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OCR for page 273
FreeSurface Effects on a Yawed SurfacePiercing Plate
H. Maniar, I.N. Newman, H. Xu
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)
ABSTRACT
Analytical and experimental results are presented for
a thin vertical surfacepiercing plate, moving in the plane
of the free surface with constant velocity at a small angle
of attack.
The analytical development is a generalization of lin
ear thinwing theory, using a normal dipole distribution
on the plate and in the wake downstream of the trailing
edge. A Kutta condition is imposed at the trailing edge.
The linear freesurface boundary condition and farfield
condition are satisfied by using for the dipole potential
the transverse derivative of the classical shipwave Green
function for steady forward motion. Computations are
performed for a rectangular planform with aspect ratio
0.5, and these are compared with experimental data. Re
sults are presented for the integrated force and moment
distributed pressure, strength of the leadingedge singu
larity, and profile of the free surface alongside the plate.
Attention is focused on a local nonuniformity at the
intersection of the free surface and trailing edge. The nu
merical solution is not convergent at this point, with the
Kutta condition imposed. Experiments are made to study
this region. These show that there is a jump in the free
surface across the wake behind the trailing edge, contrary
to the assumed boundary conditions, but this jump exists
only above a critical Froude number. The jump is accom
panied by a sharp transverse flow, contrary to the Kutta
condition.
1. INTRODUCTION
The classical model of a thin ship was introduced in
waveresistance theory by J. H. Michell, to represent the
steady forward motion of a ship hull with transverse sym
metry. As in the analogous thickness problem of thinwing
theory, the solution can be constructed from a centerplane
distribution of sources with local strength proportional to
the longitudinal slope of the body. The thinship model
has been used extensively for symmetric sourcelike appli
cations including the analyses of wave resistance in calm
water, and seakeeping in head seas.
273
Relatively little work has been devoted to the lift
ing problem, where a thin body is yawed or cambered.
This problem combines the fields of lifting surfaces and
ship waves. Following the analogous lifting problem of a
thin wing, a centerplane distribution of transverse dipoles,
or an equivalent combination of vortices, can be used to
represent the velocity potential. The kinematic boundary
condition on the plate yields an integral equation over this
surface for the unknown dipole moment. As in the thin
wing formulation a Kutta condition is appropriate at the
trailing edge, and trailing vortices (or dipoles of moment
independent of it:) must be distributed in the wake to sat
isfy the condition of pressure continuity across this surface.
But unlike the usual thinwing analysis, the dipole poten
tial must be generalized to satisfy the freesurface bound
ary condition; this substantially complicates the numerical
analysis, and necessitates the development of special algo
rithms to achieve satisfactory results.
From the practical standpoint several applications re
quire the solution of this problem. The most obvious are
the yawed steady motion of a sailboat, which normally re
quires a side force to oppose the aerodynamic load on the
sails. The same problem occurs in the yawed motion of a
ship from the standpoint of maneuvering in calm water.
Similar considerations apply to the struts on a hydrofoil
vessel, and to the hulls of a SWATH or catamaran (which
can experience lifting effects in straight motion without
yaw due to the interactions between the hulls). In the
unsteady generalization similar problems arise concerning
the transverse modes of ship motions in waves. Finally, in
an unlikely scenario which stimulated this investigation,
the bow assembly of a ship was installed with the stem off
center, and questions arose subsequently concerning the
hydrodynamic effects of this defect.
It is appropriate to idealize this class of problems by
considering the linearized case of a flat plate with rectan
gular planform. In this case the integral equation for the
dipole moment was derived by Newman A, but lacking
numerical results that work was never published. Sub
sequently in two independent studies Daoud [2] and Kern
t34 attempted to obtain numerical results, but these efforts
were not conclusive due to the limited computational re
sources of that time and the use of numerical integration
OCR for page 273
to evaluate the freesurface integral in the kernel. Anal
yses based on lowaspectratio approximations have been
presented by Chapman [4] and others.
Several more general panel codes have been developed
to represent the flow past a yacht hull, including the com
bined effects of the free surface and a transverse lift force.
These codes, which are reviewed by Larsson t5i, are e~ec
tive as design tools but they are not sufficiently efficient
and robust to study detailed aspects of the flow. Simi
larly, recent work by Ba et al [64 presents numerical and
experimental results for several surfacepiercing foils but
the numerical procedure is not able to resolve details of
the flow near the intersection with the free surface.
With the combined resources of supercomputers and
special algorithms for the kernel, it seemed to US that a
direct numerical solution of the integral equation might
now be feasible, and would illuminate several features of
the flow past a surfacepiercing body.
