Appendix C

Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Session Moderators

R. M. Suresh Babu received his M.A. in physics from Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay and joined the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) in 1984. Since then he has been engaged in development of safety-critical software and control system software for nuclear power plants (NPPs). He was the chief designer of the first software-based reactor protection system used in an Indian NPP. He has also developed many real-time nuclear plant simulators for operator training and control system testing. He has participated in the preparation of regulatory guidance applicable to computer-based systems of Indian NPPs. His latest interest is in instrumentation and control security for NPPs.

Michael C. Browne is a technical staff member in the Safeguards Science and Technology Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). He earned his Ph.D. in nuclear physics from North Carolina State University in 1999, and has focused on technical safeguards issues for the past 13 years. He has developed advanced safeguards instrumentation for attended and unattended applications, and holds patents related to this work. He has coordinated several safeguards efforts for the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) in Japan, the Republic of Korea, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine. He has worked closely with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to develop and implement high profile safeguards solutions and has been recognized by the U.S. Secretary of Energy for his efforts.

Stephen Philip Cohen has been Senior Fellow in Foreign Policy Studies at the Brookings Institution since 1998. In 2004, he was named as one of the five hundred most influential people in the field of foreign policy by the World Affairs Councils of America. Cohen was a faculty member at the University of Illinois from 1965 to 1998. From 1992 to 1993 he was Scholar-in-Residence at the Ford Foundation, New Delhi, and from 1985 to 1987, a member of the Policy Planning Staff of the U.S. Department of State, where he dealt with South Asia. He has



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Appendix C Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers and Session Moderators R. M. Suresh Babu received his M.A.in physics from Indian Institute of Tech- nology, Bombay and joined the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) in 1984. Since then he has been engaged in development of safety-critical software and control system software for nuclear power plants (NPPs). He was the chief designer of the first software-based reactor protection system used in an Indian NPP. He has also developed many real-time nuclear plant simulators for opera- tor training and control system testing. He has participated in the preparation of regulatory guidance applicable to computer-based systems of Indian NPPs. His latest interest is in instrumentation and control security for NPPs. Michael C. Browne is a technical staff member in the Safeguards Science and Technology Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). He earned his Ph.D. in nuclear physics from North Carolina State University in 1999, and has focused on technical safeguards issues for the past 13 years. He has developed advanced safeguards instrumentation for attended and unattended applications, and holds patents related to this work. He has coordinated several safeguards efforts for the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) in Japan, the Republic of Korea, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine. He has worked closely with the Internation- al Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to develop and implement high profile safe- guards solutions and has been recognized by the U.S. Secretary of Energy for his efforts. Stephen Philip Cohen has been Senior Fellow in Foreign Policy Studies at the Brookings Institution since 1998. In 2004, he was named as one of the five hun- dred most influential people in the field of foreign policy by the World Affairs Councils of America. Cohen was a faculty member at the University of Illinois from 1965 to 1998. From 1992 to 1993 he was Scholar-in-Residence at the Ford Foundation, New Delhi, and from 1985 to 1987, a member of the Policy Planning Staff of the U.S. Department of State, where he dealt with South Asia. He has 155

