APPENDIX A

Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff

COMMITTEE MEMBERS

Larry A. Mayer (Chair) is the Director of the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping, Co-Director of the Joint Hydrographic Center, and Professor of Earth Science and Ocean Engineering at the University of New Hampshire. His research interests include sonar imaging, remote characterization of the seafloor, and advanced applications of 3-D visualization to ocean mapping challenges. Dr. Mayer received his Ph.D. from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in marine geophysics in 1979, and he graduated magna cum laude with an honors degree in geology from the University of Rhode Island in 1973. At Scripps his future path was determined when he worked with the Marine Physical Laboratory’s Deep-Tow Geophysical package but applied this sophisticated acoustic sensor to study the history of climate. Dr. Mayer has participated in more than 50 cruises and has been chief or co-chief scientist of numerous expeditions, including two legs of the Ocean Drilling Program. Recently he has been involved (both at sea and in the lab) with the visualization of environmental data from the Deepwater Horizon incident and the application of acoustic techniques to monitor wellhead integrity and the subsurface environment in the region. He brings a strong set of spatial analysis skills and tools to this committee that will be valuable in mapping the affected areas of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) and understanding impacts. Dr. Mayer served on the President’s Panel for Ocean Exploration and chaired the 2004 National Research Council’s Committee on National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting.

Michel C. Boufadel is the Director of the Center for Natural Resources Development and Protection and a Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. Previously, he was a Professor and Chair of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Temple University. Dr. Boufadel’s expertise includes investigating the offshore transport and fate of oil, original and dispersed, since 2001. He is very familiar with the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and the various windcast and wave models, such as the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP). Furthermore, Dr. Bouf-



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A ppen d ix A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff COMMITTEE MEMBERS Larry A. Mayer (Chair) is the Director of the Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping, Co-Direc- tor of the Joint Hydrographic Center, and Professor of Earth Science and Ocean Engineering at the University of New Hampshire. His research interests include sonar imaging, remote char- acterization of the seafloor, and advanced applications of 3-D visualization to ocean mapping challenges. Dr. Mayer received his Ph.D. from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in marine geophysics in 1979, and he graduated magna cum laude with an honors degree in geology from the University of Rhode Island in 1973. At Scripps his future path was determined when he worked with the Marine Physical Laboratory’s Deep-Tow Geophysical package but applied this sophisticated acoustic sensor to study the history of climate. Dr. Mayer has participated in more than 50 cruises and has been chief or co-chief scientist of numerous expeditions, includ- ing two legs of the Ocean Drilling Program. Recently he has been involved (both at sea and in the lab) with the visualization of environmental data from the Deepwater Horizon incident and the application of acoustic techniques to monitor wellhead integrity and the subsurface environment in the region. He brings a strong set of spatial analysis skills and tools to this committee that will be valuable in mapping the affected areas of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) and understanding impacts. Dr. Mayer served on the President’s Panel for Ocean Exploration and chaired the 2004 National Research Council’s Committee on National Needs for Coastal Map- ping and Charting. Michel C. Boufadel is the Director of the Center for Natural Resources Development and Protection and a Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. Previously, he was a Professor and Chair of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Temple University. Dr. Boufadel’s expertise includes investigating the offshore transport and fate of oil, original and dispersed, since 2001. He is very familiar with the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and the various windcast and wave models, such as the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP). Furthermore, Dr. Bouf- 227