One detail of the overall problem which relates di
rectly to ship design is the strength of the leadingedge
singularity, particularly where the bow intersects the free
surface. Recent naval ships have been designed with a
circular stem profile of negligible radius compared to the
length scales of the hull. Thus a relatively small trans
verse flow component can induce separation, cavitation,
or ventilation at the stem, and these effects can only be
quantified by considering the global lifting problem. This
was a primary motivation for initiating the present work,
which includes specific results to address this issue, but as
the investigation progressed our attention moved down
stream to the trailing edge.
Observations of real flows just behind the trailing edge
commonly reveal a sharp 'jump' in the freesurface eleva
tion across the wake, as in the experiments of van den
Brug et al A. This jump cannot be reconciled with the
potentialflow boundary conditions since, if the pressure
is constant on the free surface and continuous across the
wake, the freesurface elevation must be continuous. The
theoretical results described below are derived on this ba
sis, but a pronounced nonuniformity exists in the solution
near the intersection of the free surface and trailing edge.
To provide further insight into the trailingedge flow
experiments have been carried out to observe the elevation
of the free surface along the sides of a thin uncambered
strut, as a function of the Froude number and angle of
attack. Two surprising results have emerged from these
observations. First, it appears that the jump occurs only
above a certain critical Froude number, and not more gen
erally for all Froude numbers. (In t7; there is also a ref
erence to two distinct regimes, depending on the Froude
number.) Based on our experiments, and using the chord
length to define the Froude number, the critical value is
approximately 0.65. The magnitude of the jump increases
with the Froude number beyond this point, and the jump
appears to be linearly proportional to the angle of attack.
The other surprise is that when the jump occurs there is
a distinct transverse flow component, in contradiction to
the Kutta condition. The vertical extent of this transverse
flow is similar to the elevation of the jump.
i
o
S. ~
plated
. ~
t1
I'
Figure 1. Definition sketch of the plate and coordinate
system.
2. ANALYTICAL FORMULATION
We consider a vertical rectangular surfacepiercing
plate of zero thickness, moving with constant velocity U
and a small angle of attack a. The chord length is c and
the draft (submerged span) is s. To simplify the presen
tation we assume that the plate is uncambered. Cartesian
coordinates (x, y, z) are defined with the origin at the in
tersection of the trailing edge and the waterline, the 1:axis
in the direction of forward motion of the plate, and the y
axis positive downwards. The geometry of the plate and
the coordinate system are shown in Figure 1.
Following the classical description of a planar lifting
surface, the fluid is assumed to be inviscid, incompressible,
and irrotational except for a thin sheet of trailing vorticity
in the wake. The perturbation velocity field is represented
as the gradient of a potential ~ which must satisfy the
Laplace equation
v24 = o (1)
in the fluid domain.
Since the angle of attack is assumed small, the bound
ary conditions may be linearized on the free surface SF'
body surface SO, and wake Sw. On SF the kinematic and
dynamic boundary conditions are combined in the form
2K= 0 on y = 0 (2)
~ BY
where K = g/U2 is the wave number of a plane progressive
wave with the phase velocity U and 9 is the graviational
acceleration. Together with this boundary condition a ra
diation condition is imposed that the farfield waves are
confined to a domain downstream of the body. On So the
appropriate kinematic boundary condition may be written
as
BY = Ua on x = 0 (3)
The pressure in the fluid is given by the linearized
Bernoulli equation
274
pPa=PUB¢+PgY (4)
OCR for page 273


_ 1
~ 

o
a ~
·7 c
to
a ~
~ oo o.to onto
free surface
g
O _
(6 X 6) panels
(12 x 12) panels
(24 x 24) panels
(48 x 48) panels
Figure 2. Results at a Etroude number F = 0.8 for the spanwise distribution of lift (C') and moment
(Cm ). Symbols denote different discretizations of Sb with the indicated numbers of panel segments
in the chordwise and spanwise directions, respectively.
where Pa is the atmospheric pressure on free surface. Since
the pressure must be continuous across the wake Sw, ex
tending downstream from the trailing edge, it follows that
~3 (~+  4) = 0 (5)
where superscripts denote the limiting values on z ~ 01.
In accordance with the Kutta condition the velocity
~s assumed to be finite and continuous at the trailing edge.
Finally, for large depths beneath the free surface, the ve
locity is assumed to vanish.
From (4) the elevation of the free surface is given by
IUB'
t7f ~ A ~· (6)
From (5) it follows that the freesurface elevation is con
tinuous across the wake. Since the only inhomogeneous
boundary condition (3) implies a solution ~ which is odd
in z, the freesurface elevation will vanish everywhere on
the xaxis except along the two sides of the plate, where
this elevation will be equal in amplitude and opposite in
sign.