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156 India-U.S. Cooperation on Technical Aspects of Civilian Nuclear Materials Security taught at Andhra University (India) and Keio University (Tokyo), Georgetown University, and now teaches in the South Asian program of Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies. Cohen has served on numerous study groups examining Asia sponsored by the Asia Society, the Council on Foreign Relations, the Asia Foundation, and the National Bureau of Asian Research; he is currently a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) and a trustee of the Public Education Center. Cohen was the co-founder and chair of the workshop on Security, Technology and Arms Control for younger South Asian and Chinese strategists, held for the past ten years in Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, and China, and was a founding member of the Research Committee of the South Asian strategic organization, the Regional Centre for Security Studies, Colombo. Cohen has written, co-authored, or edited ten books. Cohen received B.A. and M.A. degrees in political science from the University of Chicago, and a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Wisconsin. He has conducted research in China, Britain, India, Pakistan, the for- mer Soviet Union, and Japan. He received grants from several major foundations and serves as a consultant to numerous government agencies. Philip Gibbs has 29 years of project management and subject matter expert experience in nuclear safeguards with emphasis in material control and account- ability (MC&A) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) domestic and in- ternational programs. Gibbs currently is working as a safeguards research and development manager at Brookhaven National Laboratory supporting the U.S. material protection control and accounting (MPC&A) program with a focus on insider analysis and mitigation. Prior to moving to international work, Gibbs served as the Local Area Network Material Accounting System (LANMAS) project manager managing the development and implementation of LANMAS, a standardized inventory and control system for nuclear components and invento- ries among DOE contractors. At the DOE Savannah River Site, he worked as a MC&A manager for accounting, technical support, procedures, and training. Prior to that time, Gibbs worked as a measurement control engineer in the area of mass measurements and process tank calibrations. Gibbs has a B.S. in Busi- ness from Miami University (1983) and M.S. in Logistics from Wright State University (1989). Clifford Glantz is a project manager and senior staff scientist for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). His research focuses on cybersecurity risk management, critical infrastructure protection, and emergency preparedness and response. Glantz is the program manager for PNNL’s cybersecurity efforts in support of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and he leads pro- jects in support of DOE’s Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) program. His recent work has also been conducted for the Institute for Infor- mation Infrastructure Protection and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Glantz is the current national chair of the DOE Subcommittee on Con-

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Appendix C 157 sequence Assessment and Protective Actions (SCAPA) and a member of several technical working groups. Ravi B. Grover graduated in mechanical engineering from Delhi College of Engineering in 1970 and joined BARC Training School to study nuclear engi- neering. He worked as a nuclear engineer for 25 years and specialized in thermal hydraulics. Simultaneously, he obtained a Ph.D. from the Indian Institute of Sci- ence (IIS), Bangalore in 1982. Presently, he is working as a Principal Advisor at DAE and is a member of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). He is concur- rently working as Director of the Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI), and is responsible for running the university. As Principal Adviser, he deals with issues related to nuclear power policy of India, including the evolution of the nuclear legislative framework, energy studies, and international collaborations. Grover was a member of the team of officials involved in negotiations that led to opening up of international civil nuclear cooperation. He is also chair of the In- dian delegation to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Coun- cil. He served as a member of the expert group, constituted by the director gen- eral of the IAEA, to examine multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle. Grover is a fellow of the Indian National Academy of Engineering and President of the Indian Society of Heat and Mass Transfer. His recent awards include the INS Award in 2006 for Nuclear Reactor Technology, including nuclear safety; the Dhirubhai Ambani Oration Award in 2008; the Distinguished Alumnus Award in 2009 from the Delhi College of Engineering Alumni Association; and Distinguished Alumnus Award in 2011 from the IIS and the IIS Alumni Associ- ation. Ian Hutcheon is the deputy director of the Glenn Seaborg Institute and leader of the Chemical and Isotopic Signatures Group in the Chemical Sciences Division at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Hutcheon is also the sci- entific lead for nonproliferation nuclear forensics at LLNL. Prior to joining LLNL in 1994, Hutcheon was senior research associate in the Division of Geo- logical Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California for 12 years. He spent two years as a post-doctoral fellow and six years as a senior re- search associate at the Enrico Fermi Institute at the University of Chicago. Hutcheon received a B.A. (physics) at Occidental College, Los Angeles in 1969, and a Ph.D. in physics from the University of California at Berkeley in 1975. Hutcheon has authored over 170 publications in peer-reviewed journals in the areas of secondary ion mass spectrometry, early solar system chronology, meta- bolic processes in microbial organisms and nuclear forensics and nonprolifera- tion. Hutcheon is co-author of Nuclear Forensic Analysis, the only textbook on nuclear forensics. Hutcheon has supervised the graduate education of two M.S. and eight Ph.D. students and directed the activities of 18 postdoctoral research- ers. He is a member of the American Geophysical Union and the Microbeam Analysis Society, and a Fellow of the Meteoritical Society.