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appen d ix a adel has developed a strong understanding of the physics of waterflow, oil transport, and oil transformation (with and without dispersants), and he has a strong understanding of the role of oil viscosity, surface tension, emulsion, evaporation, droplet formation (i.e., dispersion), and breakup under various energy levels. Dr. Boufadel’s skills will be essential when the committee addresses the question of where the oil went and what it will likely do under a broad range of marine and coastal conditions. Dr. Boufadel earned a Ph.D. and an M.S. in environmental engineering from the University of Cincinnati in 1998 and 1992, respectively, and a B.S. in civil engineering and hydraulics from the Jesuit University at Beirut, Lebanon, in 1988. Jorge Brenner is currently the Associate Director of Marine Science at The Nature Conservancy. Dr. Brenner is interested in ecosystem services health assessment, valuation models, and spatial dynamics of biodiversity. He is also working on marine conservation and sustainability sciences. Dr. Brenner has experience working on related issues in Mexico, the Mediterranean, and the Gulf of Mexico regions. He brings an international perspective to the committee in addition to his strength in identifying the relevant ecosystem services that the committee will need to quantify for valuation. He earned a Ph.D. in marine sciences from the Catalonia Polytechnic University in 2007, an M.S. in environmental engineering, and a B.S. in biochemical engineering and aquatic resources from the Monterrey Technology Institute University in 1997 and 1995, respectively. Robert S. Carney is a Professor in Louisiana State University’s (LSU’s) Department of Oceanog- raphy and Coastal Sciences. Dr. Carney’s primary research expertise is in deep-ocean biological oceanography, but he is also familiar with shallow systems, having directed the Coastal Ecol- ogy Institute of LSU for 9 years. He has been awarded numerous grants for his research since 1978, including multiple awards from the Minerals Management Service and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to support the new sampling as well as reanalysis of archi- val deep Gulf of Mexico data. He is a principal investigator in the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Census of Marine Life and co-directs international research on continental margin ecosystems. He is a founding member of INDEEP (International Network for Scientific Investigation of the Deep Sea), which will begin funding by Foundation TOTAL in 2011. In addition to basic science, he has published on the design of oil-related impact studies and information needs of deep ocean management. Dr. Carney will provide critical insights regarding the effects of the spill on benthic biota in the GoM, particularly in the deeper waters near the blowout. In 1977 Dr. Carney earned a Ph.D. in oceanography from Oregon State University; he also earned an M.S. in ocean- ography from Texas A&M University in 1971 and a B.S. in zoology from Duke University in 1967. Cortis K. Cooper currently serves as Fellow with Chevron Energy Technology Company, a posi- tion he has held since 2002. Prior to beginning his service as Fellow, Dr. Cooper was employed as Scientist/Engineer at Chevron Exploration Technology for 12 years. In this position, he was primarily tasked with quantifying winds, waves, and currents for operation and design of off- shore facilities worldwide including measuring and modeling oil spill fates; modeling hurricane alleys in the Gulf of Mexico; modeling sea level in the Caspian Sea; forecasting the Loop Current 228

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Appendix A and associated eddies in the Gulf of Mexico; supervising major ocean current models in the Gulf of Mexico, West Africa, Northeast Atlantic, and Northwest Australia; leading a $1.6 million, 32-company joint industry project (JIP) to improve ocean towing; and leading a $2 million, 24-company JIP to investigate the fate of oil and gas from deepwater blowouts. Dr. Cooper was a member of the 2003 National Research Council’s Committee on Oil in the Sea: Inputs, Fates, and Effects, which initiated and led a field experiment in 2000 that simulated a deepwater blowout off Norway. He has studied the physical oceanography of the Gulf of Mexico for 25 years. Dr. Cooper brings a wealth of relevant skills to the committee, but his grasp of industry standard operating procedure and his understanding of oil dispersion under various oceanographic conditions will be most useful. He earned a Ph.D. in environmental engineering from the University of Maine in 1987, and an M.Sc. and a B.S. in civil engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1977 and 1975, respectively. Jody W. Deming holds the Walters Endowed Professorship in the University of Washington’s School of Oceanography. She has also served as Director of the University of Washington’s Ma- rine Bioremediation Program. Dr. Deming has made major contributions to the understanding of life in deep sea and polar environments. As a marine microbiologist, Dr. Deming has focused her research efforts on the behavior of bacteria under conditions of extreme temperatures, pressures, and salt concentrations. She has used a combination of observational, experimental, and modeling approaches to explore the role of bacteria in the flow of carbon through deep- sea ecosystems, including in the Gulf of Mexico. Dr. Deming’s expertise on marine microbial communities and their role in ecosystem functioning will be essential as the committee as- sesses the impact of the oil on the lower trophic levels of the Gulf food web. Dr. Deming earned a Ph.D. in microbiology from the University of Maryland, College Park in 1981, and a B.A. in biological sciences from Smith College in 1974. She was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2003 and is a current member of the Ocean Studies Board. David J. Die is an Associate Professor at the University of Miami’s Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science and the Associate Director of the Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies. Dr. Die’s research focus is on the quantitative evaluation of fishery management strategies, and his current portfolio includes collaborative development of a fishery ecosystem model for the Gulf of Mexico. He also has strong links to the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council and was the founding director of the Center of Independent Experts, a central part of the peer-review process for the National Marine Fisheries Service. Dr. Die is the current chair of the Big-Eye Tuna Working Group of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna and has recently been asked to serve on the international panel synthesizing tuna and billfish science for the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. He has extensive knowledge of both the ecology and population dynamics of upper trophic levels in the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem and the fishing pressures, and management regimes, to which they are subject. He will bring an international perspective and a strong understanding of the impacts of the spill on the fishing industries in the Gulf. Dr. Die received 229