Green's theorem can be used to reduce this boundary
value problem to an integral equation on SB. For this
purpose we first define the Green function
GFX,6) = rr +H(X,() (7)
where x(x,y,z) is the field point, ~ = (6,,7,`) is the
source point, and ~ and rO are, respectively, the distances
between the field point and the source point or its image
above the free surface:
r =
[(X(~2 + (y_ ?7~2 + (z_ <~2]1/2 (8)
r0 = t(X _ (~2 + (y + t7~2 + (z _ `~2lll2
The function H(X, (,) iS harmonic in the fluid domain,
and will be defined subsequently to satisfy the freesurface
boundary condition and radiation condition.
If Green's theorem is applied to the control volume
bounded by SF, SB, SW, and a closure at infinity, the
only nonvanishing contribution is from the normal dipoles
on SB U SW. The result is
41r /J(s~uS~ t+~71~° ~ ¢~,r1,o )] a dads
(9)
where SB+ and S+ denote the side of SB and Sw where
z ~ 0+, and where [3G/~3n = ~G/3Z = 3G/~3~. Let
ting m((,,7) = ¢~(,'7,0+)¢~(,'7,0), equation (9) ex
presses the velocity potential in terms of a continuous nor
mal dipole distribution over the lifting surface and its wake
with the unknown moment mum,. Differentiating both
sides of this equation with respect to z, and imposing the
boundary condition (3) on SB, the resulting equation may
be written as
41r x  o it /~{s~ use mail t7) HIS  dude = Ua (10)
This is a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind, to
be solved for the unknown function mix, y).
From the boundary condition (5) the unknown mix, y)
is independent of x on Sw,
m~x,y) = m(O,y) foroo < x ~ O; O < y ~ s
(11)
Thus the unknown function m is confined to the domain
of the lifting surface SB. Moreover, since the potential is
continuous outside the surfaces SB and Sw, the difference
in the potential between the two sides must vanish at the
leading edge and the lower edge of SB. This gives the
conditions
mtc,y)=0 forO
to
o
to
of
a
(6 x 6) panels
~ (12 x 12) panels
f. o (24 x 24) parcels
+ (48 x 48) panels
C)= '
0 90 1.00 ~.x o.,o 0 20 o.,o
lower edge free surface
0.40
Figure 3. Spanwise distribution of the leadingedge singularity strength (C) and drag coefficient
(C'`) for the same conditions described in Figure 2.
merged source moving with constant horizontal velocity
beneath the free surface. The following form, as given by
Newman t8i, is convenient for numerical applications:
1 1
Gtx,6) = 
r rO
+Re[lim2i r cos add
t°° e`(Y+~)+ikl~t 8ec t4+k(xA) tan ~
Jo kK cos2 ~ + ie dk
rnl2
+ 4iH((x) ~ sec2 ~ sin ~
 tr/2
e8(Y+~1) sec '9+iK(:cI) 8ec 19+iKz{ld.
(13)
Here H( fz) is the unit step function, equal to 1 if ~ > x
and 0 otherwise. The double integral in (13) represents
a symmetrical nonradiating disturbance, and the single
integral accounts for the wave field downstream.
In the limits of zero or infinite Froude number the
Green function reduces to (1/r ~ 1/rO), respectively. The
solution of the integral equation (10) is then equivalent to
that for the submerged plate plus its image above the free
surface, in an otherwise unbounded fluid, where the angle
of attack of the image is la respectively.
Except for the Rankine singularity 1/r, which must be
treated separately to account correctly for its limiting con
tribution on the boundary SB, the kernel of the integral
equation (10) can be evaluated from the second normal
derivative of G on the centerplane x = 0. From Laplace's
equation the corresponding tangential derivatives can be
used instead. Thus the values of the integrals in (13) are
only required on the centerplane, where special algorithms
described by Newman t8,9] are applicable. Following this
approach the double integral in (13) is replaced by poly
nomial approximations, and the single integral is replaced
by a pair of complementary Neumann expansions. Cor
responding analytic expressions have been derived for the
second normal derivative of these integrals, and effective
algorithms are described by Xu t10~. Using this approach
the kernel in (10) can be evaluated without the computa
tional burden of numerical integration and with uniform
accuracy of the results.
(6 x 6) panels
(12 x 12) panels
o (24 x 24) panels
+ (48 x 48) panels

o.eo 0.90 l.X
lower edge
The single integral in (13) contains an essential sin
gularity along the xaxis, which corresponds physically to
the short diverging waves with vanishing wavelength and
unbounded amplitude downstream of a source in the free
surface. Thus the limiting value of (13) is nonuniform for
lxid ~ 0, but if z~ = 0 the value of the single integral
is continuous as a function of the longitudinal and verti
cal coordinates. Thus when the source and field points are
both restricted to the plane y = 0 the single integral can be
evaluated without fundamental difficulties. On the other
hand, the second derivative of the Green function does
amplify a logarithmic singular component of the double
integral when rO ~ 0. This singularity is weaker than the
Rankine components 1/r and 1/rO, but it may be respon
sible for the nonuniform features of the solution at the
intersection of the plate with the free surface.
