin- guished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is presi- dent of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autono- mous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Acad- emy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encour- ages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to se- cure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and educa- tion. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering com- munities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON THE EFFECTS OF THE DEEPWATER HORIZON MISSISSIPPI CANYON-252 OIL SPILL ON ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO LARRY A. MAYER (Chair), University of New Hampshire, Durham MICHEL C. BOUFADEL, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark JORGE BRENNER, The Nature Conservancy, Corpus Christi, Texas ROBERT S. CARNEY, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge CORTIS K. COOPER, Chevron Energy Technology Company, San Ramon, California JODY W. DEMING, University of Seattle, Washington DAVID J. DIE, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida JOSH EAGLE, University of South Carolina, Columbia JOSEPH R. GERACI, University of Maryland, Baltimore BARBARA A. KNUTH, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York KENNETH LEE, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Perth, Western Australia JAMES T. MORRIS, University of South Carolina, Columbia STEPHEN POLASKY, University of Minnesota, St. Paul NANCY N. RABALAIS, Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Chauvin CHRISTOPHER REDDY,* Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts RALPH G. STAHL, JR., DuPont Company, Wilmington, Delaware DAVID W. YOSKOWITZ, Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi Staff KIM WADDELL, Study Director SHERRIE FORREST, Associate Program Officer LAUREN HARDING, Senior Program Assistant (until October 2012) HEATHER CHIARELLO, Senior Program Assistant JESSICA DUTTON, Mirzayan Fellow (until May 2012) CONSTANCE KARRAS, Postgraduate Fellow (from September 2012) DEBRA DAVIS, Editor * Resigned from the committee. v

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OCEAN STUDIES BOARD ROBERT A. DUCE (Chair), Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas E. VIRGINIA ARMBRUST, University of Washington, Seattle EDWARD A. BOYLE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge RITA R. COLWELL, University of Maryland, College Park SARAH W. COOKSEY, State of Delaware, Dover CORTIS K. COOPER, Chevron Corporation, San Ramon, California ROBERT HALLBERG, NOAA/GFDL and Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey DAVID HALPERN, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California BARBARA A. KNUTH, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York GEORGE I. MATSUMOTO, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California STEVEN A. MURAWSKI, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg CLAUDIA BENITEZ-NELSON, University of South Carolina, Columbia JOHN A. ORCUTT, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California H. TUBA ÖZKAN-HALLER, Oregon State University, Corvallis STEVEN E. RAMBERG, Penn State Applied Research Lab, Washington, DC ANDREW A. ROSENBERG, Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, Massachusetts DANIEL L. RUDNICK, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California MARTIN D. SMITH, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina PETER L. TYACK, University of Saint Andrews, Fife, Scotland DON WALSH, International Maritime Incorporated, Myrtle Point, Oregon DAWN J. WRIGHT, Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, California JAMES A. YODER, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts Ex-Officio MARY (MISSY) H. FEELEY, ExxonMobil Exploration Company, Houston, Texas OSB Staff SUSAN ROBERTS, Director DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Program Officer CLAUDIA MENGELT, Senior Program Officer KIM WADDELL, Senior Program Officer PAMELA LEWIS, Administrative Coordinator SHERRIE FORREST, Associate Program Officer HEATHER CHIARELLO, Senior Program Assistant LAUREN HARDING, Senior Program Assistant (until October 2012) CONSTANCE KARRAS, Postgraduate Fellow (from September 2012) vi

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Acknowledgments This report was greatly enhanced by the participants of the meetings held as part of this study. The committee would like to acknowledge the efforts of those who gave presentations at the committee meetings: Jackie Antalan (Operation Homecare), Natalie Bergeron (Project LEARN–LaTerre), George Crozier (Dauphin Island Sea Laboratory), Alyssa Dausman (U.S. Geo- logical Survey), Lisa Dipinto (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Charlie Henry (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Elena Kobrinski (University of the Virgin Islands), Shirley Laska (University of New Orleans), Chris Madden (South Florida Water Manage- ment District), Maryal Mewherter (United Houma Nation), Steve Murawski (University of South Florida), Khai Nguyen (Mary Queen of Viet Nam Community Development Corporation), Denise Reed (University of New Orleans), Marc Russell (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), and Sandra Werner (ExxonMobil) This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse per- spectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: DONALD BOESCH, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Cambridge ROBERT DIAZ, Virginia Institute of Marine Science (retired), Ware Neck MERV FINGAS, Spill Science, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada JÖRG IMBERGER, University of Western Australia, Crawley DAVID KARL, University of Hawaii, Honolulu JUDY MCDOWELL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts PAUL MONTAGNA, Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi STEVE MURAWSKI, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg GARRY PETERSON, Stockholm University, Sweden CHRISTOPHER M. REDDY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts KATHLEEN SEGERSON, University of Connecticut, Storrs HEATHER TALLIS, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California MICHAEL ZICCARDI, University of California, Davis vii

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by John J. Boland, The Johns Hopkins University, appointed by the Divison on Earth and Life Studies, and David A. Dzombak, Carnegie Mellon University, appointed by the Report Review Committee, who were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review com- ments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. viii

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Contents Summary 1 1 Introduction 13 2 The Ecosystem Services Approach 21 3 Resilience and Ecosystem Services 47 4 Oil Spill Response Technologies 71 5 Ecosystem Services in the Gulf of Mexico 103 6 Research Needs in Support of Understanding Ecosystem Services in the Gulf of Mexico 169 References 195 Appendix  Committee and Staff Biographies 227 ix

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