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appen d ix a a Ph.D. in biology and living resources from the University of Miami in 1989, and a B.Sc. in zool- ogy and marine biology from the Universidad de La Laguna (Spain) in 1982. Josh Eagle is an Associate Professor of Law at the University of South Carolina (USC) School of Law and is affiliated with USC’s Marine Sciences Program and its School of Earth, Ocean and Environment. His expertise is in ocean and coastal law, natural resources law, environmental law, and property law. He has testified before Congress and the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force on legal issues related to ocean zoning and the siting of offshore energy facilities. Profes- sor Eagle’s expertise in pertinent laws and regulations, including the Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process, will help the committee to understand the legal implications of various definitions and assessments of ecosystem services. From 1990 to 1995, Professor Eagle served as a trial attorney for the U.S. Department of Justice in Washington, DC. From 1997 to 1998, he was wildlife counsel in the policy office of the National Audubon Society in Washing- ton, DC. Mr. Eagle received a J.D. from Georgetown University Law Center in 1990, an M.S. in for- est sciences from Colorado State University in 1996, and a B.A. from Johns Hopkins University in 1985. Joseph R. Geraci is Professor in the Department of Pathology and in the Program of Compara- tive Medicine at the University of Maryland’s School of Medicine. His research over the past 40 years has focused on understanding how biological and environmental factors underpinning marine mammal health break down to affect the viability of the individual or population. Dr. Geraci has led research teams from the Arctic to the tropics, on studies of factors governing the health of marine mammals and their environment. He has published extensively on the effects of oil on marine mammals. In addition, Dr. Geraci has served as marine mammal health and program advisor to the U.S. Department of Agriculture; Department of Justice; Marine Mam- mal Commission; National Marine Fisheries Service; U.S. Navy; Canada Department of Fisher- ies and Oceans; the governments of Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and Spain and the Caribbean and Pacific Rim nations; the International Whaling Commission; United Nations Environment Program; International Atomic Energy Agency; and nongovern- mental organizations, aquariums, and research laboratories internationally. Working with the National Marine Fisheries Service, he has played a founding role in developing U.S. regional marine mammal stranding-recovery programs into a nationwide network with international reach. Dr. Geraci will provide an important set of skills in assessing the pathologies and mortali- ties of megafauna (such as marine mammals and sea turtles) that are attributed to the oil spill. Dr. Geraci has a V.M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania, a Ph.D. from McGill University in Montreal, Canada, and a B.Sc. from Suffolk University in Boston. Barbara A. Knuth is Vice Provost, Dean of the Graduate School, Professor of Natural Resource Policy and Management, and Associate Director of the Human Dimensions Research Unit in the Department of Natural Resources at Cornell University. Dr. Knuth’s research focus, through theory development and empirical studies, advances understanding and practice related to the human dimensions of natural resource management, particularly related to fisheries and 230

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Appendix A wildlife resources, and aims to foster integration of social science and natural/physical science information within natural resource management and policy decision-making processes. Dr. Knuth’s expertise will help the committee to accurately identify and quantify the relevant eco- system services that have significant societal importance. She earned a Ph.D. in fisheries and wildlife sciences from the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in 1986, an M.Eng., a B.Phil., and a B.A. from Miami University in 1982 and 1980, respectively. Kenneth Lee is the Director of the Wealth from Oceans National Research Flagship, part of Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. He leads a national multidisciplinary team to promote research and development and the application of emerging technologies in ocean sciences to increase Australia’s global competitiveness. Previously, he was Executive Director of the Centre for Offshore Oil, Gas and Energy Research (COOGER), part of Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Dr. Lee’s research and project management activities include studies to link organic and inorganic contaminants, marine noise, and alterations in hydrody- namic processes to effects on biota, including commercial fisheries species; chemical/microbio- logical studies on the biotransformation and biodegradation of contaminants; development of novel approaches to assess the impact of organic pollutants by the development and valida- tion of toxicity assays based on advances in genomics, microbial ecology, and biochemical analysis; and coordination of multidisciplinary studies including the application of numerical models to predict the risk of industrial activities and contaminants on ecosystem health. Dr. Lee is one of the world’s leading experts on the effects of dispersants and other spill response technologies: This expertise will be most useful as the committee assesses the impact of the 1.8 million gallons of dispersants used in the DWH oil spill. He received a Ph.D. and M.Sc. in botany/ environmental studies from the University of Toronto in 1982 and 1977, respectively, and a B.Sc. in biology from Dalhousie University in 1975. James T. Morris is the Director of the Belle Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Professor of Biological Sciences, Distinguished Professor of Marine Studies at the University of South Carolina, and an American Association for the Advancement of Science Fellow. Dr. Morris has authored more than 80 peer-reviewed publications, largely focused on coastal wetlands. He has served on numerous committees and panels for various agencies, including the U.S. Na- tional Science Foundation (NSF), the Irish National Science Foundation, the National Research Council, and the IndoFlux committee of India. Dr. Morris has a long history of funding from NSF for research at North Inlet, South Carolina, on the effects of sea level change on coastal wet- lands. Dr. Morris will help the committee assess the impacts of the spill (and spill responses) on the Gulf wetlands—arguably the most critical and complex habitat responsible for many of the ecosystem services under review with this study. He earned a Ph.D. in forestry and environmen- tal studies and am M.S. in biology from Yale University in 1979 and 1975, respectively, and a B.A. in environmental sciences from the University of Virginia in 1973. Stephen Polasky is the Fesler-Lampert Professor of Ecological/Environmental Economics in the Department of Applied Economics at the University of Minnesota. His research interests in- 231