To obtain a numerical solution of the integral equa
tion (10) the domain SB is discretized in a similar manner
to liftingsurface theory, generalizing the approach of Lan
t11] with a nonuniform distribution of panels optimized
to account for the squareroot singularities at the leading
edge and lower tip and for the more complicated behavior
at the free surface. Further details regarding the analytic
formulation and numerical analysis are given by Xu t10~.
Standard algorithms [12] are used to evaluate the con
tribution from the Rankine singularities 1/r and 1/rO as
distributions with constant density over each panel. The
remaining contribution from the freesurface integrals is
evaluated by onepoint quadrature at the control point of
each panel. The boundary condition is satisfied by collo
~4
3, ~
276
. . . . . .
em  ~ Experimental data
, ~ Present results
 Slender body approximation
F
f lgure 4. Comparison of the lateralforce coefficients at
various Froude numbers. The experimental data is from
van den Brug, et al (1971) and slender body approximation
is due to Chapman (1976).
OCR for page 273
cation, leading to a system of N algebraic equations with
the same number of unknowns. The contribution from the
dipoles in the wake is evaluated by the same approach,
with the wake discretized by rectangular panels and trun
cated at a sufficiently large distance downstream deter
mined so that the results are not affected. This scheme
has been validated in the zeroFroudenumber limit by
comparison with numerical results in the aerodynamic lit
erature.
The theoretical results shown here are for an aspect
ratio equal to 0.5. This value was selected to permit com
parison with the experimental results of van den Brug A.
Integrated quantities include the lift coefficient C1, yaw
moment CM about the midchord point, drag coefficient
CD, and the thrust coefficient CT from the leadingedge
suction force. The lift force and yaw moment are evaluated
directly by pressure integration over the discretized surface
SB . The leadingedge suction force is derived by assuming
the squareroot singularity of the nondimensional pressure
coefficient
AC', = P. UP = U (P' Y) (14)
to be of the form
ACp ~ 2C(y)~/~ (15)
near the leading edge. After integrating both equations
with respect to x,
C(y) = 2U~ km >fi~
(16)
This limit is extracted by Aitken's extrapolation algo
rithm, and the sectional leadingedge thrust coefficient is
evaluated from the relation
Cty ~C2~'
(17)
Finally, the drag coefficient is derived from the rela
tion CD = CI,RXCT. Note that CD is the total drag co
efficient including the sum of induced drag and wave drag.
(Integration in the Treftz plane is not practical due to the
difficulties of evaluating the wave field far downstream.)
1
! ~
Aim
of
on 1
l
.
O 04) 0. t0 0 20 0.30 0 40 0 50 0 60
free surface Y
(6 x 6) panels
(12 x 12) panels
(24 x 24) panels
(48 x 48) panels
I
0.70 O.BO 0.90 J.00
lower edge
Figure 5. Spanwise distributions of pressure coefficients
at the trailing edge for the same conditions aescr~oea In
Figure 2.
fir
_ . . _ .. . .
Tests of numerical convergence have been made by
comparing the results based on discretizations with 6 x 6,
12 x 12, 24 x 24, and 48 x 48 panels. Note that the latter
computations involve a total of 2304 unknowns, and the
solution of a linear system of equations with 2304 x 2304 =
5.3 x 106 coefficients to be evaluated from the derivatives
of the Green function (13~. Convergence to two significant
figures is achieved for the integrated force coefficients with
the 24 x 24 = 576 discretization.
Most of the computations with less than 1000 panels
were performed on a VAX750 computer. Those for larger
numbers of panels were performed on a CrayYMP.
Results for the spanwise distribution of the lift and
moment coefficients are shown in Figure 2. Figure 3 shows
the spanwise distribution of the leadingedge singularity
strength and drag coefficient. The leadingedge singularity
vanishes at the free surface, since the pressure is constant
on this surface. The other coefficients plotted in these
two figures are all affected near the free surface by a local
nonuniformity which manifests itself most strongly near
the trailing edge, and is discussed further below.
Figure 4 compares the total lift and moment coeffi
cients with the experimental data of van den Brug t7] and
with the slenderbody theory of Chapman [44. The re
sults appear to be satisfactory, with improved agreement
from the present results compared to those of Chapman
especially in the case of the moment.