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158 India-U.S. Cooperation on Technical Aspects of Civilian Nuclear Materials Security Raymond Jeanloz is a professor of earth and planetary science and of astrono- my at the University of California at Berkeley. He has done pioneering work in mineral physics, measurement of materials properties and simulation of deep- Earth processes using diamond-anvil and shock-wave experiments, elucidation of the core-mantle boundary as a chemically reactive zone, and study of the role of water in mantle processes and deep earthquake generation. His research and teaching have been recognized through a MacArthur Award, the American Geo- physical Union’s Macelwane Award, and Fellowship in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and American Association for the Advancement of Sci- ence. He previously served as chair of the National Research Council’s Board on Earth Sciences and Resources. He is currently the chair of NAS CISAC in the Policy and Global Affairs Division, and was elected as a member of NAS in 2004. Anil Kakodkar became the director of BARC in 1996 and was the chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from 2000 to 2009. Currently he holds the DAE Homi Bhabha Chair at BARC. Kakodkar, undeterred by the re- strictions imposed by the international community, succeeded in developing various systems for pressurized heavy water reactors, in building the Dhruva reactor starting from the conceptual stage, in rehabilitation of Madras Atomic Power Station Units 1 and 2, both of which at one stage appeared to be on the verge of being written off, in conceptualization and development of the ad- vanced heavy water reactor that realizes next generation objectives in addition to the use of thorium. Kakodkar played a key role in nuclear tests in 1974 and 1998 at Pokhran. India also demonstrated nuclear submarine powerpack technology under Kakodkar's leadership. His leadership significantly boosted India’s nucle- ar power program notwithstanding uranium supply constraints. As a result, In- dia’s nuclear generation capacity is set to reach 10,000 MWe with the comple- tion of projects already underway. Under Kakodkar’s leadership, India has earned a distinctive status as a country with advanced nuclear technology. Notable also are his innovative contributions to human resource development. The establishment of the National Institute of Science Education and Research, the DAE-Mumbai University Centre for Basic Sciences, and the Homi Bhabha National Institute are expected to result in a fresh wave of new talent for the acceleration of India’s multifaceted atomic energy program. Kakodkar is cur- rently leading efforts to take the Indian Institutes of Technology and the Nation- al Institutes of Technology to a world class level, develop solar energy, enhance excellence in higher and technical education and catalyze science and technolo- gy (S&T) based development in Maharashtra. Robert Kuckuck is retired from the University of California and is currently consulting and serving on advisory boards for the three national nuclear weap- ons research laboratories. He is a member of the Nuclear Weapons External Ad- visory Board for Sandia National Laboratories and the Nuclear Weapons Com-