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appen d ix a clude ecosystem services, natural capital, biodiversity conservation, endangered species policy, integrating ecological and economic analysis, renewable energy, environmental regulation, and common property resources. Papers authored by Dr. Polasky have been published in Biologi- cal Conservation, Ecological Applications, Journal of Economics Perspectives, Nature, and Science, among others. He has served as co-editor and associate editor for the Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. He previously held faculty positions in the Department of Agri- culture and Resource Economics at Oregon State University (1993–1999) and the Department of Economics at Boston College (1986–1993). Dr. Polasky was the senior staff economist for en- vironment and resources for the President’s Council of Economic Advisors from 1998 to 1999. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2010. Also, he was elected as a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2009 and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2007. Dr. Polasky is a leader in the rapidly growing field of ecosystem services valuation, which is one of the core tasks for this study. Dr. Polasky received his Ph.D. in economics from the University of Michigan in 1986. Nancy N. Rabalais is Executive Director and Professor at the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium. Dr. Rabalais’ research includes the dynamics of hypoxic environments, interactions of large rivers with the coastal ocean, estuarine and coastal eutrophication, and environmental effects of habitat alterations and contaminants. Dr. Rabalais is an American Association for the Advancement of Science Fellow, an Aldo Leopold Leadership Program Fellow, a National Asso- ciate of the National Academies of Science, a past president of the Estuarine Research Federa- tion, a past vice-chair of the Scientific Steering Committee of Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone/International Geosphere-Biosphere Program, and a past chair of the NRC Ocean Studies Board. She is a current member of the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) Council, the National Sea Grant Advisory Board, a Trustee for the Consortium for Ocean Leadership, a member of the Governing Board for the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System, and an NRC committee member for Applying the Clean Water Act across the Mississippi River Basin. She received the 2002 Ketchum Award for coastal research from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and shares the Blasker award with R. E. Turner. She was awarded the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Ruth Patrick Award and the National Water Research Institute Clarke Prize in the summer of 2008. Her technical famil- iarity with the GoM and the interface between the deep benthic habitats and habitats along the coastal and continental shelf will be useful in determining the impacts of the oil at various depths. Dr. Rabalais received her Ph.D. in zoology from the University of Texas at Austin in 1983. Ralph G. Stahl, Jr. received his B.S. in marine biology from Texas A&M University (cum laude), his M.S. in Biology from Texas A&M University, and his Ph.D. in Environmental Science and Toxi- cology from the University of Texas School of Public Health. After receiving his Ph.D., he was a National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Senior Postdoctoral Fellow in the Depart- ment of Pathology at the University of Washington in Seattle where he investigated the impact of genetic toxins on biological systems. Dr. Stahl joined the DuPont Company in 1984 and in the intervening years has held both technical and management positions in the research and 232