Near the trailing edge the solution is not convergent,
as indicated in Figure 5. Here the pressure coefficient
is derived from L'Hospital's rule in terms of the second
derivative of m with respect to the angular coordinate ~
defined by the relation sing = 2//c. From the
Kutta condition the pressure coefficient should vanish at
the trailing edge, whereas the actual values computed in
this manner are not precisely zero and the error appears
to increase without limit as the free surface is approached
from below.
The perspectives in Figure 6 show in a revealing man
ner the complete pressure distribution on SB as a function
of the Froude number. In the two limits of zero and infinity
the result is well behaved near the trailing edge, and the
same appears to be true for the Froude number F = 0.3,
where the waves on the free surface are relatively short.
However at F = 0.8 a local nonuniformity is apparent at
the intersection of the free surface and trailing edge. This
nonuniformity is confined to a few panels adjacent to the
intersection point; as the number of panels is increased,
the domain of the nonuniformity is reduced.
To evaluate the freesurface profile along the intersec
tion of the plate, the unknown m must be differentiated
numerically with respect to the horizontal coordinate x,
and extrapolated vertically from the uppermost colloca
tion point to the free surface. The results are shown for
various discretizations in Figure 7. For the case F = 0.3
a finer discretization has been used longitudinally, to ac
count for the shorter wavelength scale. Other results are
shown later in conjunction with the experiments.
277
OCR for page 273
u ~
~
Figure 6. Normalized pressure distributions on the plate, at the indicated Froude numbers.
D (28 x 9) panels
(56 x 18) panels
(112 x 36) panels
~o
o
11
~o

~
 ~
'0.00 0.10 0.20
1;,
$.~.
f
F = 0.3
,~'
. . . .
0.60 0.70 0.60 0.90 I.W
L.E.
Figure 7. Free surface profile on the plate. Symbols denote different discretizations with the
Indicated numbers of panel segments in the chordwise and spanwise directions.
278
o
. , , ' 1
o . Q
O I · / ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
_ ~ (12 x 12) panes
f o (24 x 24) panels
{t + (48 x 48) panes
o ~
o
0.00 O.lO 0.20 0.30 0.40 O.SO 0.60
T.E. 2
F=0.8 !
it, 1
. . .
0.70 O.W 0.90
L.E.
OCR for page 273
Figure 8. Side views of the experimental setup and flow at an angle of attack c' = 6° and Froude
number F = 0.69, just above the critical Froude number. In the left figure the angle of attack is
such that the view is from the pressure side, and in the right figure from the suction side. The
jump is indicated in the left figure by the bright area extending downstream from the trailing edge.
Grid spacing is one inch, and the height of the jump is about 0.4 inches.
3. EXPERIMENTS
Experiments have been carried out to observe the flow
past a thin uncambered strut, mounted vertically and in
tersecting the free surface in the water tunnel of the MIT
Marine Hydrodynamics Laboratory. This tunnel, which
has a square cross section of 20 by 20 inches (0.51 x 0.51
meters), is normally used for tests of propellers and cap
tive bodies without a free surface. By lowering the water
level it is possible to perform tests with a free surface, and
relatively uniform inflow conditions can be achieved with
a level free surface if the depth Froude number is less than
approximately 0.5. The present tests were conducted at
a nominal depth of 14 inches (0.35m), and at velocities
up to 3.2 feet per second (1 m/s). Large windows on the
sides and bottom of the tunnel facilitate observations of
the flow.
A suitable strut model with rectangular planform was
constructed from aluminum plate, with chord 6.125 inches
(156mm) and maximum thickness 0.25 inches (6mm). The
profile was shaped to have an approximately parabolic
leadingedge section, and a blunt trailing edge of thickness
0.04 inches (lmm). To facilitate observations a square grid
with 1 inch spacing was established and threads were glued
to the surface, as shown in Figure 8. The upper portion of
the strut was attached to a vertical shaft which could be
rotated to vary the angle of attack. The submerged span
was adjusted by varying the elevation of the model and
water depth, to obtain aspect ratios up to one.
The inflow velocity was measured with a laser Doppler
anemometer (LDA). Some efforts were made to use the
LDA to survey the region near the trailing edge, and it
was possible to conclude in this manner that there was no
substantial separation.
The principal measurements were visual and photo
graphic observations of the freesurface elevation on the
two sides of the strut, which could be resolved to an accu
racy of about 1/16 inch (1.5mm). Near the leading edge
a thin spray sheet makes it difficult to establish the free
279
surface elevation, and no attempt was made to record data
over the forward 30~o of the chord. Measured values of the
jump were based on the difference in elevation of the free
surface on the two sides of the strut at the last grid line,
1/8 inch (3mm) upstream of the trailing edge.
In the following discussion results are given in nondi
mensional form based on the chord length, and the inflow
velocity is defined by the corresponding Froude number,
restricted to a maximum value of 0.8 due to the depth ef
fect noted above. Except where otherwise noted the tests
were conducted at an aspect ratio equal to one.