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Appendix C 159 plex Integration Committees for both LLNL and LANL. Immediately prior to his retirement, he served as the director of LANL in 2005 and 2006. Kuckuck held research and management positions at LLNL for more than 37 years, cul- minating in his serving as deputy director from 1994 to 2001. His research at LLNL was predominantly in atomic and nuclear experimentation studying un- derground nuclear explosions. His management roles included overseeing phys- ics research for nuclear weapons development, leading LLNL’s research pro- gram for scientific verification of international nuclear testing and arms control treaties and having responsibility for LLNL underground nuclear testing pro- gram. As deputy director, Kuckuck was responsible for all operations at LLNL. He left LLNL in 2001 to become the first principal deputy administrator of the newly created NNSA of DOE. In 2003, he received the Secretary of Energy’s Gold Award, DOE’s highest honor. Kuckuck’s major areas of expertise include management of scientific and nuclear research and associated facilities, nuclear weapons development and testing, and international nuclear nonproliferation and arms control. He has broad experience in government, university, and public relations. Kuckuck received his Ph.D. in applied science from the University of California at Davis, and his M.S. degree in physics from the Ohio State Univer- sity. He did his undergraduate work in physics at West Liberty State College in West Virginia. Ranajit Kumar graduated from the University of Calcutta in Electronics and Tele-Communication Engineering in 1984. He attended the post graduate Train- ing School of BARC in the 1984-1985 academic year (28th class). He has more than 27 years of experience in a wide range of nuclear security areas. Kumar has been involved in the requirement analysis, design, and development of physical protection systems for various DAE installations covering almost the entire nu- clear fuel cycle. He has developed several computer based systems such as Per- sonnel Access Control System, and the Perimeter Intrusion Detection System. He has also been actively involved in the regulatory aspects of security of nucle- ar installations and is a member of the Committee for Review of Security As- pects of Nuclear Facilities (CRSANF) of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). He has organized a number of training courses on various aspects of physical protection and nuclear security with IAEA and served as faculty for many na- tional and international training courses on nuclear security. He has also partici- pated in the development and review of various nuclear security series docu- ments, development of course curriculum and course material for various training courses on nuclear security for IAEA. He is a member in the Nuclear Security Guidance Committee (NSGC) and Interface Group of the IAEA. Ku- mar is presently heading the Physical Protection System Section of the Control Instrumentation Division at BARC.

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160 India-U.S. Cooperation on Technical Aspects of Civilian Nuclear Materials Security Paul Nelson received the B.S. (engineering physics) from Auburn University, and the M.S. (Physics) and Ph.D. (Mathematics) from the University of New Mexico. His native technical field was the mathematical and computational as- pects of neutron transport theory. He served for approximately 15 years as editor of the journal Transport Theory and Statistical Physics. He is Professor Emeri- tus of computer science, nuclear engineering and mathematics at Texas A&M University. He is a fellow of the American Nuclear Society (ANS), former chair of its Mathematics and Computation Division, and served as a member of the ANS Special Committee on Nuclear Nonproliferation until its recent promotion to status as a Technical Group. In his current semi-retirement he serves as asso- ciate director for international programs in the Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute at Texas A&M University. In that capacity he has served as principal investigator for several projects funded by the U.S. government di- rected toward fostering a culture of nuclear security among Indian university students matriculating in a nuclear-related field of science or technology. He has had contact with DAE since first visiting BARC and Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), then the Reactor Research Centre in 1981. He is co- author, with T. V. K. Woddi and William S. Charlton, of the 2009 monograph India’s Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Unraveling the Impact of the U.S.-India Nuclear Accord, published by Morgan and Claypool. Michel O’Brien is responsible for managing and providing technical support in the protection of nuclear and infrastructure assets deemed critical to U.S. nation- al security. He currently holds the LLNL position of Associate Program Leader for the Global Security Directorate’s International Nuclear Material Protection Program and has over 30 years of domestic and international experience in the fields of vulnerability assessment, including insider analysis, and physical pro- tection. He has participated in vulnerability assessments, insider analyses, train- ing, regulatory development, inspections, and security upgrades of sites in the U.S. and world-wide. He has served on Department of Army, Department of Navy, and DOE working groups for the formulation of physical protection poli- cy guidance and regulations and has provided similar support under U.S. bilat- eral work between the European Commission, IAEA, the Russian Federation, and China. O’Brien also supports DOE’s Global Critical Energy Infrastructure Protection Program activities in the international oil and electricity sectors. O’Brien holds a B.A. from the University of Maryland. M. Jordan Parks is a member of the technical staff and a subject matter expert in physical security and modeling and simulation with the international nuclear security engineering department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). As co- lead of the STAGE modeling and simulation project, Parks has supported multi- ple vulnerability analyses for both international and domestic sites. He is also a member of the development team for the STAGE modeling and simulation toolkit, and is a member of the Product Steering Committee for the tool. From 2005 through 2010, Parks supported the National Infrastructure Simulation and