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Appendix A internal consulting arenas. His research over the past 25 years has focused primarily on evalu- ating the effects of chemical stressors on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Since 1993 Dr. Stahl has been responsible for leading DuPont’s corporate efforts in ecological risk assessment and natural resource damage assessments for site remediation. He has been involved with oceanographic studies in the Atlantic, Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea; biological and ecological assessments at contaminated sites in the United States, Europe, and Latin America; and numerous toxicological studies with mammals, birds, and aquatic organisms. He has been selected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Army Corps of Engineers, Strate- gic Environmental Research and Development Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Academy of Sciences, the Water Environment Research Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmpspheric Administration, state of Washington, state of Texas, and others to national or state peer-review panels on ecological risk assessment, endocrine disrup- tion in wildlife, or natural resource injury determination. Dr. Stahl has served on EPA’s Science Advisory Board (Advisory Council on Clean Air Compliance Analysis, Ecological Effects Subcom- mittee) and the Department of the Interior’s FACA Panel on Natural Resource Damages, and he currently is active in the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), Ecological Risk Assessment Advisory Group. He is board certified in general toxicology and is a Diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology. He has authored more than 45 peer-reviewed publica- tions on topics in environmental toxicology, ecological risk assessment, and risk management. He recently edited three books stemming from SETAC Education Foundation–sponsored work- shops, and he currently serves on the editorial board of the journal Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. David Yoskowitz is the HRI Endowed Chair for Socio-Economics at the Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, and Professor in the College of Business at Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi. Dr. Yoskowitz’s interests include market and nonmarket valuation; ecosystem services; micro and small enterprise development; environmental and water markets; border economics; development microeconomics in Latin America; and socioeconomic environment of the GoM region. Dr. Yoskowitz will bring a strong understanding of the GoM ecosystem services and valuation, as well as a local appreciation of the smaller businesses and enterprises impacted by the spill. He received a Ph.D. in economics and an M.A. in economics from Texas Tech University in 1997 and 1994, respectively, and a B.A. in economics and finance from Bent- ley College in 1990. Staff Kim Waddell is a senior program officer with the Ocean Studies Board. He received his Ph.D. in the biological sciences from the University of South Carolina and his B.A. in environmental studies from the University of California, Santa Cruz. Dr. Waddell recently rejoined the NRC after a 6-year hiatus during which he was a research associate professor at the University of the Virgin Islands and Texas A&M University working to build marine and environmental research 233

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appen d ix a capacity in the Caribbean region. During his previous tenure with the NRC, Dr. Waddell directed a number of studies for the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources including California Agricultural Research Priorities: Pierce’s Disease (2004); Biological Confinement of Genetically Engineered Organisms (2004); Animal Biotechnology; Science-Based Concerns (2002); The Envi- ronmental Effects of Transgenic Plants (2002); Exploring Horizons for Domestic Animal Genom- ics (2002); and The Future Role of Pesticides in U.S. Agriculture (2000). Sherrie Forrest is an associate program officer with the Ocean Studies Board and the Board on Science Education at the National Research Council. She currently supports the work of several projects, including the Roundtable on Climate Change Education and the Effects of the Deep- water Horizon Mississippi Canyon-252 Oil Spill on Ecosystem Services in the Gulf of Mexico, and she previously worked on the Conceptual Framework for New Science Education Standards. She is also the study director on the Workshop on Climate Change Education in Formal Set- tings, K-14. She has a B.A. in English literature from Pepperdine University and an M.S. in bio- logical oceanography from the Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences at Rutgers University. Lauren Harding was a program assistant with the Ocean Studies Board from August 2011 to October 2012. In 2011, she graduated from High Point University majoring in biology and mi- noring in chemistry. As an undergraduate, she conducted an independent research project on cave ecosystems. Prior to her position at OSB, Lauren was a marketing and accounting assistant with Webco General Partnership, a company of the U.S. military resale market. Heather Chiarello joined the National Academy of Sciences in July 2008. She graduated magna cum laude from Central Michigan University in 2007 with a B.S. in political science with a concentration in public administration. Ms. Chiarello is currently a senior program assistant with the Ocean Studies Board in the Division on Earth and Life Sciences of the National Acad- emies. She is pursuing a master’s degree in sociology and public policy analysis at The Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C. Jessica Dutton received her B.A. from Mount Holyoke College and her Ph.D. in marine biol- ogy from the University of California, Santa Barbara. As an ecological physiologist, her doctoral research focused on understanding the relationship between species tolerances and coastal environmental conditions, and how such patterns relate to range distributions and climate change. She was a Fellow in 2009 with the National Sea Grant Knauss Marine Policy Fellowship Program and in 2012 with the Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellowship Program at the National Academy of Sciences. In the latter position, and subsequently as a Re- search Associate, she has worked with the Ocean Studies Board on several NRC studies includ- ing the Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon-252 Oil Spill on Ecosystem Services in the Gulf of Mexico, Review of the National Ocean Acidification Research Plan, and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Stock Rebuilding Plans of the 2006 Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act. 234

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Appendix A Constance (Stacee) Karras joined the National Academy of Sciences in September 2012. She received her B.A. in marine affairs and policy with concentrations in biology and political sci- ence from the University of Miami in 2007. The following year she received an M.A. in marine affairs and policy from the University of Miami’s Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. Most recently, she earned her J.D. from the University of Virginia School of Law. Ms. Karras is now serving as a post graduate intern with the Ocean Studies Board in the Division of Earth and Life Sciences of the National Academies. 235

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