Initial observations revealed that there exists a crit
ical Froude number FC ~ 0.65. For F < FC there is no
observable jump, and the free surface is continuous across
the wake downstream of the trailing edge. Conversely, a
distinct jump exists if F > Fc. The height of the jump
is nearly proportional to the angle of attack. Viewed
from just below the plane of the free surface on the high
pressure side, as in the left photograph shown in Figure 8,
the jump appears as a brightly illuminated triangular sur
face which extends 2030% of the chord length downstream
of the trailing edge. Viewed from the lowpressure side, as
in the right photograph, the jump is apparent from the in
tersection point where the two sides of the jump cross and
reverse their relative elevations in an oscillatory manner.
Figure 9 shows the corresponding view from below.
Most of the threads at the trailing edge are oriented in
the expected manner to accord with the Kutta condition
of smooth tangential flow past the trailing edge, but the
uppermost two threads are sharply deflected indicating a
pronounced crossflow near the free surface. The vertical
extent of this crossflow is comparable to the jump height,
increasing in proportion to the angle of attack.
If the Froude number is increased gradually through
the critical value FC, it is apparent that the jump is related
primarily to a change in the flow on the lowpressure side
of the strut. Figure 10 illustrates this regime by showing
OCR for page 273
~d ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I; ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Figure 9. View from below in the same condition as Figure
8. Note the sharp deflection of the two uppermost threads
at the trailing edge.
a' L

or _
to
U.
MU
o
0 1
it.
E
o
_____.
,
0.29 0.43 O.S7 0.7t O.8IS 1.00 a
~ ~ X/C
Figure 10. Freesurface profiles on the pressure (upper)
and suction (lower) sides of the plate at subcritical (0.63)
and supercritical (0.74) Froude numbers, at an angle of
attack ct = 6°. Elevation is normalized by the chord length
and angle of attack.
~~~2~ ~
rid ~
~ L
to 1
~ I
.
to
1
cb.oo


. .
0.14 0.29
F = 0.63
 F = 0.69
 F = 0.74
· · ~ ~
0.43 0.57 0.7t 0.  t.00
1  x/c
Figure 12. Difference in freesurface elevation between the
two sides of the plate at the Froude numbers indicated, as
a function of the chordwise position, aspect ratio 1.0, angle
of attack 6°.
cb.oo O. 14 0.29 0.43 0,57 0.71 0.  t.00
Aspect ratio
Figure 13. Effect of aspect ratio on the jump height.
Froude number = 0.74.
°0,eo 0.68 O.7t
_ . .
0.77 0.83 0.  0.  t.00
froude number
Figure 11. Normalized jump height versus Froude number
for an aspect ratio 1.0. Height is normalized by the chord
length.
280
'0.00 0.14 0," 0 43 0." 0.7t 0.0 t.00
~  X/C
Figure 14. Comparison of computed and experimental
freesurface elevation difference, aspect ratio 0.5, angle of
attack 6°, Froude number 0.7.
OCR for page 273
separate free~urface profiles on the two sides of the strut
at Froude numbers close to the critical value. The eleva
tion of the free surface on the highpressure side changes
relatively slowly near Fc, but an abrupt shift occurs on
the lowpressure side. For F < Fc there is a steep slope
of the free surface on the low pressure side, with the el
evation rising to meet the flow from the opposite side at
the trailing edge. Above the critical Froude number this
effort is abandoned, in favor of independent flows on the
two sides with more gradual slopes.
Figure 11 shows the jump amplitude as a function of
the Froude number. The tendency for the jump to vanish
below a critical Froude number Fc is clear; the value of FC
appears to be close to 0.65.
The difference in elevation between the two sides of
the strut for Froude numbers just below and above the
critical value is shown in Figure 12. The difference is plot
ted here in order to remove the symmetric disturbance
due to thickness. However for the supercritical case the
nonsymmetric feature noted in connection with Figure 10
must be considered in attempting to distinguish between
thickness and lifting effects.
In Figure 13 the effect of aspect ratio on the jump
elevation is plotted, indicating a nearly linear proportion
ality. Thus the jump elevation is nearly proportional to
the span or draft, for aspect ratios less than one.
In Figure 14, we compare the experimental and the
oretical values of the freesurface elevation difference as a
function of position along the chord, for an aspect ratio
equal to 0.5. The theoretical curve shown is for ~ = 0.7
whereas F0.69 in the experiments. However other the
oretical results are similar at F = 0.6 and F0.8, hence
the small difference in Froude numbers is not significant
to this comparison. The results are similar up to a point
about 20% of the chord upstream of the trailing edge, with
the calculations based on the theory 2030% less than the
experiments. Closer to the trailing edge, however, the two
results are dissimilar. The experimental difference associ
ated with the jump remains positive, whereas the calcu
lated difference changes sign before reverting to the forced
value of zero at the trailing edge.