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Appendix C 161 Analysis Center on numerous projects involving statistical models of behavioral phenomena in complex adaptive systems. He has extensive experience in model- ing and simulation, statistics and statistical modeling, data analysis and prepara- tion, and psychological/behavioral research methods. Parks has an M.A. in or- ganizational psychology and evaluation from Claremont Graduate University and a B.A. in psychology and sociology from the University of New Mexico. Baldev Raj has served DAE over a forty-two-year period, until 2011. As distin- guished scientist and director of IGCAR in Kalpakkam, he galvanized a whole community of staff, scientists, and engineers to advance several challenging technologies, especially those related to the fast breeder test reactor (FBTR) and the prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR). He has nurtured and grown excellent schools in nuclear materials and mechanics non-destructive evaluation (NDE), corrosion, welding, separation S&T and robotics and automation. Raj has pio- neered application of NDE for basic research using acoustic and electromagnetic techniques in a variety of materials and components. He is also responsible for realizing societal applications of NDE in areas related to cultural heritage and medical diagnosis. He is currently president of the International Institute of Welding, president of the Indian National Academy of Engineering, and presi- dent-researcher at PSG Institutions, Coimbatore. Raj is a fellow of Indian Na- tional Science Academy (INSA), Indian Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Sciences, India, and Indian National Academy of Engineering, The Third World Academy of Sciences, German Academy of Sciences, International Nuclear Energy Academy and Academia NOT, International. He is an Honorary Fellow at the International Medical Sciences Academy. He was alternate chairman of Sen- ior Advisory Group of Nuclear Energy, IAEA, a member and chairman of Apex Committee on Nuclear Energy Safety of Atomic Energy Regulatory Board and plenary speaker at the Nuclear and Science and Technology in Society Forum, Kyoto on various facets of nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. Author of more than 850 publications in refereed journals and books, 60 books, including special journal volumes, contributions to encyclopedia and handbooks, as well as owner of 21 patents, he has been recognized with more than 100 awards, 350 honor, plenary, and keynote talks, and editorial positions and assign- ments in esteemed national and international fora in more than 30 countries. He has been conferred Distinguished Alumnus Award of IIS, Distinguished Materials Scientist Award of Materials Research Society of India, National Metallurgist Award of Ministry of Steel, Government of India, the Padma Shri Presidential Honor, the Indian Nuclear Society Life Time Achievement Award (2011), the Homi J. Bhabha Gold Medal Award from the Prime Minister of India during the 99th Indian Science Congress (2012), and the Nayudamma Memorial Award in 2012. Above all he has interacted with thousands of scientists and mentored hundreds of children, students, scientists and technologists, and has inspired them to carry

