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Eighteenth Symposium on NAVAL HYDRODYNAMICS Ship Motions Ship Hydrodynamics Experimental Techniques Free-Surface Aspects Wave/Wake Dynamics Propeller/Hull/Appendage Interactions Viscous Effects sponsored jointly by Office of Naval Research The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Naval Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This work related to Department of Navy Contract N00014-87-C-0018 issued by the Office of Naval Research under contract authority NR 201-124. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Department of the Navy or the govenment, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, and dispose of all or any of this work, and to authorize others so to do. Partial support for the publication of these proceedings was provided by the Office of Naval Research of the Department of the Navy. The content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Navy, the U.S. Government, or the National Research Council, and no endorsement should be inferred. In the interest of timely publication, the individual authors' papers are presented here as received and with minimal editorial attention. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 91-62359 International Standard Book Number 0-309-04575-4 Copies available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington, D.C. 20418 S413 Printed in the United States of America

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Naval Studies Board Robert J. Hermann (Chair), United Technologies Corporation George F. Carrier, Harvard University Seymour J. Deitchman, Institute for Defense Analyses John F. Egan, Lockheed Electronic Systems Group Ivan A. Getting, Los Angeles, California Ralph R. Goodman, University of Southern Mississippi Willis M. Hawkins, Lockheed Corporation David W. Hyde, Science Applications International Corporation Sherra E. Kerns, Vanderbilt University Ray L. Leadabrand, Leadabrand and Associates John D. Lindl, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Chester M. McKinney, Applied Research Laboratories, University of Texas (Austin) William J. Moran, Los Altos, California George A. Paulikas, The Aerospace Corporation Alan Powell, University of Houston Robert C. Spindel, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington J. Pace VanDevender, Sandia National Laboratories Vincent Vitto, Lincoln Laboratories, Massachusetts Institute of Technology George M. Whitesides, Harvard University Navy Liaison Representatives Frank E. Shoup III, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations Ronald N. Kostoff, Office of Naval Research Staff Lee M. Hunt, Staff Director Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications Norman Hackerman (Chair), Robert A. Welch Foundation Peter J. Bickel, University of California at Berkeley George F. Carrier, Harvard University Herbert D. Doan, The Dow Chemical Company (retired) Dean E. Eastman, IBM, T.J. Watson Research Center Marye Anne Fox, University of Texas Phillip A. Griffiths, Duke University Neal F. Lane, Rice University Robert W. Lucky, AT&T Bell Laboratories Christopher F. McKee, University of California at Berkeley Richard S. Nicholson, American Association for the Advancement of Science Jeremiah P. Ostriker, Princeton University Observatory Alan Schriesheim, Argonne National Laboratory Roy F. Schwitters, Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory Kenneth G. Wilson, Ohio State University Norman Metzger, Executive Director . . . 111

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FOREWORD The Eighteenth Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics was held in Ann Arbor, Michigan, on August 19-24, 1990. This international symposium was jointly sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (Fluid Dynamics Program), the National Research Council (Naval Studies Board), and the University of Michigan (Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering). This biennial symposium promotes the exchange of technical developments in naval research of common interest to all the countries of the world. The forum encourages both formal and informal discussion of the presented papers, and the occasion provides opportunity for direct communication between international peers. Nearly 200 participants from some 20 countries attended the symposium, representing a mixture of experience and expertise from newly graduated students to scientists of established international repute. Fifty papers were presented in seven topical areas covered by the symposium: ship motions, ship hydrodynamics, experimental techniques, free-surface aspects, wave/wake dynamics, propeller/hull/appendage interactions, and viscous effects. These topics were chosen for this particular meeting because of recent advances that have been made in these areas. Examples of significant advances presented in the papers are the solution of nonlinear equations for ship motions and ship hydrodynamics, the small-scale dynamics of cavitation inception, development and implementation of v multipoint, free-surface measurements, modeling of solitons in Kelvin wakes, reconnection phenomena for vortex interactions with the free surface, Navier-Stokes solutions for propellers, and the inclusion of the hull boundary layer in predictions of hull flows. This brief list illustrates the quality and timeliness of the symposium for naval hydrodynamics. The success of this symposium is the result of hard work on the part of many people. There was, of course, the Organizing and Paper Selection Committee: Dr. Edwin Rood and Mr. James Fein (Office of Naval Research), Mr. Lee Hunt (National Research Council), Prof. Robert Beck and Prof. Armin Troesch (University of Michigan), Dr. Gerard van Oortmerssen (MARIN), Dr. William Morgan and Mr. Justin McCarthy (David Taylor Research Center). The contribution of this committee was certainly the cornerstone for the success of the symposium. However, the administrative preparation and execution would not have been possible without the support of Ms. Elizabeth Lucks and Mrs. Susan Campbell of the Naval Studies Board of the National Research Council, and Ms. Virginia Konz and Ms. Lisa Payton and the rest of the staff of the Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering at the University of Michigan. Appreciation is extended to the Towing Tank staff at the University of Michigan for the informative demonstration of their unique research capabilities. Edwin P. Rood Office of Naval Research

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