4. CONCLUSIONS
For a vertical surfacepiercing lifting surface we have
demonstrated that convergent numerical results can be de
rived for most parameters of practical importance. These
include the integrated force and moment coefficients, and
their spanwise distributions. Also included are calculated
values of the leadingedge singularity which can be used to
predict the occurrence of ventilation, cavitation, or sepal
ration, and to design the stem radius of ships or surface
piercing struts on a rational basis to avoid these undesir
able phenomena.
To obtain the present results special numerical tech
niques have been developed to evaluate the kernel of the
integral equation, i.e. the secondderivative of the free
surface Green function, and the discretization of the lifting
surface has been selected to improve the convergence rate.
To demonstrate numerical convergence up to 4032 panels
have been used. This level of computation is only feasible
by using a supercomputer, but reasonable engineering ac
curacy can be achieved with 0~500) panels except for low
Froude numbers where the wavelength is short.
The numerical solution breaks down locally at the
intersection of the trailing edge with the free surface. At
this point the pressure distribution is singular, and it is
unclear if this is the result of the numerical differentiation
and extrapolation required to derive this parameter, or if
there is a more fundamental cause.
Special experiments have been conducted to study the
flow near this singular point, and we find that a free
surface jump occurs when the Froude number exceeds a
critical value Fc. For an aspect ratio of one FC ~ 0.65,
based on the chord length. For aspect ratios in the range
0.251.0 the critical Froude number does not change sig
nificantly. For smaller values of the Froude number there
is no evidence of a jump. In the supercritical regime where
the jump occurs, a pronounced transverse velocity can be
observed just behind the trailing edge, contrary to the
Kutta condition.
The subcritical regime with no jump appears to be
compatible with the classical view of a vertical trailing
vortex sheet in the wake which intersects the free surface.
The boundary conditions of constant pressure on the free
surface and continuous pressure across the vortex sheet
require the freesurface elevation to be continuous across
the wake. Extending this argument, the kinematic bound
ary condition on the free surface implies continuity of the
vertical velocity component across the wale, and hence
vanishing of the trailing vorticity on the free surface. On
this basis the slope of the spanwise lift distribution should
vanish at the free surface, as in the simpler limiting case of
zero Froude number where a simple image solution applies.
Our description of the supercritical regime is more
speculative. If the jump is considered to be a vertical free
surface, joined from below by the trailing vortex sheet, the
pressure is continuous across the vortex sheet and hence
the magnitude of the fluid velocity is the same on both
sides of the sheet. This determines the velocity at the
lower edge of the jump, and moving upward along the
face of the jump the velocity is reduced to balance the hy
drostatic pressure. A discontinuity in the vertical velocity
component across the wake is accommodated by the dif
ferent slopes of the free surface on the two sides of the
jump, hence the trailing vorticity and slope of the span
wise lift distribution can be nonzero. The latter conditions
must apply ultimately in the limit of infinite Froude num
ber, where the negative image solution implies that the
spanwise lift is zero (but its slope is nonzero) at the free
surface.
A large negative pressure is required locally to offset
the surface tension associated with the sharp curvature at
the base of the jump, and this may explain the sharp cross
flow just behind the trailing edge near the free surface.
There is no indication that the jump observed in ex
periments is related to the numerical instability in the
same region, which is present for lower E`roude numbers.
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Moreover the numerical predictions of the freesurface ele
vation and pressure distribution near the free surface actu
ally change sign just ahead of the trailing edge, increasing
the longitudinal gradient in a manner precisely opposite
to the experimental flow. Since the computations are de
pendent on numerical differentiation and extrapolation, it
is impossible to be definitive on this point.
Further research is required to resolve these questions.
We hope that independent experiments will be conducted
to confirm and extend our observations, and to provide a
more detailed velocity survey of the jump region. Further
progress with the numerical analysis may also lead to a
more robust algorithm for calculating the pressure coeffi
cient and freesurface elevation near the trailing edge.
5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This work was supported by the Office of Naval Re
search, Contract N0001488K0057. The computations
with large numbers of panels were performed at the Pitts
burgh Supercomputer Center. The experiments were con
ducted in the water tunnel of the MIT Marine Hydrody
namice Laboratory.
6. REFERENCES
1. Newman, J.N., "Derivation of the Integral Equation
for a Rectangular Lifting Surface," unpublished manu
script, 1961.
2. Daoud, N., "Force and Moments on Asymmetric and
Yawed Bodies on a Free Surface," Ph.D. Thesis, 1973, Uni
versity of California, Berkeley.