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162 India-U.S. Cooperation on Technical Aspects of Civilian Nuclear Materials Security out scientific and technical activities with a high degree of professionalism and, at the same time, follow exemplary ethical practices. R. Rajaraman is emeritus professor of physics at the Jawaharlal Nehru Univer- sity (JHU) and currently co-chair of the International Panel on Fissile Materials and vice president of INSA. He is also a member of the Science and Security Board of the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, of the India-Pakistan Track II Ottawa dialogue, and the Asia Pacific Leadership Network. He completed his Ph.D. in 1963 under the supervision of Nobel Laureate, Hans Bethe at Cornell Universi- ty, where he subsequently was on the faculty. He then moved to the University of Southern California and the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton before returning permanently to India in 1969. He was first at Delhi University before moving as professor to IIS, Bangalore in 1976, and later in 1993 to JNU. Over these years he has also been a long-term visiting scientist at Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University, Princeton Universi- ty, and the European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva. His primary research work for nearly five decades has been on different areas of theoretical physics, including nuclear theory, particle physics, quantum field theory, statistical mechanics, solutions and quantum hall systems. In addition, he has also been working on nuclear policy issues, both military and civilian. He has done technical research on missile defense systems, nuclear weapons acci- dents, early warning, nuclear civil defense, minimal deterrence, fissile material production and stocks in Pakistan and India. He played an active role in the 3- year long public debate on the Indo-U.S. Nuclear Deal, through op-eds, semi- nars, and pedagogical tutorials to the diplomatic, defense, and scientific com- munities. Arcot Ramachandran obtained his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Purdue Univer- sity. Upon his return to India in 1950, he joined the Indian Institute of Science (IIS) as a faculty member in the newly established Department of Power Engineer- ing. From 1954 to 1955, he was a research engineer in Babcock & Wilcox R&D Centre in Renfrew, Scotland. He was then a post-doctoral fellow at Columbia University and Purdue University from 1955 to 1956, when he participated in the summer session on Advances in Heat Transfer at Massachusetts Institute of Tech- nology. When he returned to IIS in 1957, he became head of the mechanical engi- neering department and in 1965, he headed the department of industrial manage- ment. He established a school of research in heat and mass transfer as well as a number of post graduate programs in mechanical engineering. He was elected chair of the Preparatory Committee of the United Nations Con- ference on Science and Technology in 1977. In October 1978, he was appointed Under Secretary General and Executive Director of the newly established United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. During his tenure, the United Nations approved his initiatives on the Observance of World Habitat Day, the 1987 In- ternational Year of Shelter for the Homeless, and the Global Strategy for Shelter

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Appendix C 163 with a goal of providing adequate shelter for all. In 1990, he launched the Sus- tainable Cities program in 12 cities, and the. UN Habitat program rendered tech- nical assistance to 108 countries. Ramachandran is the recipient of many nation- al and international awards and the recipient of several honorary degrees from universities in the United States, Europe, and India. Valangiman Subramaniam Ramamurthy is presently the director of the Na- tional Institute for Advanced Studies (NIAS). Ramamurthy is a well-known In- dian nuclear scientist with a broad range of contributions from basic research to science administration. Ramamurthy started his career at BARC, Mumbai in 1963. He has made important research contributions, both experimental and theoretical, in many areas of nuclear fission and heavy ion reaction mechanisms, statistical and thermodynamic properties of nuclei, physics of atomic and mo- lecular clusters and low energy accelerator applications. From 1995 to 2006, Ramamurthy was fully involved in the promotion of science promotion in India as Secretary to the Government of India, Department of S&T in New Delhi. He was also the chairman of the IAEA Standing Advisory Group on Nuclear Applications for nearly a decade. After retirement from government service, Ramamurthy, in addition to continuing research in nuclear physics in the Inter- University Accelerator Centre in New Delhi, he has also been actively involved in human resource development in all aspects of nuclear research and applica- tions. Ramamurthy is also a chair of the Recruitment and Assessment Board for the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research and a member of the National Security Advisory Board (NSAB). In recognition of his service to the growth of S&T in India, Ramamurthy was awarded one of the top civilian awards of the country, the Padma Bhushan Award, by the Government of India in 2005. Dasari V. Rao is a nuclear engineer with 25 years of experience in safety and safeguards of nuclear reactor and fuel cycle facilities. His technical areas of ex- pertise include computational fluid dynamics, neutron and radiation transport, and risk assessment of engineered and complex socio-technical systems. He has over 30 publications in these fields. As a principal investigator, Rao worked closely with the NRC and DOE in developing and implementing regulations governing emergency core cooling system reliability in commercial power reac- tors, protection of nuclear materials and facilities from terrorist threats, and de- signing-in inherent safety into advanced nuclear systems. Following the Macondo disaster, he has been assisting DOE and the Department of Interior in assessing risk-reduction technologies for ultra-deepwater drilling in the Gulf of Mexico. Rao has held several leadership positions at LANL. Until recently (2004-2012), he was division leader of the Decision Applications Divi- sion. He also served as the program director of LANL’s Defense and Homeland Security Office, which was responsible for overseeing all work performed at LANL in support of the Department of Defense and DHS. Presently, Rao is ex- ecutive advisor to the associate director for threat identification and response. In

