Global Development Goals
and Linkages to
Health and Sustainability

WORKSHOP SUMMARY

Erin Rusch, Rapporteur

Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine

Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu



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Erin Rusch, Rapporteur Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The workshop that is the subject of this workshop summary was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (HHSN26300013). The views presented do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this activity. This summary is based on the proceedings of a workshop that was sponsored by the Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine. It is prepared in the form of a workshop summary by and in the name of the rapporteur as an individually authored document. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-28864-4 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-28864-9 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at: www.iom.edu. Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin. Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2014. Global Development Goals and Linkages to Health and Sustainability: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org .

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PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR THE WEBINAR SERIES ON GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT1 JOHN M. BALBUS, Senior Advisor for Public Health, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD LUIZ A. GALVÃO, Area Manager, Sustainable Development and Environmental Health, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC BERNARD D. GOLDSTEIN, Professor Emeritus, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA FRANK LOY, U.S. Representative to the 66th Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations, Washington, DC KUMANAN RASANATHAN, Health Specialist, Knowledge Management and Implementation Research Unit, United Nations Children’s Fund, New York, NY JUDITH N. WASSERHEIT, Professor and Vice Chair, Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle 1 Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for or- ganizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The res- ponsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteur and the institution. v

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ROUNDTABLE ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES, RESEARCH, AND MEDICINE1 FRANK LOY (Chair), U.S. Representative to the 66th Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations, Washington, DC LYNN R. GOLDMAN (Vice-Chair), Dean, School of Public Health and Health Services, George Washington University, Washington, DC HENRY A. ANDERSON, State Health Officer, Wisconsin Division of Public Health, Madison JOHN M. BALBUS, Senior Advisor for Public Health, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD JAMES K. BARTRAM, Don and Jennifer Holzworth Distinguished Professor, Director of the Water Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill LINDA S. BIRNBAUM, Director, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC LUZ CLAUDIO, Associate Professor, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY DENNIS J. DEVLIN, Senior Environmental Health Advisor, ExxonMobil Corporation, Irving, TX RICHARD A. FENSKE, Professor and Associate Chair, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle ALISTAIR FRASER, Vice President of Health, Royal Dutch Shell, The Hague, Netherlands LUIZ A. GALVÃO, Area Manager, Sustainable Development and Environmental Health, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC BERNARD D. GOLDSTEIN, Professor Emeritus, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA 1 Institute of Medicine forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteur and the institution. vii

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RICHARD J. JACKSON, Professor and Chair, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles SUZETTE M. KIMBALL, Deputy Director, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, Reston, VA JAY LEMERY, Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine, President, Wilderness Medical Society, University of Colorado, Aurora ANDREW MAGUIRE, Vice President for Environmental Health, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, DC LINDA A. MCCAULEY, Dean and Professor, Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, GA AL MCGARTLAND, Office Director, National Center for Environmental Economics, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC DAVID M. MICHAELS, Assistant Secretary of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC CANICE NOLAN, Senior Coordinator for Global Health, European Commission, Brussels, Belgium MARTIN A. PHILBERT, Dean, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor CHRISTOPHER J. PORTIER, Director, National Center for Environmental Health and Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA PAUL SANDIFER, Senior Science Advisor to the Administrator, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Charleston, SC JOHN D. SPENGLER, Professor, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA LOUIS W. SULLIVAN, President Emeritus, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA ANNE M. SWEENEY, Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Texas A&M University, College Station G. DAVID TILMAN, Director, Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve, Regents Professor, University of Minnesota, St. Paul PATRICIA VERDUIN, Chief Technology Officer, Global Research & Development, Colgate-Palmolive Company, Piscataway, NJ NSEDU OBOT WITHERSPOON, Executive Director, Children’s Environmental Health Network, Washington, DC viii

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HAROLD ZENICK, Director, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC IOM Staff CHRISTINE COUSSENS, Study Director (until August 2013) ERIN RUSCH, Associate Program Officer HOPE HARE, Administrative Assistant ROSE MARIE MARTINEZ, Director, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice ix

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Reviewers This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published workshop summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the summary meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individual’s for their review of this workshop summary: Jay Graham, George Washington University Canice Nolan, European Commission William Sonntag, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Kimberly Thigpen Tart, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this summary was overseen by Susan J. Curry, University of Iowa. Appointed by the Institute of Medicine, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this workshop summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the rapporteur and the institution. xi

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Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Overview of Sustainability, 2 Purpose of the Webinar Series, 5 Structure of the Summary, 6 References, 7 2 REFLECTING ON THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT AGENDA 9 Positioning Health in the Post-2015 Development Agenda, 10 A Perspective from Uganda: Millennium Development Goals and the Environment, 13 Lessons to Apply to the Post-2015 Development Agenda Process, 15 Discussion, 18 References, 22 3 HEALTH GOALS AND INDICATORS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 23 Bridging the Gap Between the Millennium Development Goals and Principles of Sustainable Development and Climate Change, 24 Joining Health and Sustainable Development Goals Through Low- Carbon Policies, 30 Metrics for Health, Development, and the Environment, 36 Discussion, 42 References, 45 4 LINKS AMONG SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, HEALTH EQUITY, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE 51 Global Environmental Change and Impacts on Human Health and Social Justice, 51 Policies to Address Health Equity, Social Justice, and Sustainable Development, 57 On-the-Ground Perspective on Addressing Health Equity and Sustainable Development, 62 Discussion, 63 References, 67 xiii

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xiv CONTENTS APPENDIXES A WEBINAR AGENDAS 69 B WEBINAR SPEAKER BIOSKETCHES 75