3. Kern, E.C., '~Wave Effects of a free Surface Piercing
Hydrofoil," Ph.D. Thesis, 1973, Massachusetts Institute of
Technology.
4. Chapman, R.B., Free Surface Effects for Yawed Sur
face Piercing Plates," Journal of Ship Research, Vol. 20,
No. 3, 1976, pp 125136.
5. Larsson, L., Scientific Methods in Yacht Design," An
nual Review of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 22, 1990, pp 349
385.
6. Ba, M., Coirier, J., & Guilbaud, M., "Theoretical and
Experimental Study of the Hydrodynamic Flow around
Yawed SurfacePiercing Bodies," 2nd International Sym
posium on Performance Enhancement for Marine Appli
cations, Newport, RI, 1990.
7. van den Brug, J.B., Beukelman, W., and Prins, G.J.,
"Hydrodynamic Forces on a Surface Piercing Flat Plate,"
Report No. 325, Shipbuilding Laboratory, Delft Univer
sity of Technology, 1971.
8. Newman, J.N., `'Evaluation of the Wave Resistance
Green Function: Part 1.  The Double Integral," Journal
of Ship Research, Vol. 31, No. 2, 1987, pp 7990.
9. Newman, J.N., "Evaluation of the Wave Resistance
Green Function: Part 2.  The Single Integral on the
Centerplane," Journal of Ship Research, Vol. 31, No. 3,
1987, pp 145150.
10. Xu, H., Potential flow solution for a yawed surface
piercing plate," submitted for publication, 1989.
11. Lan, C.E., `'A QuasiVortexLattice Method in Thin
Wing Theory," Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 11, No. 9, 1974,
pp 518527.
12. Newman, J.N., "Distributions of Sources and Dipoles
over a Quadrilateral Panel," Journal of Engineering Math
ematics Vol. 20, 1986, pp 113126.
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DISCUSSION
Arthur M. Reed
David Taylor Research Center, USA
I have two questions concerning this paper: (1) Due to the small size
of the experimental fail, could you please comment on the issue of
scale effects (surface tension and Reynolds Number) with regard to
the Classical frauds where a jump in the free surface at the trailing
edge occurs; (2) In the case of SWATH ships, we see that there is
a jump at the trailing edge for IF ~ 0.3  0.35, where the SWATH
strut aspect ratio is 0.10  0.15 and the Angle of attack" of the strut
is due to the flow induced by the opposite strut and the two hulls.
Please comment on the effect of aspect ratio on critical IF and critical
IF for SWATH ships.
AUTHORS' REPLY
We only can speculate regarding the questions raised by Dr. Reed
concerning the effects of surface tension, Reynolds number, and
aspect ratio. Surface tension may be significant in balancing the
pressure field, as noted in Section 4. However, we envisage no
critical importance of this parameter with respect to the occurrence of
a jump. A similar view applies to the Reynolds number.
The aspect ratio may be more important; for small values of this
parameter the draft, rather than the length, may be the most
significant length scale (despite our observations to the contrary in a
relatively narrow range). In this event it would be expected that the
critical Froude number for a swath strut (based on length) would be
lower than the value we observe, by a factor approximately equal to
the square root of the aspect ratio. The cause of the crossflow
should not affect the existence of the jump, and thus the observations
noted by Dr. Reed appear to be consistent with our own.
We hope that other experimental observations will be made with thin
lifting surfaces of larger dimensions to clarify these issues.
DISCUSSION
Theodore Wu
California Institute of Technology, USA
My sincere congratulations to Prof. Nick Newman and his coauthors
for giving us such an interesting paper.
In respect to the surfacetension effects that may be involved in this
problem, I would like to report a demonstration of flow instability
(seemingly with a hysteresis) made a couple of decades ago by a
colleague of mine, Taras Kicenuik. Starting with a surfacepiercing
strut at yaw to a uniform stream of water, held steadily without flow
separation from the strut, a mere scratching of the water surface with
a fine musical wire across any upstream station would at once lead to
a rapid ventilation along the suctionside of the strut down to its
lower tip, thus opening up a long and deep pocket of air ventilation,
which can be readily closed up with some manual patching of the free
surface. (I will try to find if any technical report has been issued on
this experimental observation.)
ANCHORS' REPLY
Professor Wu has recalled a closelyrelated experiment which
illustrates the effect of hysteresis on ventilation. We assume that the
Froude number and/or angle of attack in that work were substantially
larger than in our own experiments. We saw no indication of
ventilation in the indicated ranges of Froude number and angle of
attack. We did not observe any signs of hysteresis with respect to the
jump at the trailing edge, either in the context of changing the Froude
number or the angle of attack, and when these parameters were fixed
there were no indications of instability in the height of the jump at
the trailing edge.
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