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164 India-U.S. Cooperation on Technical Aspects of Civilian Nuclear Materials Security this new role, he is integrating LANL capabilities in the fields of advanced nu- clear power systems and nuclear cybersecurity. Peter Santi is a scientist in the Safeguards Science and Technology Group at LANL. He received his B.A. in physics from Marquette University in 1992. He went on to the University of Notre Dame where he earned his M.A. in 1996, and his Ph.D. in nuclear physics in 2000. Before coming to LANL as a postdoctoral research associate in 2003, he spent 3 years as a visiting research associate in nuclear astrophysics at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. Santi is an expert in developing and performing non- destructive assay (NDA) measurements of plutonium and uranium materials for both MC&A purposes as well as for international safeguards. Santi has taught various courses on NDA measurement techniques for both domestic customers and various international customers including at IAEA. At LANL, Santi is cur- rently serving as both the Safeguards Technology Training Coordinator and the LANL Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards Coordinator, re- sponsible for managing the safeguards research and support projects that are being performed at LANL for IAEA. Surinder Paul Singh, Ph.D., is a Senior Research and Development staff member at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. He started his career developing remotely maintainable solvent extraction process equipment for nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. He served as a project manager for technology development and the remediation of soils and groundwater contaminated with volatile organic com- pounds and radionuclides at the Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado. Since 1996, he has been involved in the development and implementation of technologies for nuclear security. B. V. Sreekantan is currently a visiting professor at NIAS and also chair of the Gandhi Centre of Science and Human Values of the Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan in Bangalore. He was the director of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research from 1975 to 1987, and the INSA Srinivasa Ramanujan Professor from 1987 to 1992. He has specialized in cosmic rays, high-energy physics, and high-energy astrono- mies and has published over 200 research papers. He has received a number of professional awards including the R.D. Birla Award of the Indian Physics Asso- ciation, and the Padma Bhushan. He has held a number of visiting positions in- cluding in the United States and Japan. After moving to NIAS, Sreekantan shifted his interests from pure science to philosophical studies on consciousness and exploration of commonalities and similarities in holistic approaches in modern science and ancient philosophies. Through two seminars he organized at NIAS, the historical epistemological, mathematical, experimental, and technological factors that laid the foundations of sciences and led to the growth of modern science over the last few decades

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Appendix C 165 were analyzed and these have been incorporated in a volume currently being published by the Indian Council of Philosophical Research. M. R. Srinivasan, is a member of AEC and has served as one of India’s foremost nuclear energy experts and science bureaucrats. He was chair of the AEC and Founding Chair of the Nuclear Power Corporation of DAE from 1987 to 1990, having joined DAE in 1956 as an early member of Homi Bhabha’s team, where he played a central role in the establishment of nuclear power stations. He served as advisor to the IAEA from 1990 to 1992, as a member of the Planning Commission from 1996 to 1998, and as a member of the NSAB from 2000 to 2008. He is a founding member of the World Association of Nuclear Operators. He has received the Padma Bhushan Award, the Padma Shri Award, the Indian National Academy of Engineering Lifetime Achievement Award, the Homi Bhabha Lifetime Achievement Award from the Indian Nuclear Society, the Homi Bhabha Gold Medal from Indian Science Congress, and the Sir M. Visvesvaraya Award for 2011 from the Government of Karnataka. He is the author of From Fission to Fu- sion: The Story of the Indian Nuclear Power Programme and “From the Desk of a Nuclear Scientist.” He has written in The Hindu on nuclear issues and nuclear power related matters for many years. A.R. Sundararajan, after graduating from 8th class of Training School at BARC in 1965, he started his career as a health physicist in fuel reprocessing and waste management plants in Trombay. Later he moved to Kalpakkam where, as head of the Health and Safety Division, he was responsible for organizing surveillance of radiation protection at IGCAR. He was instrumental in starting a strong research group on internal dosimetry, accident source term and aerosol research. He was associate director of Safety Research and Health Physics Group at IGCAR from 1997 to 1998. Later he moved to the AERB and was associated with more than 20 Safety Review Committees for various nuclear fuel cycle facilities. He was en- trusted with the responsibility of setting up the Safety Research Institute (SRI) at Kalpakkam. He has to his credit 85 publications in the area of radiation protection. His areas of special interests include safety of fuel reprocessing, fast reactor safety and the environmental impact assessment of nuclear facilities. He has participated in several IAEA Technical Committee and Advisory Group meetings in the area of radiation protection, emergency preparedness and waste management. After his retirement in 2003 as director of the Radiological Safety Division of the AERB and director of SRI, he continues to serve on several committees of the AERB and the Ministry of Environment and Forest. Currently he is the chair of Safety Re- view Committee for the Application of Radiation in Industry, Medicine and Re- search of the AERB. P. K. H. Tharakan, who belonged to the Kerala cadre of the Indian Police Ser- vice, retired in January 2007. He served the government in various capacities including Secretary in the Cabinet Secretariat of the Government of India and director general of Police in Kerala. After retirement, he served as advisor to the

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166 India-U.S. Cooperation on Technical Aspects of Civilian Nuclear Materials Security Administrative Reforms Commission of India. He was also appointed by the President of India as advisor, to the Governor in 2007 and 2008, when the Presi- dential Rule was imposed in Karnataka. He served as a member of NSAB from 2008 to 2010. During that the same period, he was also chief advisor on Strate- gic Studies at BrahMos Aerospace, in addition to being on the board of directors of BrahMos Aerospace Trivandrum Limitea. Currently, he is an adjunct profes- sor at the department of geopolitics and international relations at Manipal Uni- versity and a distinguished scientist on the visiting faculty at IIS, Bangalore, researching security-related issues. Recently, he has been made a member of the State Security Commission of the Government of Kerala. He was also a member of the Committee on Prevention of Corruption, which submitted its report to the Chief Minister of Kerala in July, 2012. He is vice chair of the recently estab- lished Community Mediation Service Committee. He writes on issues related to geopolitics, terrorism, peace, and conflict resolution. V. Venugopal, M.Sc., Ph.D, is presently a Raja Ramanna Fellow and retired as the director of the Radio Chemistry and Isotope Group at BARC. He is a spe- cialist in the field of thermal/thermodynamics of plutonium based fuels at high temperature, chemical quality control of fuel, X-ray and solid state chemistry, and oversees radioisotope and radiation technology programs at BARC. From 2007 to 2011, he served as a member on the Standing Advisory Group for Safe- guards to advice the director general on safeguard issues. He has to his credit more than 370 publications, of which 190 are published in reputed international journals. Widely acclaimed as an expert in the area of thermodynamics, he is the vice president of Indian Nuclear Society (INS). He is also a member of several professional bodies. He has received many awards including the Netzsch-Indian Thermal Analysis Society award in 2001, the International Symposium on Cir- cuits and Systems silver medal in 2002, and the Materials Research Society of IndiaI medal for 2003-2004, the INS award for 2005, and the DAE award in 2007. He was on deputation on Indo-German collaboration and worked at the Nuclear Research Centre in Julich, Germany for a year and a half and attended several conferences abroad to give lectures in the field of thermodynamics of nuclear materials. He led delegations to South Korea and Argentina for bilateral meet- ings on cooperation in the area of nuclear S&T. As an advisor for Ph.D. students at Mumbai University, 25 students have thus far obtained graduate degrees un- der his guidance.